Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Burkina Faso

Language Map

10,382,000 (1995). Formerly Upper Volta. Literacy rate 15% to 25% (1993 SIL). Also includes Pulaar Fulfulde. Information mainly from SIL 1996, L. Vanderaa 1991. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Also includes Pulaar. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion. Blind population 50,000. The number of languages listed for Burkina Faso is 71.

BAMBARA (BAMANA, BAMANAKAN) [BRA] 300 in Burkina Faso (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 2,700,000 in Mali (1995); 4,200 in Gambia (1991); 55,000 in Senegal (1991); 5,500 in Côte d'Ivoire (1993); 3,000,000 in all countries. Kénédougou Province, near N'Korola. Also in Guinea. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. Blacksmiths speaking Bambara in Comoe Province, Sindou Subdistrict, are called 'Noumou' (Numukan, Tutume, Cugurde). They are different from blacksmiths in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire also calle 'Noumou', who speak Ligbi. Noumou: blacksmiths (men), potters (women). Muslim. Bible 1961-1987. NT 1933, in press (1995). Bible portions 1923-1942.

BIALI (BIERI, BJERI, BJERB, BERBA, BURBA) [BEH] 1,500 in Burkina Faso (1991); 64,500 in Benin (1991); 66,000 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Tapoa and Gourma provinces, at the Benin border, south of Arli. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Different from Bariba (Berba). Traditional religion. Work in progress.

BIRIFOR, MALBA (BIRIFO, MALBA-BIRIFOR, NORTHERN BIRIFOR) [BFO] 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993); 2,500 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 110,500 in all countries. Southwestern Burkina Faso, Poni Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor. Dialects: WILE, BIRIFOR. Dagaari, Wali, and Birifor of Ghana are separate languages. Many monolinguals. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1993.

BISSA (BISA) [BIB] 400,000 in Burkina Faso, 5% of the population (1991 SIL); 119,100 in Ghana (1991 SIL); 63,000 emigrants in Côte d'Ivoire (1993 Johnstone); 3,000 in Togo (1991 SIL); 585,000 in all countries. South central, Boulgou and Zoundweogo provinces, in the cities of Garango, Zabré, Gomboussougou, Tenkodogo, and Bitou. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Bissa. Dialects: BARKA, LEBIR. Not the same as Busa of Benin and Nigeria. The Moore name for the people is 'Boussanse'. Related to Samo. Some people are bilingual in Moore. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

BLÉ (DYALA, DYALANU) [BXL] 500 speakers out of an ethnic group of 800 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Village of Blédougou, west of Banfora, near the town of Sindou, Comoé Province, Banfora Subdistrict. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 15% lexical similarity with Jula, 14% with Bola. Speakers are of all ages. Blé is used in the homes and to other Blé. The people say that everyone speaks Jula, all ages and sexes. Jula is used to people of other ethnic groups and for government administrative purposes. Government literacy program in Jula. Typology: Tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 400 meters. Muslim.

BOBO MADARÉ, NORTHERN (BOBO FING, BOBO FIGN, BOBO FI~, BLACK BOBO, BOBO) [BBO] 35,000 speakers in Burkina Faso out of 47,000 to 57,000 in the ethnic group (1995 SIL); 15,000 to 20,000 speakers in Mali (1995 SIL); 50,000 to 55,000 in both countries. Kossi Province. Tansilla is the center, with a radius of about 25 km. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Bobo Fing. Dialects: YABA, SANKUMA (SAROKAMA), JÈRÈ, TANKRI, KURE, KUKOMA. Bobo Fing call themselves 'Bobo' and their language 'Boboda'. The government calls them 'Bobo Madaré'. 'Bobo' is the general Bambara word for Bobo Madaré, Bwamu or Bomu. Northern Bobo Madaré has 20% to 30% intelligibility of Southern Bobo Madaré. All dialects of Northern understand Yaba, centered in Tansilla. Tankri is difficult for others to understand. Koma, a simplified form of Kukoma, has some negative attitudes toward it. Jula is also used by most men with good proficiency, and some women for common topics and trade. French is spoken by those who have been to school. Bobo Madaré is spoken at home and with other Bobo Madaré, Jula for trade, government, and to other ethnic groups. 5% or less literate in Jula. Typology: CV, CVC, CVV, CCV; tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 400 to 500 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

BOBO MADARÉ, SOUTHERN (BOBO FING, BOBO FI~, BLACK BOBO, BOBO) [BWQ] 150,000 to 180,000 speakers out of 160,000 to 190,000 in the ethnic group, including 10,000 speakers of Zara (1995 SIL). Mainly Houet Province, from 20 km. west of Bobo Dioulasso to 40 km. east, north to Kouka region in Kossi Province. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Bobo Fing. Dialects: BENGE, SOGOKIRÉ, VORÉ, SYABÉRÉ (SYA), ZARA (BOBO DIOULA, BOBO JULA). Spoken by all ages. They call themselves 'Bobo' and their language 'Boboda'. The government calls them 'Bobo Madaré'. 'Bobo' is the general Bambara word for Bobo Fing, Bwamu or Bomu. Syabéré in Bobo Dioulasso region is the prestige dialect, and the one used for literature. Jula is also used by most men and some women, with varying proficiency. French is spoken by those who have been to school. 10% literate in Jula. Typology: Tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 500 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1981. Bible portions 1965.

BOLON (BOKA, BO) [BOF] 11,000 (1993 Johnstone). Kénédougou and Houet provinces, 12 villages around Kolonzo, Seguedougou, Foulasso. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. Dialects: BLACK BOLON (NORTHERN BOLON), WHITE BOLON (SOUTHERN BOLON). Closely related to Jula. High bilingualism in Jula. Muslim. Survey needed.

