Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Gambia

983,000 (1995). The Gambia. Republic of The Gambia. Literacy rate 12% to 25%; 8.9% (1977 C. M. Brann). Also includes Bainouk, Balanta, Fuuta Jalon. Information mainly from SIL 1991, Vanderaa 1991. Data accuracy estimate: B. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Blind population 2,700 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Gambia is 20.

BAINOUK (BANYUM, BANYUN, BAGNOUN, BANHUM, BAINUK, BANYUK, BANYUNG, ELOMAY, ELUNAY) [BCZ] (20,700 in Senegal; 1991). North of the Casamance River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Dialects: GUJAAXET, GUNYAMOOLO. Closely related to Kobiana and Kassanga. More closely related to the Tenda languages of eastern Senegal than to the neighboring Diola and Balanta. Distinct from Gunyuño Bainouk of Guinea Bissau. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

BAMBARA (BAMANA, BAMANAKAN, TILIBONKA) [BRA] 4,200 in Gambia (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC), 0.5% of the population (1983 census); 2,700,000 in Mali (1995); 300 in Burkina Faso (1991); 55,000 in Senegal (1991); 5,500 in Côte d'Ivoire (1993); 3,000,000 in all countries. North of the Gambia River. Also in Guinea. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 'Tilibonka' is the Mandinka name. Muslim, traditional religion. Bible 1961-1987. NT 1933, in press (1995). Bible portions 1923-1942.

BAYOT (BAIOTE, BAIOT, BAYOTTE) [BDA] Very few in Gambia (1991); 5,200 in Senegal (1991); 1,500 in Guinea Bissau (1991); 6,700 in all countries. Western Division. No Bayot villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Diola, Bayot. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

CRIOULO, UPPER GUINEA (PORTUGUESE CREOLE, KRIULO) [POV] 467,000 or more in all countries; 55,000 in Senegal (1991); 300,000 in Cape Verde Islands (1989 Holm); 100,000 in Guinea Bissau (1991 UBS); 12,000 in Netherlands. Creole, Portuguese based. Refugees. Bible in press (1996). NT 1989. Bible portions 1979.

ENGLISH [ENG] 470,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

FULFULDE, PULAAR (PEUL, PEULH, FULBE JEERI) [FUC] 214,000 in Gambia (1995); 1,946,000 in Senegal (1995); 180,000 in Guinea Bissau (1991); 24,000 in Guinea (1991); 175,000 in Mali (1995); 150,000 in Mauritania; 2,689,000 in all countries. Also in Nigeria and Burkina Faso. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, Western. Dialects: FULACUNDA (FULAKUNDA, FULKUNDA), TOUCOULEUR (TUKOLOR, TUKULOR, HALPULAAR, HAALPULAAR). An official literacy committee is concerned with Pulaar. Fulbe Jeeri is an ethnic group that speaks Pulaar. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1982-1993. Work in progress.

JAHANKA (JAHANQUE, JAHONQUE, DIAKKANKE, DIAKHANKE, DYAKANKE) [JAD] 24,500 or more in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 12,600 in Guinea (1991); 21,900 in Senegal (1991). Also in Guinea Bissau. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 75% lexical similarity with Mandinka. Muslim. Survey needed.

JOLA-FOGNY (DIOLA-FOGNY, DYOLA, JOLA, YOLA) [DYO] 45,700 to 51,400 in Gambia (1995 SIL); 210,000 in Senegal (1991 SIL); 220,000 to 225,000 in all countries (1991). 57,095 Jola in Gambia, 80% to 90% of whom are Fogny (1995 B. Hopkins). They may not all speak the Fogny. Fogny and Combo districts. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Diola, Diola Proper, Diola-Gusilay, Diola-Fogny. Fogny is the largest and most widely understood dialect. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

KALANKE [CKN] Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 79% lexical similarity with Mandinka. Muslim. Survey needed.

KARON [KRX] 1,000 in Gambia (1991 SIL); 6,500 in Senegal (1991 SIL); 7,500 in all countries. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Diola, Diola Proper, Karon-Mlomp. A distinct language from other Jola varieties.

