Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Afghanistan

23,141,000 (1995), including an estimated 2,500,000 nomads. Republic of Afghanistan. De Afghanistan Jamhuriat. Literacy rate 12%. Information mainly from Farhadi 1967, Sebeok 1969, Voegelin and Voegelin 1977. Data accuracy estimate: C. Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu. Blind population 200,000 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Afghanistan is 49.

AIMAQ (BARBARI, BERBERI, CHAHAR-AIMAQ, CHAR AIMAQ) [AIQ] 480,000 in Afghanistan (1993); 800,000 in all countries (1980 Dupree), including 1,000 Jamshidi (1978 MARC). Central northwest Afghanistan, eastern Iran, and Tajikistan (Jamshidi and Khazara). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Dialects: TAIMURI (TEIMURI, TIMURI, TAIMOURI), TAIMANI, ZOHRI (ZURI), JAMSHIDI (JAMSHEDI, DJAMCHIDI, YEMCHIDI, DZHEMSHID), FIROZKOHI, MALIKI, MIZMAST, CHINGHIZI, QEDAI NAO HAZARA AIMAQ, ZAINAL, KHAZARA. Dari Persian dialects with some Turkic and Mongolian elements, possibly quite distinct. It also has links with Iranian Persian (Farsi). 5% to 15% literate. Agriculturalists, pastoralists. Hanafi Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

ARABIC, TAJIKI SPOKEN [ABH] 5,000 in Afghanistan (1967 Farhadi); 1,000 in Tajikistan; 6,000 in all countries. Spoken in a few villages west of Daulatabad (Khushalabad), near Balkh (Yakhdan), Aq Chah (Sultan Aregh), Shibarghan (Hassanabad), and south of Talukan in Takhar Province; 4 northern provinces. Some in Uzbekistan. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Dialect: BALKH ARABIC. Persianized Arabic. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Tajiki and declining in number. Muslim. Survey needed.

ASHKUN (ASHKUND, ASHKUNI, WAMAYI, WAMAIS) [ASK] 7,000. 195,000 in all Nuristani groups (1993). Pech Valley around Wama, northwest of Asadabad in Kunar Province. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: ASHURUVERI (KOLATA, TITIN BAJAYGUL), GRAMSUKRAVIRI, SURUVIRI (WAMAI). Not written. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

AZERBAIJANI, SOUTH (AZERI) [AZB] Ethnic group in Afghanistan: 5,000 Afshari, but far fewer speak it; 13,869,000 or more in all countries. Afshari dialect spoken in small groups north of Kabul, Chandaul quarter of Kabul city, also some in Herat city. Also in Iran, Iraq, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, USA. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Dialect: AFSHARI (AFSHAR, AFSAR). Significant differences from North Azerbaijani in the former USSR. Part of the Qizilbash merchant group speak Afshari dialect, which is strongly influenced by Persian. Part of the Qizilbash speak Dari. Those under 35 do not know any Azerbaijani. All are bilingual in Persian or Pashto. Most do not know the Cyrillic script. Muslim. Work in progress.

BALOCHI, WESTERN (BALUCHI, BALUCI, BALOCI) [BGN] 200,000 in Afghanistan (1979 estimate); 451,000 in Iran; 1,000,000 in Pakistan (1996); 18,633 in Turkmenistan; 4,842 in Tajikistan; 1,670,000 in all countries. Along Helmand River and Zaranj area, in the southwest desert region. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Baluchi. Dialect: RAKHSHANI (RAXSHANI). Largely nomadic. A literary language in Afghanistan. The only literature is a newspaper. Arabic script used. 15% to 25% literate. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress.

BRAHUI (BRAHUIKI, BIRAHUI, KUR GALLI) [BRH] 200,000 in Afghanistan (1980 Dupree); 10,000 in Iran (1983); 1,500,000 in Pakistan (1981); 1,710,000 in all countries. Among the Baluchi in the south, from Shorawak to Chakhansoor. Dravidian, Northern. 15% to 25% literate. Pastoralists. Muslim. Bible portions 1905-1978. Work in progress.