BOMU (BOOMU, BORE, WESTERN BOBO WULE, BOBO OULE) [BMQ] 56,000 in Burkina Faso (1991); 305,700 in Mali (1991); 361,700 in all countries (1991 Vanderaa). Kossi Province, Djibasso Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Distinct language from Bwamu. The people are called Bonuu (sg.) or Bwa (pl.). Speakers of all ages. Men can speak Jula for common topics with outsiders, women for trading. Adults over 30 2% literate in Bomu, young people 20%; young people 10% in Jula, 2% in French. Different orthography used in Mali. Grammar. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives, relatives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals after noun heads; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects; V, CV, CVV; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Burkina Faso: traditional religion, Christian. NT 1954-1980. Bible portions 1937-1964.

BOSO, TIÉYAXO (TIÉYAXO, TIGEMAXO, TIEMAXO, BOZO) [BOZ] (117,696 all Boso in Mali; 1987). Kossi Province, Solenzo et Fo Subdistrict. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Soninke-Bozo. There may also be some Hainyaxo Boso in Burkina Faso. Fishermen. Muslim.

BWAMU (EASTERN BOBO WULE, EASTERN BOBO OULE, RED BOBO, BWA, BWABA, BOUAMOU) [BOX] 135,000 to 175,000 (1995 SIL). Kossi, Mouhoun, Houet, Bougouriba, and Sourou provinces. The boundary runs north-south through Solenzo and between Nouna and Djibasso. None in Mali. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Dialect: OUARKOYE. 'Bwa' is their name for themselves ('Bwaba' is plural) in the Dedougou dialect. Bwamu (Bouamou) is the language. 'Bobo' is the general Bambara name for Bwamu, Bomo, or Bobo Fing, but properly applies only to the Bobo Fing. Pwe is the name of a town, not a dialect (D. Shady CMA 1973). The Ouarkoye dialect of Bwamu is understood by most or all fringe dialects. 2% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1957-1964. Work in progress.

BWAMU, LAA LAA (KÀDENBÀ, YERE) [BWJ] 50,000 to 60,000 (1985 census). Mouhoun and Houet provinces, in and around the villages of Bagassi, Pâ, and Boni. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Close to Ouarkoye dialect of Bwamu and Bwamu Twi~. Spoken by people of all ages in their homes and with other Bwaba. Speakers are unable to use other Bwamu dialects for literature. Speakers over 7 years old can speak some Jula as second language for trade, government services, and common topics with people from other ethnic groups; and French for government services. 1% to 2% are fluent readers in French, Jula or Ouarkoye Bwamu. Motivation for literacy is high. Typology: Tonal. Scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 250 meters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1977-1995.

BWAMU, TWI~ (COO) [BWY] 18,000 (1995 SIL). South of Boromo, border area between Bougouriba and Sissili provinces, area 10 km. north to south, and 40 km. east to west, from Founzan (Bougouriba Province) to Kabourou (Sissili Province). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Speakers are of all ages. Unable to use other Bwamu literature. Intelligibility within Twi~ area is over 90%, 50% to 70% with Láá Láá Bwamu, 30% with Ouarkoye Bwamu, and 65% to 70% with Dakwi Bwamu. Some over 7 years old speak limited Jula (trade, common topics) or French as second language (greetings, weather). Twi~ is used in the home and with other Twi~ speakers. 3% literate in Jula. Motivation for literacy is high. Typology: Tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 250 meters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

CERMA (GOUIN, GWE, GWEN, KIRMA) [GOT] 61,400 in Burkina Faso (1991); 1,700 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 63,100 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). From just north of Ouangolodougou, Côte d'Ivoire, along the main road to Banfora, Comoé Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Dialects: BANFORA-SIENENA, NIANGOLOKO-DIARABAKOKO, SOUBAKANEDOUGOU, GOUINDOUGOUBA. The people are called 'Gouin' or 'Ciramba'. The Gouindougouba dialect is spoken by 1 or 2 villages. The Soubaka dialect needs investigation. Turka is the closest language, but not inherently intelligible. Most people use Jula as second language. Those who have been to school speak some French. About 15% literacy in Jula or French. Government literacy program. Typology: SVO, postpositions, articles, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word final, no more than one affix per word, word order distinguishes objects and indirect objects; verb changes with tense and aspect; causatives by sentence order; comparatives; CV, CVC, CVV, VV, V, tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

DAGAARI DIOULA (DAGARI DYOULA, DAGAARI JULA, JARI, WALA) [DGD] Small. Near Diébougou, region of Ouéssa-Hamale. May also be some in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari. May be Dagaaba who have become Muslim. Muslim. Survey needed.

DAGARA, NORTHERN (NORTHERN DAGAARI, DAGARI, DEGATI, DAGATI, DOGAARI, DAGAARI, DAGAARE) [DGI] 287,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southwest Burkina Faso, Poni, Bougouriba, Sissili, Mouhoun provinces. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari. Dialects: LOBER (LOBR), WULE, NURA (LAWRA LOBI). The people are called 'Dagaaba'. The language is spoken by all ages. Distinct from Southern Dagaari in Ghana. Dagara and Birifor are partly intelligible. Dagara is more prominent politically and socially. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1974-1980. Work in progress.

DOGHOSIÉ (DOROSIE, DORHOSYE, DOKHOSIÉ, DOGHOSIÉ, DOKHOBE, DOROBÉ, DOGHOSE, DOGOSÉ, DORHOSSIÉ, DOROSSÉ) [DOS] 20,000 (1991 Ouattara). Villages of Ouo, Sideradougou, Kouere, Koro, and Sirakoro, Comoé Province, Sidéradougou Subdistrict, southwest Burkina Faso. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. Dialects: KLAMAASISE, ME~ISISE, LUTISE, GBE~NYÃSE, SUKURASE, GBOGOROSE. 82% lexical similarity with Khisa, 69% with Kpatogo, 68% with Kaanse, 15% with Dogoso, 14% with Khe. Closely related to Lepatogoso. Distinct from Bambadion dialects Dogoso and Kheso. The regional dialects are inherently intelligible with each other. Clans are Wattara or Coulibaly. The road between Banfora and Gaoua goes through the area. Primary schools and medical facilities are nearby. Traditional religion, Muslim. Work in progress.

