Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Central African Republic

3,400,000 (1996). 500,000 to 600,000 did not indicate their mother tongue in the 1988 census. République Centrafricaine. Formerly Central African Empire. Literacy rate 27%. Also includes Shuwa Arabic 63,000, Bomitaba 224 (1988 census); Hausa 20,000, Lingala 9,100, Mbanza 1,400, Ngbaka 3,000, Ngbandi 294 (1988), Sere 28 (1988). Information mainly from Atlas Linguistique de l'Afrique Central 1984, ACCT; Moñino 1988; SIL 1996. Data accuracy estimate: B. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Blind population 27,000 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Central African Republic is 69. Of those, 68 are living languages and 1 is a second language with no mother tongue speakers.

ALI [AIY] 35,000 (1996). Boali, Bimbo, Boda, and Yaloke subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Many children learn Sango as their first language. Survey needed.

BANDA-BAMBARI (BANDA OF BAMBARI) [LIY] 183,000 including 4,000 Gbende, 2,000 Joto, mainly Linda (1996). Bambari, Ippy, Grimari, Bakala, Alindao subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Bambari. Dialects: LINDA, JOTO (JETO), NDOKPA, NGAPO (NGAPU), GBENDE. May be intelligible to all Banda variaties. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BANDA-BANDA [BPD] 102,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Bria (Bereya), Yalinga (Vidiri), Bakouma, Sibut (Ka, Gbaga-South), Dekoa, Damara, Grimari (Mbi), Bossangoa (Gbambiya), Bozoum, Bocarangoa, Paoua (Hai) subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda. Dialects: BANDA-BANDA, BEREYA (BRIA, BANDA OF BRIA, BANDA DE BRIA), BURU, GBAGA-SOUTH (GBAGA 1), GBAMBIYA, HAI, KA, MBI (MBIYI), NDI (NDRI), NGALABO, NGOLA, VIDIRI (MVEDERE, VODERE, VIDRI, VADARA). May be intelligible with Banda-Bambari. People use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BANDA-MBRÈS (BANDA OF MBRÈS, BANDA-MBRE) [BQK] 42,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Mbrès Subprefecture (Mbre, Moruba), Kaga Bandoro, Bouca (Buka), Bakala (Sabanga, Moruba). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres. Dialects: BUKA (BOUKA), MBRE (MBERE, MBELE), MORUBA (MOROUBA, MARABA), SABANGA (SANGBANGA), WADA (OUADDA). Survey needed.

BANDA-NDÉLÉ (BANDA OF NDÉLÉ, NYELE) [BFL] 35,500 (1996). Ndélé, Bamingui, Ouadda, Kaga Bandoro subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele. Dialects: BANDA-NDÉLÉ, JUNGURU (DJINGBURU, NGURU), TANGBAGO (TAMBOLO, TAMBAGGO, TOMBAGGO, TANGAGO), NGAO (NGAU, BANDANGAO), NGBALA. Speakers in CAR use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BANDA-YANGERE (YANGERE, YANGUERE) [YAJ] 26,500 (1996). Nola, Bambio, Berberati, and Carnot subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Western. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BANDA, MID-SOUTHERN (BANDA CENTRAL SUD) [BJO] 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 2,000 Yakpa in Zaïre (1986 SIL). Alindao, Mobaye, Mingala, Kembe, Kouango subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Dialects: BONGO, DUKPU, YAKPA (YACOUA, YAKPWA, YAKWA, BAYAKA), WASA (OUASSA). May be intelligible with Banda-Bambari or Mono. Speakers use Sango as second language in CAR, Lingala in Zaïre. Survey needed.

BANDA, SOUTH CENTRAL ((LANGBA (LAGBA), NGBUGU (NGBOUGOU))) [LNL] 150,000 in CAR including 55,000 Langba, 95,000 Ngbugu (1996); 3,000 in Zaire; 153,000 in both countries. Sibut, Mobaye, Alindao, Kembe, Mingala subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central. May be intelligible with Langbashe. Work in progress.