DARWAZI [DRW] 10,000 (1983). Town of Darwaz on the Amu Darya River, in the northernmost tip of Afghanistan. May also be in Tajikistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. May be called Badakhshani. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

DOMARI [RMT] 500,000 in all countries (1980 Kenrick). Also in Iran, Syria, Turkey, Russia, Uzbekistan, Egypt, Libya, India, Israel. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom. Dialect: CHURI-WALI. A Gypsy language. Below 5% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

FARSI, EASTERN (PERSIAN, DARI, PARSI) [PRS] 5,600,000, 25% of population (1992); more than 1,000,000 in Pakistan; 7,000,000 in all countries. Various Dari dialects in Khorasan Province (Iran), and provinces of Herat, Hazarajat, Balkh, Ghor, Ghazni, Budaksham, Panjsher, and Galcha-Pamir Mountains and Kabul regions. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Dialects: DARI (AFGHAN FARSI, HERATI, TAJIKI, KABOLI, KABULI, KHORASANI), PARSIWAN. Dari is taught in schools; radio Afghanistan broadcasts are promoting a standardized pronunciation of the literary language which is based on the old dictional tradition of the country, with its archaic phonetic characteristics. Formal style is closer to Tehrani Persian (Farsi); informal style in some parts of Afghanistan is closer to Tajiki of Tajikistan. Phonological and lexical differences between Iran and Afghanistan cause little difficulty in comprehension. Most Afghan dialects are closer to literary Persian than Iranian dialects are to literary Persian. Arabic script. Zargari (Morghuli) is a secret language used among goldsmiths and perhaps others, based on a dialect of Persian. Their real language is Persian (see also Balkan Romani in Iran). National language. Sunni and Shi'a Muslim. 70 Jews (1980) speak the same dialect as Muslims. NT 1982-1985. Bible portions 1974.

GAWAR-BATI (GOWARI, NARSATI, NARISATI, ARANDUI, SATRE) [GWT] 8,000 in Afghanistan; 1,500 in Pakistan plus refugees (1992); 9,500 to 10,000 in all countries. 8 or 9 villages in the Kunar Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar. 47% lexical similarity with Shumashti. Related to Grangali, Zemiaki, and Nangalami. Some bilingualism in Pashto. 5% to 15% literate. Mountain valleys. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

GRANGALI (GELANGALI, JUMIAKI) [NLI] 5,000 (1994). Grangali and Zemiaki in 2 small valleys on the south side of the Pech River at Kandai. Nangalami was in Ningalam village where the Waigal River meets the Pech River, but there may be no speakers left. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar. Dialects: NANGALAMI (NINGALAMI), GRANGALI, ZEMIAKI (ZAMYAKI). Nangalami had 63% lexical similarity with Shumashti, 42% with Gawar-Bati. Zemiaki may be related to Waigali. 5% to 15% literate. Mountain valleys. Muslim. Survey needed.

GUJARI (GUJURI RAJASTHANI, GOJRI, GOJARI) [GJU] 2,000 or fewer in Afghanistan (1994); 538,691 in India (1994 IMA); 300,000 or more in Pakistan (1992); 840,000 or more in all countries. Nomads travelling in the summer in the valleys of eastern Afghanistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Below 5% literate. Pastoralists. Muslim. Work in progress.

HAZARAGI (HAZARA, HEZAREH, HEZARE'I) [HAZ] 1,403,000 in Afghanistan (1989), 9% of the population (1989); 70,000 in Pakistan (1993); 283,000 in Iran (1993); 1,756,000 or more in all countries. Some estimates go as high as 6,000,000. Central Afghanistan mountains between Kabul and Herat (Hazarajat), in Kabul, in area between Maimana and Sari-Pul, in settlements in north Afghanistan, in Baluchistan and near Quetta in Pakistan. Some have moved to northern Iran. Also in Tajikistan. Many are refugees. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. They speak a variety related to Dari; possibly distinct. Below5% literate. Agriculturalists, semi-sedentary pastoralists. Imami Shi'a Muslim. Survey needed.

JAKATI (JATI, JATU, JAT, KAYANI, MUSALI) [JAT] 1,000 in Afghanistan (1967); 156,000 in former USSR (1979); 157,000 in all countries. Kabul (25 families); Jalalabad (50 families); Charikar (15 families). Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Spoken by the Jats (Gypsies of Afghanistan). Jati is reported to be a dialect of Bangaru, but it is related to Arabic (Ian Hancock U. of Texas, Austin, 1986). Different from Jadgali of Pakistan. Not related to Rom. Nomads. Ironsmiths, fortune tellers. Muslim. Survey needed.