DOGON [DOG] 138,000 in Burkina Faso (1995); 462,000 in Mali (1995); 600,000 in all countries (1995 V. Plungian). Border area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Not close to other languages. Several inherently unintelligible related varieties are called 'dialects'. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1957-1994. Bible portions 1933-1984.

DOGOSO (DOROSSIÉ-FING, DORHOSIÉ-FINNG, BLACK DOGOSE, DORHOSIÉ-NOIRS, BAMBADION-DOGOSO, BAMBADION-DOKHOSIÉ) [DGS] 4,000 (1983 SIL). Villages are Dandougou, Torokoro, Sokoura, Bondokoro, Tolandougou, Sakédougou. Near the Dogo, Khi, and Khe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe. Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Jula; evaluation needed. 56% lexical similarity with Khe, 15% with Doghosié, 16% with Khisa. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

DYAN (DIAN, DYA, DYANE, DYANU, DAN) [DYA] 14,100 (1991 Vanderaa). Bougouriba Province, Dolo, near Diébougou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dyan. Dialect: ZANGA. Zanga is a dialect or closely related language. Not close enough to Lobi to be intelligible, although they seem to adapt after awhile to Lobi. Distinct from Dan (Gio, Yacouba). Limited bilingualism in Jula. Traditional religion, Muslim.

DZÙÙNGOO (SAMOGHO, SAMOGO, SAMORO, KPANGO, EASTERN DUUN) [DNN] 12,000 (1985 census). 50% are under 20 years old. Kénédougou Province, Samorogouan and Samogohiri departments, west of Bobo-Dioulasso near the town of Orodara; villages of Samogho-Iri, Saraba, Diomou, Gnalé, Sokouraba, Todié, and Samogho-Gban. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Duun. Dialects: KPANGO (SAMOROGOUAN), DZÙÙNGOO (SAMOGOHIRI). The two dialects are intelligible to each other's speakers. Not closely related to Syemu of Orodara. 'Dzuun' is the name for the people, 'Dzùùngoo' for the language. 'Samogo' is the Jula name. They speak Jula to outsiders. All men are fluent in Jula, women are not. Some men also speak Bambara and French. 5% are literate in French. The speakers are unified, with pride in their language. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word final; 2 suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, topic; causatives; comparatives; V, CV, CCV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Jula are 0:0%, 1:10%, 2:10%, 3:30%, 4:40%, 5:10%. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 500 meters. Muslim. Work in progress.

FRENCH [FRN] 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987.

FULFULDE, BARANI (BARAIN, BARANIIRE) [FUP] 5,000 (1994 R. Vallette). Around Barani. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, West Central. Considered to be a major dialect sociolinguistically. Pastoralists: cattle. Muslim. Survey needed.

FULFULDE, GOURMANTCHE [FUH] Total of all Fulfulde speakers in Burkina Faso 1,038,200, 10% of the population (1993 Johnstone). Area from Matialoali to Sebba, Bogandé, Koupela, Ourgaye, east to national park, up to Say, Niger border, possibly to Niamey, Niger. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, West Central. Dialect: BOGANDÉ. It is heavily influenced by Gourmantche. They do not understand other Fulani dialects or languages. The Bogandé dialect is more distinct. Muslim. Work in progress.

FULFULDE, JELGOORE (JELGOORE, DJIBO, PEUL, PEUHL, PULAR, FUL, SILIMIGA) [FUM] 250,000 (1982 govt. figure); 10,000 to 20,000 in the Liptaakoore dialect (1994 R. Vallette). Northeast, bordering the Sahara, Jelgooji area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, West Central. Dialects: BARKOUNDOUBA, SEEBA-YAGA (YAAGA), OUHIGUYUA, FADA NGURMA, LIPTAAKOORE. Their name for the language is 'Fulfulde', for the people 'Fulbe'. Close to the Maasina variety of Mali. Typology: SVO; prepositions and postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word final; 1 prefix, 9 suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; verb affixes mark number, subject (obligatory); class marking with participle obligatory; middle and passive voice; causatives; CV, CVC, CVV, CVVC; non-tonal. Desert. Plains. Pastoralists, semi-nomadic: cattle. Altitude: 200 meters. Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

GOURMANCHÉMA (GOURMA, GOURMANTCHE, GURMA, MIGULIMANCEMA, GOULMACEMA, GULMANCEMA, GULIMANCEMA) [GUX] 359,000 in Burkina Faso (1991); 120,500 in Togo (1991); 50,000 in Benin (1993); 45,000 in Niger (1991); 574,000 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Eastern Burkina Faso, Gourma, Tapoa, and Anagna provinces, just below the scrub land that blends into the Sahara. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Dialects: NORTHERN GOURMANCHEMA, CENTRAL GOURMANCHEMA, SOUTHERN GOURMANCHEMA. Literacy rate 5% to 10%. The people are called 'Bigulimanceba' or 'Gourma'. Central and eastern dialects are inherently intelligible, northern only with difficulty. Central is the prestige dialect, and used for writing. Those who have been to school or live in town (about 10%) can use French for common topics. Newspaper. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives, articles before noun heads; numerals after; CV; 3 tones. Levels of bilingualism in Mooré, Djerma, Fula are 0:90%, 1:3%, 2:3%, 3:2%, 4:1%, 5:1-%. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists: over 90% are able to meet all their food requirements. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1958-1990. Bible portions 1947-1988.