BANDA, TOGBO-VARA [TOR] 12,000 in CAR (1996); 12,000 in Zaïre (1984 census); 24,000 in all countries or more. Bria (Togbo) and Bambari (Vara) subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Dialects: TOGBO (TOHGBOH, TAGBO, TAGBWALI), VARA (VORA, VERA). Different from Tagbu (Tagbo, Tagba) of Zaïre in Sere group. They view themselves as very different from Mono. Speakers in CAR use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BANDA, WEST CENTRAL [BBP] 4,500 in CAR including 1,000 Wojo, mainly Dakpa (1996); 3,000 in Sudan (1982); 7,500 in all countries. Bambari, Bakala (Dakpa), Grimari (Gbi, Wojo), Kaga Bandoro (Wojo), Bamingui (Gbaga-Nord) subprefectures. Also in Zaire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central. Dialects: DAKPA, GBAGA-NORD (GBAGA-2), GBI, VITA, WOJO (HODJO). May be intelligible with Mbanza or Langbashe. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

BIRRI (BIRI, VIRI, BVIRI) [BVQ] 200 (1996) out of 5,000 in the ethnic group. Extinct in Sudan (1993). Scattered throughout southwestern corner of CAR, and formerly in Deim Zubeir, Bahr el Ghazal Province, Sudan. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi. Dialects: MBOTO, MUNGA. Only one dialect spoken in CAR. The people are bilingual in Zande. They may be assimilated by the larger Zande people through marriage. Different from Viri, Biri, Bviri [BVI]. Survey needed.

BODO [BOY] 15 (1996). Haut-Mbomou Prefecture, eastern tip of CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30). Scattered throughout CAR. Not more than 3 speakers in the same village. None in original area. None in Sudan. Nearly extinct.

BOFI (BOFFI) [BFF] 23,500 (1996). Boda and Bimbo subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Speakers are fairly bilingual in Sango. Those in Bimbo Subprefecture are reported to be mostly pygmies. Survey needed.

BOKOTO (BOKODO, BOGOTO, BOGODO, BOKPOTO) [BDT] 130,000 (1996). Baoro, Carnot, Boda subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central. Dialects: GBAYA OF BODA (GBAYA DE BODA), BOKPAN, BOKOTO. May be intelligible with Northwest Gbaya. Use Sango as lingua franca. Survey needed.

BURAKA (BOURAKA, BORAKA, BOLAKA) [BKG] 2,500 in Central African Republic (1996); few in Zaïre (1986). Mobaye Subprefecture, along the Ubangi River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili. May not be inherently intelligible with Gbanziri. Survey needed.

DAGBA [DGK] 40,000 (1996). Batangafo, Kabo, and Bossangoa subprefectures. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. May be intelligible with Kaba. Survey needed.

DENDI [DEQ] 10,000 (1996). Ouango Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. High intelligibility with Yakoma, and high bilingualism in Sango. Ngbandi and Mbangi may be inherently intelligible with Dendi. Different from Dendi in Benin, Nigeria, and Niger. Survey needed.

FRENCH [FRN] 9,000 in CAR (1996); 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Scattered. Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987.

FULFULDE, KANO-KATSINA-BORORO (PEUL, PHEUL, BORORO, MBORORO) [FUV] 156,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Scattered. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, East Central. Nomadic, related to Bororo Fulfulde of Nigeria. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

FURU (BAGERO, BAGIRO, BAGUERO, BAGUIRO) [FUU] 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 12,000 in Zaïre (1984 census); 16,000 in all countries. Mobaye Subprefecture, 11 villages. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Survey needed.

GANZI [GNZ] 1,400 (1996). Scattered throughout CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi. Dialects: GANZI, YAKA. Pygmies. May be intelligible with Baka. Survey needed.

GBANU (GBANOU, BANU) [GBV] 95,000 (1996). Carnot and Bossembélé subprefectures, north of Bogangolo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central. Dialects: GBANU, GBAGIRI (GBAGILI, BAGILI, BAGUILI), BUDIGRI (BIDIKILI) . Have relatively high bilingualism in Sango. Bible portions 1932-1939. Survey needed.