KAMVIRI (KAMDESHI, LAMERTIVIRI, SHEKHANI, KAMIK) [QMV] 4,000 in Afghanistan (1973 R. Strand); 1,500 to 2,000 plus refugees in Pakistan (1992); 6,000 in all countries. Lower Bashgal Valley, mainly around Kamdesh and Kishtoz villages. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: KAMVIRI, SHEKHANI. Shekhani in Pakistan may be a separate language. Related to Kati. Pashto is the second language used. 15% to 25% literate. Mountain valleys. Survey needed.

KARAKALPAK (QARAQULPAQS) [KAC] 2,000 in Afghanistan; 407,000 in Uzbekistan (1993 UBS); 409,000 in all countries. North of Jalalabad, also some south of Mazar-i Sharif. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Dialects: NORTHEAST KARAKALPAK, SOUTHWEST KARAKALPAK. Has literary status in Uzbekistan. There may be none now in Afghanistan; the reference to them is from many years ago. They may now speak closely related Uzbek, or have been absorbed into Farsi or Pashto. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Bible portions 1996. Work in progress.

KATI (BASHGALI, KATIVIRI, NURISTANI) [BSH] 15,000 in Afghanistan (1994); 3,700 to 5,100 in Pakistan plus refugees (1992); 20,000 in all countries. Western Kativiri is in Ramgal, Kulam, Ktivi, or Kantiwo, and Paruk or Papruk valleys. Mumviri is in Mangul, Sasku, Gabalgrom villages in the Bashgal Valley. Eastern Kativiri is in the upper Bashgal Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: EASTERN KATIVIRI (SHEKHANI), WESTERN KATIVIRI, MUMVIRI. Mumviri may be a separate language. Shekhani is different from the Kamviri which is also called 'Shekhani' in Pakistan. Radio broadcast from Kabul. Pashto is the second language used. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

KAZAKH (KAZAKHI, QAZAQ, QAZAQI) [KAZ] 2,000 in Afghanistan; 6,556,000 in Kazakhstan (1979); 1,111,718 in China (1990 census); 100,000 in Mongolia (1991); 3,000 in Iran (1982); 600 or more in Turkey (1982); 8,000,000 or more in all countries. Northern Afghanistan, especially Chahar Dara District west of Kunduz, and around Khanabad and Andkhoi. 500 in Herat city. Also in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Dialects: NORTHEASTERN KAZAKH, SOUTHERN KAZAKH, WESTERN KAZAKH. Muslim. NT 1820-1910, out of print. Bible portions 1818-1989. Work in progress.

KIRGHIZ (KIRGHIZI, KIRGIZ) [KDO] 500 in Afghanistan (445 in the Great Pamir, plus a few in Badakhshan); 2,448,220 in Kyrghyzstan (1993); 141,200 in China (1990 census); 1,137 in Turkey; 2,631,000 in all countries. Great Pamir Valley east of 73E, in the very northeast. It is spoken by a few Kirghiz who wander across the Chinese and Kyrghyzstan frontiers. All from the Little Pamir went to Pakistan and then Turkey in 1982. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Afghan Kirghiz do not read Cyrillic. Sunni Muslim. NT 1991. Bible portions 1982-1987.

MALAKHEL [MLD] 2,000 (1983). Southwest of Kabul in Logar, north of Baraki. Unclassified. May be the same as Ormuru. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

MOGHOLI (MOGHOL, MOGUL, MOGOL, MONGUL) [MLG] 200 or fewer speakers, apparently only elderly, out of an ethnic group of a few thousand. Two villages near Herat: Kundur and Karez-i-Mulla. Altaic, Mongolian, Western. Dialects: KUNDUR, KAREZ-I-MULLA. Unintelligible to remaining body of Mongol speakers; linguistically relatively well explored. In the two villages Farsi is the common language, and is rapidly replacing Mogholi. Moghol people in northern Afghanistan now speak Pashto. Sunni Muslim. Nearly extinct.