GURENNE (FRAFRA) [GUR] 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991); 526,300 in Ghana (1991); 551,400 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Nahouri Province, eastern part of Tiébélé Subdistrict, region of Po. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Dialects: GUDENI, NANKANI, BOONI, FRAFRA, NINKARE. Traditional religion. NT 1986. Bible portions 1962-1992.

HAUSA (HAOUSSA) [HUA] 500 in Burkina Faso (1991 Vanderaa); 22,000,000 in all countries (1991); 38,000,000 first and second language speakers (1995 WA). Boulgou and Gourma provinces. Primarily in Nigeria. Also Niger, Chad, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Sudan, Cameroon. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Muslim. Bible 1932-1980. NT 1880-1965. Bible portions 1857-1988.

JULA (DYULA, DYOULA, DIULA, DIOULA, DJULA) [DYU] 1,000,000 or more first language users in Burkina Faso; 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 second language users (1990 SIL). 1,470,000 in Côte d'Ivoire (1993 SIL); 50,000 in Mali (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 2,520,000 in all countries. Comoé, Kénédougou and Houet provinces. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. Jula is a trade language of western Burkina Faso and northern Côte d'Ivoire. It is a separate language from Bambara and Malinke, and ethnically distinct. Different than Diola of Senegal. Trade language. Muslim. NT 1993. Bible portions 1992.

KAANSE (KÃASE, KAN, KAAN, GAN, GÃ, GANE) [GNA] 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter). Poni Province, Gaoua Subdistrict, bounded by Loropéni on the west, Lorhosso on the east, Djigoué on the south, and Yérifoula on the north. Obiré, ten km. northwest of Loropéni, is the cultural center and residence of the chief. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. 81% lexical similarity with Kpatogo, 71% with Khisa, 68% with Doghosié. The people are called 'Kambe' (pl.), 'Kan' (sg.). Four clans: Farma, Suwa, Kama, Thaama. The Kpatogo separated politically and geographically from the Kambe. All speakers can use Jula as second language, 30% to 50% can use Lobi, less than 20% French. 3% literate. Five primary schools in the area. Levels of bilingualism in Jula are 0:0%, 1:9%, 2:12%, 3:43%, 4:37%, 5:0%. Interfluvial. Swidden or peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 150 to 400 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. SelectionsWork in progress.

KALAMSE (KALEMSE, KALENGA, SAMOMA, SÀMÓ) [KNZ] 9,568 (1985 census). Sourou Province, Tougan Subdistrict, 540 square km. bordering Mali. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialects: KASOMA (EAST KALAMSE), LOGREMMA (LOGMA, WEST KALAMSE). Speakers call their language 'Samoma' and themselves 'Sàmó' (sg.) or 'Sàmóyá' (pl.). The administrative name is 'Kalemse' (pl.) or 'Kalenga' (sg.). Distinct from other languages called 'Samo'. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

KARABORO, EASTERN (KAR, KER, KLER) [KAR] 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL); 5,000 to 6,000 emigrants, mainly in Côte d'Ivoire; 40,000 to 41,000 in all countries. East of the main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora, southern Burkina Faso. Comoé Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro. Kar averages 70% comprehension by Tenyer and Syer speakers, but the reverse is 30%; probably some bilingualism involved. Some bilingualism in Jula. Agriculturalists: maize, millet, peanuts. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1994. Bible portions 1985.

KARABORO, WESTERN (SYER-TENYER) [KZA] 30,200 (1991 Vanderaa). West of the main Ferke to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora, southern Burkina Faso. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro. Dialects: TENYER, SYER. Kar averages 70% comprehension by Tenyer and Syer speakers, but the reverse is 30%; probably some bilingualism involved. Some bilingualism in Jula. Traditional religion, Christian.

KASEM (KASSEM, KASIM, KASENA, KASSENA, KASENE, KASON FRA, KASON BURA) [KAS] 100,000 in Burkina Faso (1990 SIL), 100,000 in Ghana (1995 SIL); 200,000 in all countries. Nahouri Province, Po and Tiébélé towns. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialects: EAST KASEM, WEST KASEM. The people are Kasena, the language is Kasem, West and East Kasem are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers. East Kasem is more prestigious. Closest to Nuni and Lyélé. Second languages are Moore and French. Loan words and orthography in Burkina Faso are from French, versus English for speakers in Ghana. 15% literate in French, Moore, or Kasem. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numberals before noun heads; relatives after or without noun heads; no more than one affix per word; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects, topic and comment; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVC, CVV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in French, Moore are 0:60%, 1:20%, 2:10%, 3:5%, 4:3%, 5:2%. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 300 meters. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1988. Bible portions 1948-1990.

KHE (KHESO, BAMBADION-KHESO) [KQG] 1,300 (1983 SIL). Near the Dogo, Khi, and Dogoso. Villages are Noumoukiedougou, Tiébata, Moromoro, Bolé, Sessagbo, and Lobo. Also in northern Côte d'Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe. Bilingualism evaluation needed in Jula. 56% lexical similarity to Dogoso (Bambadion-Dogoso), 14% with Dogosié, 13% with Khisa. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

KHISA (KOMONO, KHI KHIPA, KHI, KUMWENU) [KQM] 3,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 S. Showalter SIL); 5,000 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 8,000 in all countries. Comoé Province, around Mangodara Prefecture, in southwest Burkina Faso near the Côte d'Ivoire border. 25 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. 82% lexical similarity with Doghosié, 72% with Kpatogo, 71% with Kaanse, 16% with Dogoso, 13% with Khe. Speakers say they can understand Kaanse after a time. Quite bilingual in Jula. The people in Dabokiri village have shifted to Jula. A medical clinic and primary school in Mangodara. 'Komono' is the Jula name. Also reported to be Senoufo. Agriculturalists: millet, maize, yams. Muslim. Work in progress.