GBANZIRI (GBANZILI, BANZIRI, GBANDERE) [GBG] 14,500 in CAR (1996); 3,000 in Zaïre (1986 SIL); 17,500 in all countries. Kouango Subprefecture, along the Ubangi River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili. May be intelligible with Bulaka. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

GBAYA-BOSSANGOA (GBAYA OF BOSSANGOA, GBAYA DE BOSANGOA, GBEA, GBEYA, GBAYA OF BORRO, GBAYA-BORRO) [GBP] 176,000 (1996). Bossangoa, Batangafo (Gbabana) subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central. Dialects: GBABANA, BOSSANGOA. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bosoum or Suma. Speakers use Sango as lingua franca, but women have low proficiency outside towns. Bible portions 1934-1952. Work in progress.

GBAYA-BOZOUM (GBAYA DE BOZOUM, BOZOM) [GBQ] 32,500 (1996). Bozoum Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central. Dialects: DIABE, BOYALI, BOZOM. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa. Use Sango as lingua franca. Survey needed.

GBAYA, NORTHWEST (GBAYA NORD-OUEST, GBAYA) [GYA] 200,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 65,000 to 80,000 in Cameroon (1996); 2,000 in Congo (1993); 267,000 to 282,000 or more in all countries. Bouar, Baboua, Bocaranga, Paoua subprefectures. Very few in Nigeria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest. Dialects: GBAYA KARA (GBAYA DE BOUAR, GBAYA DE BOUAR, BOAR), BODOE, LAI (LAY), YAÁYUWEE (YAIWE, KALLA). They use Sango as lingua franca. Grammar. Dictionary. Primer. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Bible 1994. NT 1968-1982.

GBAYA, SOUTHWEST (GBAYA SUD-OUEST) [MDO] 164,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 5,000 or more in Cameroon (1980); 169,000 or more in all countries. Berberati, Carnot, Gamboula, Nola subprefectures. Also in Cameroon, and some Mbakolo and Bokare in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest. Dialects: BIYANDA (BIANDA), BULI (BOLI), MBONDOMO (MBODOMO), BOKARE (BOKARI), MBOUNDJA (MBUNZA), BOSOKO (BOSSOUKA, MBUSUKU), TOONGO, YANGELE, MBAKOLO (YASUA), BUDAMONO, MBOMBELENG. Use Sango as lingua franca. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

GBAYI (KPASIYA) [GYG] 5,000 (1996). Northern Mingala Prefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. Related to Ngbandi. Ethnically Kpatili, but not intelligible with Kpatili. Survey needed.

GEME (JEME, NGBA GEME, GUEME) [GEQ] 550 (1996). Ndélé Subprefecture, 2 villages north of Ndélé. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Dialects: GEME TULU, GEME KULAGBOLU. May be inherently intelligible with Zande. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

GUBU (GOBU, NGOBO, NGOBU, GABOU, GABU) [GOX] Few in Central African Republic; 12,000 in Zaïre (1984 census). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Closest to Togbo and Mono. Speakers also use Sango. Survey needed.

GULA (KARA OF SUDAN, KARA DE SOUDAN, KARA, TAR GULA, GULA DU MAMOUN, GOULA, YAMEGI) [KCM] 13,000 in CAR (1996); 200 to 2,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL); 13,000 to 15,000 in all countries. Birao Subprefecture, near Sudan border at Kafia Kingi. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Dialects: MOLO, MELE, MOT-MAR (MOTO-MARA), SAR (SARA), MERE, ZURA (KOTO). Different from Kara of CAR, Kare of Chad, or Gula of Chad. Muslim. Survey needed.

GUNDI (NGUNDI, NGONDI) [GDI] 9,000 (1988 census). Nola Subprefecture, south and east of Nola. The Sangha River is the border to the Yaka region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi. May be intelligible with Baka. Bayanga may be a subgroup of Gundi or Baka. Most Pygmies have not been contacted by census takers. Different from Ngundi of Congo, and Central African Republic, which is Bantu. Pygmies. Survey needed.

KABA (KABBA, SARA KABA, SARA) [KSP] 72,000 in CAR (1996). Paoua and Marounda subprefectures. Also in Chad, but primarily Central African Republic. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Kaba. Different from Kaba Deme, Kaba Na, Kulfa (Kaba So), Sara Kaba, Laka (Kabba Laka), or Kaba of Ethiopia, a dialect of Bench. Work in progress.