MUNJI (MUNJANI, MUNJHAN, MUNJIWAR) [MNJ] 2,000 to 2,500 (1992). Northeastern Afghanistan in the Munjan and Mamalgha Valleys. There are reports that all have fled to Chitral, Pakistan, but they plan to return to Afghanistan when it becomes peaceful. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Dialects: NORTHERN MUNJI, CENTRAL MUNJI, SOUTHERN MUNJI, MAMALGHA MUNJI. 68% lexical similarity among 'dialects', 56% to 80% with Yidgha in Pakistan. Little contact with Yidgha. Eastern Farsi is the main second language used. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

ORMURI (BARGISTA, BARAKS, ORMUI) [ORU] 50 speakers out of 2,000 to 5,000 ethnic group members in Afghanistan; 3,000 in Pakistan (1980); 3,050 in all countries. Spoken by a few families in Baraki-Barak in Logar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi. Dialects: KANIGURAMI, LOGAR. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PAHLAVANI [PHV] Spoken in village Haji Hamza Khan of Karim Kushta in Chakhansoor Province. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Similar to Dari Persian but still distinct; minor dialect. Muslim. Survey needed.

PARACHI [PRC] 500 to 600 speakers out of 5,000 to 6,000 members of the ethnic group. Villages in Nijrau and Tagau (600 families), Pachaghan, Shutul (400 families), Ghujulan (100 families), Hindu Kush Valley near Kabul. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi. Dialects: SHUTUL, GHUJULAN, NIJRAU. Close affinity to Ormuri. Dialect diversity seems to be slight. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PARYA (AFGHANA-YI NASFURUSH, AFGHANA-YI SIYARUI, LAGHMANI) [PAQ] 1,000 or more in all countries. Also in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified. Second language is Tajiki. Parya remains the exclusive language within the home. It may be a dialect of Marwari, related to Panjabi, or the Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashayi of Afghanistan. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed.

PASHAYI, NORTHEAST [AEE] Side valleys between the Kunar and Pech rivers, in Kunar Province, west of Asadabad. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar, Pashayi. Dialects: ARET, CHALAS (CHILAS), KANDAK, KURANGAL, KURDAR. Unintelligible with other Pashayi languages. The villages of Kandak, Shemul, Aret, Shumasht, and Kordar belong to the Chugani people; Chalas and Kurangal are separate. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PASHAYI, NORTHWEST [GLH] From Gulbahar across Kapisa and Laghman provinces to Nuristan on the Alingar River, especially the Alisheng Valley and valleys north of Sarobi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar, Pashayi. Dialects: GULBAHAR, KOHNADEH, LAUROWAN, SANJAN, SHUTUL, BOLAGHAIN, PACHAGAN, ALASAI, SHAMAKOT, UZBIN, PANDAU, NAJIL, PARAZHGHAN, PASHAGAR, WADAU, NANGARACH. Unintelligible with other Pashayi languages. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PASHAYI, SOUTHEAST (PASHAI) [DRA] Upper and Lower Darrai Nur Valley, Damench, Shale (Shari). North of Shewa in Nangarhar Province, and adjacent regions of the Alingar Valley in southern Laghman Province. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar, Pashayi. Dialects: DARRAI NUR, WEGAL, LAGHMAN, ALINGAR, KUNAR. Unintelligible with other Pashayi languages. In the upper Darrai Nur there are ten villages (including Bamba Kot, Lamatek, and Sutan) which form a single people group with their own dialect. Residents of the lower Darrai Nur (Nur River) are a separate and perhaps not ethnically organized people. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PASHAYI, SOUTHWEST [PSH] 108,000 or .6% of the population (1982), including all Pashayi languages or dialects. Tagau (Tagab) Valley, north of Sarobi, northeast of Kabul. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar, Pashayi. Dialects: TAGAU, ISHPI, ISKEN. All Pashayi peoples have rich folklore and songs preserved by oral tradition. Not intelligible with other Pashayi languages. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

PASHTO, WESTERN (PAKTU, PAKHTU, AFGHAN, PASSTOO, PAKHTOO, PUSHTO, PASHTU, PUSHTU) [PBT] 8,000,000 in Afghanistan (1989), 50% of the population (1989 WA); 4,000 in Tajikistan; 113,000 in Iran (1993); thousands in United Arab Emirates; 8,117,000 in all countries. East, south, and southwest. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Dialects: GHILZAI, DURANI. Since the early 1930's the Afghan government has been exerting considerable effort to standardize and publicize the language. One of the two official languages taught in schools. The people are called 'Pahtoon' in the north and 'Pashtoon' in the south. The Ghilzai speakers are nomadic and 24% of the national population. The Durani, 16%, live in permanent settlements. Clans are: Mohmandi, Ghilzai, Durani, Yusufzai, Afridi, Kandahari (Qandahari), Waziri, Chinwari (Shinwari), Mangal, Wenetsi. Kandahari is the standard dialect, in Kandahar, a major city. 15% to 25% literate. National language. Mainly Hanafi Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