(KOLS, KOLSI, WINYE) [KST] 16,200 (1993 Johnstone); 17 to 18 villages. Mouhoun Province, Boromo Subdistrict, around Boromo, about half way between Bobo-Dioulosso and Ouagadougou on main route. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. Close to Sisaala. Almost entirely monolingual. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

KOROBORÉ [KBI] Sanmatenga Province 2 or 3 villages northwest of Barsalogo. Unclassified. Little is known about this. May be the same as Koroboro, an alternate name for Songhai. Apparently not the same as Karaboro. Survey needed.

KOROMFÉ (KURUMFE, FULA, FULSE) [KFZ] 151,000 (1993 Johnstone), including 80,000 Lilse, 15,000 Deforo (1972 Barrett). Yatenga Province, Titao Subdistrict, Soum and Oudalan provinces, Djibi-Aribinda Subdistrict. A few in Mali at Bandiagara and Yoro, several villages. The Kurumba are east, the Fulse west. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe. Limited bilingualism in Mooré. Dictionary in the dialect of Mengao. Savannah. Plains. Agriculturalists. Kurumba: Muslim, Christian; Fulse: Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

KPATOGO (GBADOGO, PADORO, PADOGHO, PADORHO, BODORO, KPATOGOSO) [GBW] 700 (1991 SIL). Bougouriba Province, Tiankoura Subdistrict, 5 to 10 villages. Cultural center is Diassara. Traditional center is Gbengué. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose. 81% lexical similarity with Kaanse, 72% with Khisa, 69% with Doghosié. The Kpatogo separated politically from the Kambe (Kaanse). Highly bilingual in Jula. Four clans similar to the Kan. Light forest. Low rolling hills. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

KUSAAL, WESTERN (KUSALE, KUSASI, KOUSSASSÉ) [KNU] 12,600 (1993 Johnstone). Nahouiri, Boulgou provinces, some villages south of Zabré, south central. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast, Kusaal. Distinct from Eastern Kusaal in Ghana. Many claim to be able to understand the related languages: Moore, Dagbani, Mampruli, Fra Fra (Gurenne). Kusaal is a member of the Moore-Dagbani cluster. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

LOBI (LOBIRI, MIWA) [LOB] 285,500 in Burkina Faso (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 155,800 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 441,300 in all countries. Poni Province, southwest border area around Gaoua. A few villages in northwest Ghana along the Volta River; known as Miwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi. Dialect: GONGON LOBI. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1965-1985. Bible portions 1940-1961. Work in progress.

LYÉLÉ (LELE) [LEE] 225,000 (1993 Johnstone). Northern and central two-thirds of Sanguié Province: Réo, Kyon, Tenade, Dasse, Didyr, Godyr, and Kordie subdistricts, with principal center in Réo. Thousands of migrants in neighboring countries, especially Côte d'Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialects: CENTRAL LYÉLÉ, NORTHERN LYÉLÉ. About 50% of speakers are age 15 or under. Northern Lyélé speakers have nearly 100% comprehension of Central Lyele, but the reverse is under 60%. Closely related to Nuni. inherent intelligibility between them is low. A few speakers who have been in Jula-speaking areas can use Jula as second language. Under 15% have been to school, and they can use some French. Moore is used for trading with the Mossi, mainly by those living near the edges of the Lyélé region. 18% literate, mainly in French; a growing number in Lyélé, and some in Moore. Government coordinated literacy program, 150 classes (1995). The ethnic group is called 'Lyela' or 'Lela'. 'Gurunsi' is also used, but that applies more properly to the wider grouping. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial; 1 prefix, 2 suffix; word order distinguishes subject and object; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVV; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 meters. Traditional religion, Christian, or less Muslim, considerable syncretism. Bible portions 1968-1995. Work in progress.

MARKA (DAFING, MEKA) [MWR] 200,000 in Burkina Faso (1992 CMA); 25,000 in Mali (1991); 225,000 in all countries. Kossi and Mouhoun provinces, northwest, around Nouna, Dédougou. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. Dialects: SAFANÉ, NOUNA, GASSAN. A dialect cluster. Reported to be close to Bambara or a variant of Jula. B. Coulibaly, a Bambara speaker and linguist, says it is harder for him to understand than the Jula on Radio Abidjan. Men who travel speak Jula to outsiders, but women and children do not speak Jula. 'Marka' is used for followers of the traditional religion, 'Dafing' for Muslim speakers. The Safané dialect is used on the national radio news broadcast, and is most prestigious. Different from the Marka dialect of Soninke. Grammars. 5% of speakers can read haltingly in French, some in Jula. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word final; word order distinguishes subject, object, indirect object; CV. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions. Survey needed.

MOBA (MOAB, MOARE, MOA, BEN) [MFQ] 1,800 in Burkina Faso (1991); 189,400 in Togo (1991); 191,200 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Boulgou Province, Ouargaye Subdistrict. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba. Related to Bimoba in Ghana, but not inherently intelligible. Bible portions 1941-1984. Work in progress.

MÒORÉ (MOOSE, MORE, MOLE, MOSSI, MOSHI) [MHM] 4,500,000 in Burkina Faso, 53% of the population (1995); 19,700 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa); 17,000 in Mali (1980); 4,600,000 in all countries or more. 2,000,000 others use Moore as second or third language (1992 Daniel Delma). Central Ouagadougou area and throughout the country. Some have gone into Ghana, Benin, and Côte d'Ivoire to work. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Dialects: SAREMDÉ, TAOLENDÉ, YAADRÉ, OUAPADOUPOU, YAANDE, ZAORE (JOORE). Dominant African language of Burkina Faso. 'Moose' is the name of the people (pl.) or 'Moaaga' (sg.); 'Moore' of the language. Other spellings reflect obsolete spellings or pronunciations of non-speakers. Some who have travelled outside the area speak Jula as second language. Typology: SOV; postpsitions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals after noun heads; question word final; word order distinguishes subjects, objects; CV, CVC, CVV, CCV; tonal. Savannah. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible 1983. NT 1939-1960. Bible portions 1930-1960.