KAKO (KAKA, YAKA, NKOXO) [KKJ] 10,400 in CAR (1996); 70,500 in all countries (1982 SIL). Gambula town at the Cameroon border near Berberati, west CAR. Also in Cameroon and Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90). Work in progress.

KARA (FER, DAM FER, FERTIT) [KAH] 4,800 (1996). Birao Subprefecture. Unclassified. Different from Gula (Kara of Sudan). Muslim. Survey needed.

KARE (KARRÉ, KARI, KALI) [KBN] 93,000 in Central African Republic, including 57,500 Kare, 35,500 Tale (1996). Boxoum and Bocaranga subprefectures. Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Dialects: TALE (TALI), KARI. Intelligible with Mbum. Different from the Kari of Zaïre, which is Benue-Congo. NT 1947. Bible portions 1931-1945.

KPAGUA [KUW] 3,000 to 4,000 in CAR (1996). Also in Zaire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Closest to Ngundu. Survey needed.

KPATILI (KPATIRI, KPATERE, NGINDERE) [KYM] 4,500 (1996). Southern Mingala Prefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Related to Nzakara. Not intelligible with Gbayi, who are ethnically Kpatili. Survey needed.

LAKA (KABBA LAKA) [LAM] 2,050 in CAR (1996); 55,143 in 310 villages in Chad (1991 census); 57,200 in all countries. Bocaranga Subprefecture, 9 villages at the Chad border. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Different from Laka of Nigeria, which is Adamawa-Ubangi, and from Kaba of CAR and Chad. Some consider it to be a dialect of Ngambai. NT 1960. Bible portions 1948-1950.

LANGBASHE (LANGBASHI, LANGBASE, LANGBASI, LANGWASI, LANGBWASSE) [LNA] 40,000 in CAR (1996); 3,000 in Zaire (1984); 43,000 in both countries. Kouango Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central. May be intelligible with South Central Banda. Survey needed.

LUTOS (RUTO) [NDY] 17,000 in CAR (1996); 1,978 in Chad (1993 census); 19,500 in all countries. Ndélé, Kaga andoro, and Kabo subprefectures. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale. Dialects: NDUKA (NDOUKA, NDOUKWA), LUTOS (RUTO, ROUTO, RITO, LUTO, LOUTO), WADA (WAD), NDUGA (NGOUGUA), KONGA. May be intelligible with Vale. Survey needed.

MANZA (MANDJA, MANJA) [MZV] 220,000 (1996). Bouca, Kaga Bandoro, Mbrès, Dekoa, Sibut, Grimari subprefectures. Possibly in Chad or Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. Close to Ngbaka-Minangende of Zaïre. Speakers use Sango as lingua franca. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Work in progress.

MBAI (MBAY) [MYB] 8,300 in CAR (1996); 100,000 (1981 UBS). Markounda and Batangafo subprefectures. Also in Chad, Cameroon, Nigeria. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Different from Mbai, a dialect of Nandi of Kenya. Fair literacy rate. Bible 1980. NT 1943. Bible portions 1932.

MBANGI (MBANGUI) [MGN] 2,750 (1996). Bangassou, Ouango, and Alindao subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. High intelligibility with Yakoma, and bilingualism in Sango. May be intelligible with Ngbandi or Dendi. Survey needed.

MBATI (SONGO, LISONGO, ISONGO, ISSONGO, LISSONGO) [MDN] 60,000 (1996). Mbaiki Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Dialects: BOLEMBA, MBATI OF MBAÏKI, BWAKA, BONZIO. Speakers have high bilingual proficiency in Sango. Survey needed.

MBUM (MBOUM) [MDD] 12,500 in CAR (1996); 38,600 in Cameroon (1982 SIL); 51,000 in all countries. Bocaranga Subprefectue, along the Cameroon border. Not in Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern. EELC grammar, dictionary, primer. NT 1965. Bible portions 1936-1965.