PRASUNI (PRASUN, VERUNI, PARUN, WASI-VERI, VERON, VEROU) [PRN] 2,000. Prasun (Parun) Valley on the upper reaches of Pech River in Nuristan; villages of Shupu (Ishtivi, Shtevgrom), Sech, Ucu, Ushut, Zumu. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: UPPER WASI-WERI, CENTRAL PRASUN, LOWER PRASUN (USHUT). Very closely related to Bashgali but more archaic. The most aberrant of the Nuristani languages. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

SANGLECHI-ISHKASHIMI [SGL] 2,000 in Afghanistan; 500 in Tajikistan; 2,500 in all countries. Sanglech Valley, Ishkashim area. Ishkashimi spoken in 17 villages; Sanglechi in 2. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Dialects: ZEBAK (ZEBAKI), SANGLECHI, ISHKASHIMI (ISHKASHMI, ISHKASHIM, ESHKASHIMI). Bilingual in Persian. Spoken mainly in villages; formerly used more widely. Dialects listed may be separate languages. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim.

SAVI (SAWI, SAUJI, SAU) [SDG] 3,000 (1983) or several thousand (1992). Sau village on the Kunar River, now living in refugee camps near Timargarha in Dir, Pakistan and near Drosh in Chitral, Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. 56% to 58% lexical similarity with Phalura. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

SHUGHNI [SGH] 20,000 in Afghanistan (1994 GMI); 35,000 to 40,000 in Tajikistan; 55,000 to 60,000 in all countries. Both sides of Afghan-Tajikistan border, some 30 miles north of Ishkashim, Pamir Mts. Also in Tajikistan (Bartangi and Roshani dialects). Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami. Dialects: ROSHANI (RUSHANI, RUSHAN, OROSHANI), SHUGHNI (SHUGNI, SHIGHNI, SHUGHNANI, SHUGAN, KHUGNI, KUSHANI, SAIGHANI, GHORANI), BARTANGI (BARTANG), OROSHOR (OROSHORI). Dialects listed may be separate languages. 5% to 15% literate. Pastoralists. Muslim. Work in progress.

SHUMASHTI (SHUMASHT) [SMS] 1,000 (1994). Chitral frontier, 60 miles up the Kunar River from Gawar-Bati, on the west side, Darrai Mazar Valley. Shumast village has two languages; this Dardic Kunar language, and a Northeast Pashayi dialect. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar. 63% lexical similarity with Nangalami (Grangali), 47% with Gawar-Bati. Heavily influenced by Pashayi. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

SINDHI [SND] 19,675,000 in all countries; 16,992,000 in Pakistan (1993); 2,678,000 in India; 5,000 in Singapore (1993). Kandahar. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Dialects: DUKSLINU (HINDU SINDHI), MUSLIM SINDHI. Speakers immigrated from India. May have all left (1985). Merchants. Muslim. Bible 1954. NT 1890-1992. Bible portions 1825-1971.

TANGSHEWI (TANGSHURI) [TNF] 10,000 (1994). East of Darwazi on the Amu Darya, far northeast of Badakhshan. May also be in Turkmenistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Unclassified. May be Eastern Iranian. May be called Tajiki. Probably closely related to Darwazi. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

TATAR [TTR] 350 in Afghanistan; 7,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Also in Russia, Turkey, China, USA, Finland. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Uralian. There are a few speakers, probably immigrants, in Afghanistan, but they may be quite bilingual in Persian or Pashto, and cannot use the Cyrillic script. 5% to 15% literate. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1864-1995. Work in progress.

TIRAHI [TRA] A few elderly speakers. There may be 5,000 members of the ethnic group in all countries. Southeast of Jalalabad, and west of the Khyber Pass; village of Nangarhar. Not in Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. Most closely related to Kohistani languages of Pakistan. Muslim. Nearly extinct.