NATIORO (KOO'RA, NATYORO, NATJORO) [NTI] 2,400 (1991 Vanderaa). Comoé Province, Sindou Subdistrict, extreme west, almost due west of Banfora, around the town of Sindou; also in Dinaoro, Timba, and Kawara. The presence of Natioro in Mali or Côte d'Ivoire is unconfirmed. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro. Dialects: KAOUARA-TIMBA-SINDOU-KORONI, GINAOUROU. Similar to Wara but not inherently intelligible. They live mixed with the Jula, Sénufo, and blacksmiths, are intermarrying, and are quite bilingual in Jula. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

NUNI, NORTHERN (NOUNI, NUNUMA, NOUNOUMA, NUNA, NUNE, NIBULU, NURUMA) [NUV] 45,000 to 55,000, including 15,000 to 25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000 to 35,000 in Northeastern Nuni (1995 SIL). Sissili and Sanguié provinces, near Boromo. The dividing line between the dialects is the Mouhoun River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialect: NORTHWESTERN NUNI. NORTHEASTERN NUNI. Speakers are of all ages. Closely related to Kasem and Lyélé. The people are called 'Nuna'. Jula is used by children and those older as a second language by Northwestern dialect speakers; Lyélé by Northeastern dialect speakers who trade at local markets; French by leaders and young people who have been to school. 5% functionally literate in French, 1% in Nuni. High motivation for literacy. Government coordinated literacy program in Sanguié and Sissili provinces. Speakers of Northern Nuni cannot understand Southern Nuni. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial; 1 prefix, 1 suffix; word order distinguishes subject and object; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVV, CV~, CV~V~; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 250 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

NUNI, SOUTHERN (NOUNI, NUNUMA, NOUNOUMA, NUNA, NUNE, NIBULU, NURUMA) [NNW] 100.000 to 200,000 (1995 SIL). Sissili Province, around Léo, in eastern Mouhoun Province, southern Boulkiemdé and Sanguié provinces, western Nahouri and Kossi provinces. Over 100 villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialects: MICARI, BASINYARI (SUNDONI), YATINI, GORI, BWANA, SANKURA. Closely related to Kasena and Lyele. The people are called 'Nuna'. Mooré is sometimes used as a second language mainly by men; French by leaders and young people. 5% functionally literate in French, 10% in Nuni. Typology: SVO; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial; 1 prefix, 1 suffix; word order distinguishes subject and object; causatives; comparatives; CV, CVV, CV~, CV~V~; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

PANA (SAMA) [PNQ] 7,200 in Burkina Faso (1991 Vanderaa); 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL); 10,000 in all countries. Sourou Province, Kassoum Subdistrict, around the town of Oué in the valley of the Sourou River where it enters from Mali, on the border due north of Dédougou. Also in Mali south of Bandiagara. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Dialects: PANA NORTH, PANA SOUTH. Low bilingualism in Jula. The people call themselves and their language 'Pana'. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

PWE~ (PUGULI, BUGULI, POUGOULI, PWA, PWO, BUGURI) [PUG] 11,000 to 13,000 (1995 SIL). Bougouriba Province. One area is between 10 and 50 km. north and west of Diébougou, the other is between 25 and 40 km. northwest of Dano. Other villages are acatter throughout the Dagaari territory. 450 sq. km. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. 'Pwe~' is their name for the language, 'Puguli' is used by outsiders, 'Pwo' is their name for the people. Spoken by all ages. Language use is vigorous, and they are strongly attached to their language. Pwe~ is closely related to Kõ and Sisala. The degree of bilingualism in Northern Dagaari (women more fluent, used in markets), Jula (men more fluent, used for trade, common topics), and French (those who have been to school) varies among villages and speakers. 1% literate in French. Motivation for Pwe~ literacy is high. Typology: tonal. Scrub forest, savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 250 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

SAMO (NORTHERN SAMO, SAN, SANE) [SBD] 240,000 in both countries (1991 UBS); 105,000 in Tougan (1995 R. Jones SIM). Sourou Province, concentrations in Mouna and Solenzo areas, and Ouaga, Bobo, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. Toma dialect is in Toma, Yaba, Gossina, Ye, Kugny, and Gassan departments. A few in Mali. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Samo. Dialects: TOMA (NYAANA, MAKAA), TOUGAN (WEST CENTRAL GOE~, MATYA), ZOUMOU (EASTERN GOE~), KIEMBARA (NORTHEASTERN GOE~, MAYA), LOUTA (NORTHERN GOE~). Some serious difficulty in intelligibility among dialects. It is reported that Toma speakers cannot understand other dialects, but speakers of other dialects can understand Toma somewhat. Toma and Tougan are the larger and more politically important dialects. Toma speakers are more bilingual in French; the others in Jula. Older men who have traveled a lot are bilingual in Jula; otherwise it is mainly youth who are bilingual in Jula. Jula is used in commerce, especially with non-Samo. Speakers of other dialects tend to use Jula with speakers from Tougan. Jula is used in some churches. Reciprocal bilingualism with Moore along the eastern border of the area. The Rimaïbé are Samo who were former Fula slaves, now speak Fulfulde as second language, and live in Kawara, Kassan, Zoumou, Teri, in the Tougan area. Other Rimaïbé in Biba and Sankoe in the Toma area no longer speak Fulfulde. 15% literacy among Toma speakers, lower among others. Motivation to read French and Toma Samo is high. A literacy center in Toma teaches Toma; one near Tougan teaches Jula. Traditional religion, Christian. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1986-1991.