MONZOMBO (MONJOMBO, MONDJEMBO, MONZUMBO) [MOJ] 1,600 in CAR (1996); 5,000 in Zaïre (1986 SIL); 6,000 in Congo (1993 Johnstone); 13,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Mongoumba Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo. Survey needed.

MPIEMO (MPO, MBIMU, BIMU, MBIMOU, MPYEMO, MBYEMO) [MCX] 24,000 in CAR (1996); 5,000 in Cameroon (1991 SIL); 29,000 in all countries. Nola Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: JASOA (JASUA), BIDJUKI (BIDJOUKI), MPYEMO. Speakers have low bilingual proficiency in Sango. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Survey needed.

NGAM (NGAMA) [NMC] 17,700 in CAR (1996); 60,000 in all countries (1993 UBS). Kabo Subprefecture. Also in southern Chad. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper. Different from Ndam of Chad. Work in progress.

NGANDO (DINGANDO, BODZANGA, BANGANDOU, BAGANDOU, NGANDO-KOTA) [NGD] 5,000 or fewer (1996). Mbaiki Subprefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngando (C.10). Dialects: DIKUTA, DIKOTA (KOTA). Close to Yaka. Kota may be a separate language. Not related to Ngando of Zaïre or Bangandu of Congo and Cameroon. Survey needed.

NGBAKA MA'BO (NGBAKA LIMBA, MBAKA, MBACCA, BWAKA, BOUAKA, NBWAKA, GBAKA, MA'BO) [NBM] 88,000 in CAR (1996); 11,000 in Zaïre (1984 census); 150,000 in all countries (1972 Nida). Mbaiki, Bimbo, and Mongoumba subprefectures. Also in Congo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka. Close to Gilima. Speakers in CAR have high bilingual proficiency in Sango. Bible portions 1936-1937. Survey needed.

NGBAKA MANZA [NGG] 29,000 (1996). Damara, Bogangolo, and Boali subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East. May be intelligible with Manza. Speakers use Sango as lingua franca. Survey needed.

NGOMBE (NGOMBE-KAKA, BAGANDO-NGOMBE, BANGANDO-NGOMBE) [NMJ] 1,450 (1996). Mambere Kadeï Prefecture. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi. Different from Ngombe in Zaïre. May not be Baka-Gundi group but Gbaya group and intelligible with Southwest Gbaya. Survey needed.

NZAKARA (ANSAKARA, N'SAKARA, SAKARA, ZAKARA) [NZK] 50,000 in CAR (1996). Bangassou, Bakouma, and Gambo subrefectures. Primarily in Central African Republic. Also in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Survey needed.

PANA (PANI) [PNZ] 82,000 in CAR including 63,000 Pana, 10,000 Pondo, 9,000 Gonge (1996). Bocaranga Subprefecture. Also some in Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Central, Karang. Dialects: PANA, PONDO, GONGE. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1953.

PANDE (IPANDE) [BKJ] 9,700 (1996). Nola and Berberati subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20). Dialects: PANDE (NDJELI, NJELI, LINYELI, LINZELI, NGILI), BOGONGO (BUGONGO, BUKONGO). Sanga-Sanga may be intelligible with Pande or Ukhwejo. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

RUNGA (ROUNGA, RUNGA DE NDELE, AYKI, AYKINDANG) [ROU] 21,500 in Central African Republic (1996); 21,459 in Chad (1993 census); 43,000 in all countries. Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, capital city of Bangui. Nilo-Saharan, Maban, Mabang, Runga-Kibet. Several villages of ethnic Runga near Ndélé speak Arabic as mother tongue: 3,280 (1988 census). Agriculturalists: sorghum; hunter-gatherers; fishermen; traders. Traditional religion, Muslim.

SANGO (SANGHO) [SAJ] 350,000 mother tongue speakers in CAR, including 24,573 Sango Riverain (1988 census); 54,000 in Congo (1993 Johnstone); 4,900,000 in all countries, including second language speakers (1995 UBS), of which over 1,000,000 are in CAR (1989 Holm). Scattered. Also in Zaïre, Chad, Cameroon. Creole, Ngbandi based. A rapidly spreading creole derived from Ngbandi. 51% lexical similarity with French, 49% from African languages. However, the African-based words are used more frequently. Spoken and written for informal use, used for instruction in community schools, in public schools when students do not understand French, radio and TV news, church and mission publications. More men than women speak it as second language. National language. Typology: SVO. Bible 1966. NT 1935-1993. Bible portions 1927-1993.