KASSONKE (KHASONKE, KASONKE, KASSON, KASSO, XASONKE) [KAO] 126,000 or more in all countries (1991 Vanderaa); 120,000 in Mali (1991); 6,000 in Senegal (1991). Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 70% lexical similarity with Mandinka of Gambia and Senegal. Muslim, traditional religion. Work in progress.

KRIO (PATOIS) [KRI] 6,600 Aku in Gambia (1991 Vanderaa), 0.8% of the population (1983 census); 472,600 in Sierra Leone (1993); 480,000 or more in all countries; 4,000,000 second language speakers. Bathhurst. Also in Senegal, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea. Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. Dialect: AKU. Aku is derived from Krio (Todd and Hancock 1986). Christian. NT 1986-1992.

MANDINKA (MANDINGUE, MANDINGO, MANDINQUE, MANDING) [MNK] 350,000 in Gambia (1993 UBS) or 40.4% of the population; 445,500 in Senegal (1991); 119,500 in Guinea Bissau (1993); 914,500 in all countries. Central Gambia. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. Significantly different from Maninka of Guinea and Malinke of Senegal (Church). 79% lexical similarity with Kalanke, 75% with Jahanka, 70% with Kassonke, 59% with Malinke, 53% with Mori, 48% with Bambara. The main language of middle Gambia. About half the speakers are reported to be literate in Mandinka in Arabic script, but not Roman. Some related varieties may be distinct languages. Muslim. NT 1989. Bible portions 1837-1966.

MANDYAK (MANDJAQUE, MANJACA, MANJACO, MANJIAK, KANYOP, MANJACU, MANJACK, NDYAK) [MFV] 14,100 in Gambia (1991 Vanderaa), 1.7% of the population (1983 census); 125,000 in Guinea Bissau (1991); 70,200 in Senegal (1991); 209,300 or more in all countries. Also in France, Cape Verde Islands. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Dialects: BOK (BABOK), SARAR, TEIXEIRA PINTO, TSAAMO, LIKES-UTSIA (BARAA, KALKUS), CUR (CHURO), LUND, YU (PECIXE). Some dialects listed may be separate languages. Closely related to Mankanya and Papel. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1968. Work in progress.

MANKANYA (MANCAGNE, MANCANG, MANCANHA, MANKANHA, MANKAGNE, BOLA, BRAME) [MAN] 1,200 in Gambia (1991 Vanderaa); 30,000 in Guinea Bissau (1991); 19,400 in Senegal (1991). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Traditional religion.

MANSOANKA (MANSOANCA, MASWANKA, SUA, KUNANT, KUNANTE) [MSW] (10,500 in Guinea Bissau; 1991 Vanderaa). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Sua. Not intelligible with Balanta or Mandinka, although called 'Mandinkanized Balanta'. Muslim. Survey needed.

MORI [MRG] Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Northern, Greater Mandekan, Mandekan, Manding. 53% lexical similarity with Mandinka. May be Maninka migrants from Guinea. Muslim. Survey needed.

SERERE-SINE (SERER, SERRER, SEEREER, SERER-SIN, SINE-SALOUM) [SES] 20,800 in Gambia (1991 Vanderaa), 2.5% of the population (1983 census); 848,000 in Senegal (1991); 868,800 in all countries (1991). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer. Dialects: SEGUM, FADYUT-PALMERIN, SINE, DYEGUEME (GYEGEM). Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1987. Bible portions 1979.

SONINKE (MARKA, MARAKA, SARAKOLE, SARAWULE, SERAHULI, SILABE, TOUBAKAI, WAKORE, GADYAGA, ASWANIK) [SNN] 51,137 in Gambia, 8.2% of the population (1983 census); 150,000 in Senegal (1993); 700,000 in Mali (1991); 30,000 in Mauritania; 5,000 in Guinea Bissau (1993); 90,000 in Burkina Faso (1991); 100,000 in Côte d'Ivoire (1991); 1,126,000 or more in all countries. Also in Guinea and possibly in Niger. Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Soninke-Bozo. Dialect: AZER (ADJER, ASER). Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

WOLOF, GAMBIAN [WOF] 121,200 in the ethnic group, including those who speak Senegalese Wolof (1991 Vanderaa), 14.6% of the population (1983 census). Western Division, south bank of the Gambia River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof. Different from Wolof of Senegal. Wolof on the north bank speak Senegal Wolof. Muslim. Bible portions 1882-1967.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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