SEEKU (SAMBLA, SEMBLA, SOUTHERN SAMO, SAMOGHO) [SOS] 17,000 including 5,000 in the northern dialect, 4 villages; 12,000 in the southern, 7 villages (1995 SIL). Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso Department, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, villages of Karankasso, Bouendé, Torosso, Banzo, Tiara, Bama. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Sambla-Samogho. Dialects: NORTHERN SEEKU (TIMIKU), SOUTHERN SEEKU (GBENEKU). 'Seeku' is their own name for the language, 'Seemogo' for the people. Speakers are of all ages. Mixed with Toussian speakers in the south and Bobo Dioula in the north. Dialects have good inherent intelligibility. Close to Dzuungo. Prost says lexical correspondence to Samogho Gouan and Samogho Ire is 50%. Three minor dialects. Seeku is used at home and with other Seemogo. Bilingual proficiency in Jula is uneven across the population; higher in adults. French is used mainly by the young people. Below 5% literate. Motivation for literacy is high. Typology: SOV; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 400 meters. Muslim, Christian.

SÉNOUFO, NANERIGÉ (NANDERGÉ, NANERGÉ, NANERGUÉ, NANDEREKE, NAANI) [SEN] 50,000 (1985 census). Northern 2/3 of Kénédougou Province, from Djigouéra and north. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Some intelligibility with Tagba. Most men speak Jula for trade and contact with non-Senoufo, though not all speak it in the home or village. Most women speak minimal Jula and seldom use it. French is spoken only by those who have been to school, but is not used in the home or village. Some are literate in Jula or French. 'Nanerige' is the name of the people. No significant dialects or subgroups. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional,, Christian. Work in progress.

SÉNOUFO, NIANGOLO [SEQ] 6,000 (1991 Vanderaa). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Intelligibility testing is needed with Sénoufo Cébara in Côte d'Ivoire. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

SÉNOUFO, SÌCÌTÉ (SÌCÌTÉ, SÌPÌÌTÉ, SÌCÌRÉ, SUCITE, TAGBA) [SEP] 26,000 (1992 A. Garber AIMM). Kénédougou Province, Tagouara Plateau, Koloko and Ouelaní prefectures, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, to the Mali border. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Difficult intelligibility with Nanerige. Most adults know enough Jula to meet routine social needs and discuss most common topics, but it is used only with strangers, as in the market. Some have been to school and are literate in Jula or French. A few are literate in Sìcìté. Those who have been to school use French only if a stranger does not know Jula. They call their language 'Sénoufo Sìcìté', themselves 'Sìcijuubíí' (pl.), or 'Sìcijuungé' (sg.), and their region 'Tagba'. 'Tagba' is used by outsiders for them. Used on Radio Burkina and Radio Bobo. Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Typology: SOV, postpositions, genitives before nouns, articles, adjectives, numerals after nouns, question word initial, 1 prefix, 2 suffixes, word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects; CV, CVV; 3 tones. Levels of bilingualism in Jula are 0:5%, 1:13%, 2:55%, 3:12%, 4:9%, 5:6%. Plateau, interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

SIAMOU (SIÉMOU, SIEMU, SYÉMOU, SÉMU, SEME) [SIF] 15,000 in Burkina Faso (1993); 20,000 in Bamako, Mali and Bouake, Côte d'Ivoire (1993); 35,000 in all countries (1993 P. Thiessen and Gerald Neufeld). Kénédougou Province, 80 km. west of Bobo-Dioulasso, centering in Orodara, plus several small villages: Tin, Diossogou, Diéri, Kotoudéni, Diéridéni, Didéri, Lidara, and Bandougou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Seme. Dialect: BANDOUGOU. Minor dialect differences between villages and within Orodara. The Bandougou dialect is considered different, but intelligibility among dialects seems adequate. No closely related languages. Previously classified as Mande. Their tradition says they came from the south. They are reserved toward people who cannot speak Siamou. Vigorous language use. Most can speak Jula as second language, and a few speak French. A few are literate in Jula, some in French. Typology: SOV; postpositions; genitives before noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals after noun heads; question word final; word order distinguishes subjects and objects; affixes indicate case; CV, CVC, CCV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in French are 0:1%, 1:4%, 2:10%, 3:30%, 4:50%, 5:5%. Plains, interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists, peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

SININKERE (SILINKERE, SILANKE) [SKQ] 1,000 (1991 Vanderaa). Sanmatenga Province, near Pensa. Unclassified. Second language is Moore. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

SISSALA (SISAALI) [SLD] 13,000 (1991 SIL). Sissili Province, between Léo and Hamale. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western. All one dialect in Burkina Faso. A separate language from the Sisaala languages in Ghana, although closest to Busilli (Western Sisaala). Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

SONGAI (SONGHAI, SONGAY, SONGOY, SONGOI, SONGHAY, SONRAI, SONRHAI) [SON] 122,700 in Burkina Faso (1991); 600,000 in Mali (1991); 390,000 in Niger (1991); 1,112,700 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Séno Province around Dori. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai. Dialect: CENTRAL SONGAI (TINIE, MARENSÉ, KAADO). Closely related languages: Dendi, Dyerma. Marensé: Indigo dyeing. Muslim. NT 1936-1976. Bible portions 1928. Work in progress.