SANGO RIVERAIN [SNJ] 34,500 (1996). Mobaye Subprefecture, along the Ubangi River. Creole, Ngbandi based. High intelligibility with Sango. Survey needed.

SARA DUNJO (KABA DUNJO, SARA DINJO) [KOJ] 4,000 (1996). Ndélé Subprefecture, close to the Chadian border. 9 villages. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Kaba. May be the same as Kaba Na of Chad. May be intelligible with Sara. Survey needed.

SARA KABA (TA SARA) [SBZ] 13,600 (1996). Ndélé and Birao subprefectures. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Kaba. May be intelligible with Sara Dunjo. Survey needed.

SUMA (SOUMA) [SQM] 50,000 (1996). Bossangoa, Markounda, and Paoua subprefectures. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka. May be intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa. Survey needed.

TO [TOZ] Also in Cameroon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified. Ancient secret male initiation language of the Gbaya practiced in Cameroon and CAR. Second language only. No mother tongue speakers.

UKHWEJO (BENKONJO) [UKH] 1,000 to 2,000 (1996 K. Beavon SIL). Sangha Province, south of Nola. Ukhwejo dialect at Ngulo; Bikaka at Nalimo, Salo, Bayanga, and Gbaso; Piiga at Koola, Ambasila; Kamsili at Bomanzoku, Linjombo. 7 villages on both sides of the Sanga River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80). Dialects: UKHWEJO, BIKAKA, PIIGA, KAMSILI (NGAMSILE). Close to Koozime, Mpiemo, Bomwali, and Makaa. Survey needed.

VALE [VAE] 5,400 Vale (1996), few Tana (1996). Batangafo, Kabo, and Kaga Bandoro subprefectures. Not in Chad. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale. Dialects: VALE, TANA (TANE, TELE). Related to Lutos. Not intelligible with Sara or Ngambai. High bilingualism in Sango. Survey needed.

YAKA (AKA, NYOYAKA, BEKÁ, PYGMÉE DE MONGOUMBA, PYGMÉE DE LA LOBAYE, PYGMÉES DE LA SANGHAS, "BABINGA", "BAMBENGA") [AXK] 15,000 in CAR (1996); 15,000 in Congo (1986 Cavalli-Scorza); 30,000 in all countries (1985 Bahuchet). Nola, Bambio, Mbaïki, Mongoumba subprefectures, all along the Congo border in the forest. The Sangha River is the border with the Baka region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngando (C.10). Dialects: BEKA (GBAYAKA, BAYAKA, MOYAKA), NZARI. "Babinga" is derogatory. The people are 'Bayaka' or'Biaka'. May be different from Congo. Different from Baka, which is Ubangi. Pygmies. Forest. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

YAKOMA [YKY] 100,000 in CAR (1996); 10,000 in Zaïre (1996); 110,000 in all countries. Kembé and Ouango subprefectures. Mainly along the Ubangi River, but also in administrative centers throughout CAR. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi. High intelligibility with Ngbandi and Sango. Speakers use Sango as second language. Survey needed.

YULU (YOULOU) [YUL] 4,000 in CAR (1996); 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL); 7,000 or more in all countries. Ouadda-Djallé and Ouadda subprefectures. Yulu are in Central African Republic and Sudan; Binga are in Sudan and Zaïre. Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Dialects: BINGA, YULU. Many are bilingual in Kresh or Arabic in Sudan. Aja is not a dialect of Yulu, but of Kresh (R. Brown SIL). Survey needed.

ZANDE (AZANDE, ZANDI, PAZANDE, SANDE, BADJANDE) [ZAN] 62,000 in Central African Republic (1996); 350,000 in Sudan; 730,000 in Zaïre; 1,142,000 in all countries. Rafaï, Zémio, and Obo subprefectures. Also in Zaïre and Sudan. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Speakers use Sango as second language. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1978. NT 1938-1952. Bible portions 1918-1952.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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