TREGAMI (TRIGAMI) [TRM] 1,000 (1994). Nuristan, villages of Katar and Gambir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. 76% to 80% lexical similarity with Waigali. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

TURKMEN (TURKOMAN, TURKMENI, TURKMAN) [TCK] 500,000 in Afghanistan (1995); 5,397,500 in all countries. Along the border of Turkmenistan, especially the border regions of Fariab and Badghis Provinces. Some in Andkhoi town and Herat city. Also in Turkmenistan, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Dialects: SALOR, TEKE (TEKKE, CHAGATAI, JAGATAI), ERSARI, SARIQ, YOMUT. Sharp dialect differences. Probably mainly Ersari dialect in Afghanistan. A literary language in Afghanistan, but the only literature is a newspaper. Arabic script. Some better educated persons can read Cyrillic. Second language is Pashtu. Refugee group in Kabul. People called 'Turkomen' in Syria are Azerbaijani speakers. 15% to 25% literate. Nomadic, cultivators, pastoralists, Persian lamb export, Persian rugs. Hanafi Sunni Muslim, occult. NT 1994. Bible portions 1880-1994.

URDU (HINDI) [URD] 54,000,000 or more in all countries. Spoken by merchants and traders from Pakistan or India, mainly in urban centers. Also Pakistan, India, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, South Africa, Mauritius, Thailand, Germany, Fiji. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani. May have all left Afghanistan (1985). 15% to 30% literate. Merchants, traders. Muslim. Bible 1843-1958. NT 1758-1993. Bible portions 1805-1894.

UYGHUR (UIGHUR, UYGHURI, WIGHOR, UIGHOR, UIGUIR) [UIG] 3,000 in Afghanistan; 7,214,431 in China (1990 census); 245,000 in Kazakhstan; 1,000 in Mongolia; 500 or more in Turkey; a few hundred families of traders in Pakistan; 7,464,000 or more in all countries. Spoken in a few villages in Badakshan and Abi-i-Barik. Also possibly in Iran and Taiwan. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Dialects: KASHGAR-YARKAND (YARKANDI), TARANCHI. 5% to 15% literate. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1950. NT 1914-1939. Bible portions 1898-1995. Work in progress.

UZBEK, SOUTHERN (UZBEKI, USBEKI, UZBAK) [UZS] 1,403,000, or 9% of population in Afghanistan (1991 WA); 1,981 in Turkey (1982); 50,000 in Pakistan (1993); 1,455,000 or more in all countries. Many places in north Afghanistan, especially Fariab Province. Maimana town is largely Uzbek. Also possibly in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Limited understanding of Northern Uzbek. A literary language in Afghanistan, but the only literature is 2 journals, circulation 400. Arabic script used, but orthography not yet standardized. City dwellers are bilingual in Dari; village dwellers have limited ability in Dari. 15% to 25% literate in Dari, not Uzbeki. Arabic. Mainly settled agriculturalists, some nomads, some craftsmen in gold, jewels, pottery, leather. Hanafi Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

WAIGALI (WAIGELI, WAIGALA, ZHONJIGALI, SUKI, WAI-ALA, WAI, KALASHA-ALA) [WBK] 8,000 to 10,000 (1974 Jones). Southeast Nuristan, north of Pech in central Kunar Province. Varjan is in north Waigal Valley, villages of Waigal, Zonchigal, Jamach, Ameshdesh, and eastward in the Veligal Valley and villages there. Chima-Nishey is in villages in the lower valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: VARJAN, CHIMA-NISHEY. 76% to 80% lexical similarity with Tregami. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

WAKHI (WAKHANI, WAKHIGI, VAKHAN, KHIK. GUHJALI) [WBL] 7,000 in Afghanistan (1979 estimate); 9,100 in Pakistan (1992) plus refugees; 7,000 in Tajikistan (1993); 6,000 in China; 29,000 in all countries. East of Ishkashim, Pamir Mts., in 64 villages on the left bank of the Panj River in the Wakhan Corridor, as far as Sarhad village (about 73E). Center is Khandud. Most have scattered as refugees in Afghanistan or Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. People are called 'Guhjali'. Below 1% literate. There may be none in Afghanistan now. Muslim. Needs survey.

WARDUJI [WRD] 5,000 (1994). Werdoge River area west of Ishkashim, northeast Afghanistan. Unclassified. Probably a Persian dialect. May be Pamir. 5% to 15% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

WOTAPURI-KATARQALAI [WSV] 2,000 (1994). South of Waigali area in Nuristan in the towns of Wotapuri and Katarqalai. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. 15% to 25% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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