SONINKE (SARAKOLE, SARAWULE, TOUBAKAI, WAKORE, GADYAGA, SERAHULI, ASWANIK, SILABE, MARKA) [SNN] 90,000 in Burkina Faso (1991); 100,000 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 700,000 in Mali (1991), 150,000 in Senegal; 30,000 in Mauritania; 51,000 in Gambia (1991); 5,000 in Guinea Bissau; 1,126,000 in all countries or more. Also in Guinea and possibly in Niger. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Soninke-Bozo. Dialect: AZER (ADJER, ASER). One source says there are no Soninke speakers left in Burkina Faso. Muslim. Work in progress.

TAMASHEQ, KIDAL (TOMACHECK, TAMASHEKIN, TUAREG, TIMBUKTU, KIDAL) [TAQ] 20,000 to 30,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL); 250,000 or more in Mali (1991); 270,000 in all countries or more. Oudalan Province. Also some in Algeria. Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Dialects: TIMBUKTU (TOMBOUCTOU, TANASLAMT), TADGHAQ (KIDAL). People are called 'Tuareg' ('Targi', singular), language 'Tamasheq'. The two dialects may be separate languages. Muslim. Bible portions 1953. Work in progress.

TÉÉN (LORHON, LOGHON, LORON, NABE, TÉNHÉ, TEGESIE) [LOR] 1,200 in Burkina Faso (1991); 6,100 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 7,300 in all countries. Poni Province, Kampti Subdistrict, two pockets just west of Kampti. Most in northeast corner of Côte d'Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen. Different enough from Kulango to be considered a separate language. The people are called 'Ténsé' (sg.), 'Ténbo' (pl.). Closest to Loma, then Kulango, Nabanj. Savannah. Traditional religion, some Christian. Work in progress.

TIÉFO (TYEFO, TYEFORO, KIEFO) [TIQ] 1,000 speakers (1995 SIL), out of 12,000 to 15,000 in ethnic group (1995 SIL). Comoé Province, east of Toussiana, Dramandougou Tiéfo, one village. Other ethnic Tiéfo in about 20 villages, extending into Houet Province, speak Jula as mother tongue. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tiefo. Dialects: NOUMOUDARA-KOUMOUDARA, DRAMANDOUGOU-NYARAFO. Speakers are of all ages. Tiéfo is used in the home and in every domain. They are endogamous within the village. Noumoudata-Koumoudata dialect is extinct. Speakers are bilingual in Jula, which they use to those who do not speak Tiéfo. 1% literate in French. Typology: Tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 400 meters. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

TOUSSIAN, NORTHERN (TUSIA, TUSIAN) [TSP] 19,500, including 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects (1995 SIL). Comoé Province, north, east, and south of Oradara. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Unclassified. Dialects: TER. TRU, KEBEENTON, WENTEENE. Dialects are inherently intelligible with each other, but 45% inherent intelligibility of Southern Toussian. Speakers are of all ages. Toussian is used in the home and ethnic group. Jula is used as second language to outsiders, for government, and trade. French is used some for government contacts. 5% literate in French, 3% in Jula. Typology: SOV; post-positions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; word order distinguishes bujects, objects, indirect objects, passives; V, CV, CVC, CCV; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 400 to 700 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

TOUSSIAN, SOUTHERN (WIN, TUSIA, TUSIAN) [WIB] 19,500 (1995 SIL). Comoé and Houet provinces, about half way between Banfora and Bobo-Dioulasso, around center of Toussiana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia. Dialects: WUNWEY, NIANHA. 40% inherent intelligibility of Northern Toussian. Speakers are of all ages. Nianha dialect is central. Toussian is used at home and with other Toussian. The people are fairly fluent in Jula (all ages and sexes, adults more than young people), and some in French (only those who have been to school, used for trade, discussing weather). 5% literate in French, 3% in Jula. Typology: SOV; post-positions; genitives befoe noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects, passives; causatives; comparatives; V, CV, CVC, CCV; tonal. Savannah. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 400 to 500 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Selections 1988. Work in progress.

TURKA (TOURKA, TURUKA, CURAMA, TYURAMA) [TUZ] 45,300 (1991 Vanderaa). Comoé Province, north and west of Banfora. The principal villages are the dialects named. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama. Dialects: DOUNA, BEREGADOUGOU-TOUMOUSSENI. Cerma is the closest language, but it is not inherently intelligible with Turka. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

VIEMO (VIGUÉ, VIGE, VIGYE) [VIG] 8,000 (1995 SIL). Houet Province, Karankasso Vigué Department, 40 km. southeast of Bobo Dioulasso. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Viemo. Vigorous language use. Speakers are of all ages. Viemo is used in the homes and for all village domains, with other Viemo. The second language of all is Jula, used for trade, most topics to outsiders. Few have learned French, or go very far in school. 5% literate in Jula, 1% in French. Typology: Tonal. Savannah, scrub forest. Plains. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 400 meters. Traditional religion, Muslim.

WARA (OUARA, OUALA, SAMOE) [WBF] 4,500 (1993 Johnstone). Comoé Province, west of Banfora, near the town of Sindou. The main village is Néguéni. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro. Dialects: NEGUENI-KLANI, OUATOUROU-NIASOGONI, SOULANI. The closest language is Natioro. They speak Wara among themselves and Jula to outsiders. Everyone but the youngest children speaks Jula, but proficiency is limited. Pride in Wara. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

YANA (YANGA, JAAN) [YAN] 15,700 in Burkina Faso (1991 Vanderaa). Gourma Province, Pama, Comin-Yanga, and Diabo subdistricts. Also in Togo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

ZARMA (DYERMA, DYARMA, DYABARMA, ZABARMA, ADZERMA, DJERMA, ZARBARMA) [DJE] 600 in Burkina Faso (1987 SIL); 1,495,000 (1986); 50,000 in Nigeria (1973); 2,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Benin. Nilo-Saharan, Songhai. Muslim. Braille Bible portions. Bible 1990. NT 1954. Bible portions 1934.


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