17,206,000 (1995). Formerly part of USSR. Capital: Alma-Ata. 1,000,000 square miles. Literacy rate 98%. Also includes Armenian 19,000, Avar 959, North Azerbaijani 90,000, Karachay-Balkar 2,714, Bashkir 21,442, Belorussian 183,000, Chuvash 22,871, Dargwa 636, Erzya 34,371, Georgian 7,700, German 958,000, Greek 47,000, Karakalpak, Kirghiz 9,612, Korean 103,000, Kumyk 554, Kurmanji 25,000, Lak 617, Lezgi 2,570, Lithuanian 10,964, Mari 9,089, Nogai 155, Osetin 3,491, Polish 61,445, Pontic, Rumanian 33,000, Russian 6,227,000, Tabassaran 225, Tajiki 26,000, Tatar 328,000, Turkish, Turkmen 3,265, Udmurt 15,786, Ukrainian 898,000, Northern Uzbek 332,000. Data accuracy estimate: B. Information mainly from National Geographic March 1993:22-37. Muslim, Jewish (27,689). The number of languages listed for Kazakhstan is 6.
GERMAN, STANDARD [GER] 1,836,000 in Kazakhstan and Russia excluding Plautdietsch (1979 census), 57% speak it as mother tongue; 98,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Also in Russia (Siberia), Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Poland, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, USA, Romania, Canada, France, other countries. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, High. Christian. Bible 1466-1982. NT 1522-1983. Bible portions 1522-1987.
ILI TURKI (T'URK, TUERKE) [ILI] At least 30 households (1989 R.F. Hahn). Ili Valley near Kuldja, Xinjiang, China. There may be none in Kazakhstan. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Older persons speak Ili Turki. Younger people are intermarrying with neighboring groups; they understand Ili Turki but are adopting Kazakh or Uyghur. The language is linguistically distinct, a link between Chagatai and Kypchak (Uzbek dialect). Their oral history says their ancestors came from the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan and Kyrghyzstan) about 200 years ago. Survey needed.
KAZAKH (KAZAK, KAISAK, KOSACH, QAZAQ) [KAZ] 5,293,400 in Kazakhstan (1979 census), 40% of the population, 98% speak Kazakh as mother tongue; 37,000 in Kyrghyzstan; 636,000 in Russia; 9,606 in Tajikistan; 88,000 in Turkmenistan; 7,555 in Ukraine; 808,000 in Uzbekistan; 1,111,718 in China (1990); 120,000 in Mongolia (1993); 3,000 in Iran (1982); 2,000 in Afghanistan; 600 or more in Turkey (1982); 8,000,000 or more in all countries (1990 IBT). Kazakhstan, northern Soviet Middle Asia and into western Siberia. Also in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Dialects: NORTHEASTERN KAZAKH, SOUTHERN KAZAKH, WESTERN KAZAKH. Cyrillic script. Minor dialect differences. Increasing ethnic pride and feelings of Islamic brotherhood. Increasing education in Kazakh. Many speak Russian as second language. Semi-nomadic. The names 'Eastern Kirghiz' and 'Western Kirghiz' have been erroneously applied to Kazakh. Radio programs. Typology: SOV. Traditionally pastoralists, now agriculturalists, industrialists. Sunni Muslim. Braille code available. NT 1820-1910, out of print. Bible portions 1818-1989. Work in progress.
PLAUTDIETSCH (LOW GERMAN) [GRN] 100,000 in Russia and Kazakhstan (1986); 306,000 in all countries. Various locations including Alma Ata near the China border, beyond Tashkent, and Kazakhstan. Also in Germany, Canada, USA, Mexico, Belize, Paraguay, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Costa Rica. Indo-European, Germanic, West, Continental, Low. 50% speak Russian as second language. Christian. NT 1987. Bible portions 1984-1986.
ROMANI, SINTE (SINTI, TSIGANE, MANUCHE, MANOUCHE) [RMO] 200,000 in all countries (1980 UBS). Kazakhstan (formerly Volga area until 1941). Also in Germany, Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Switzerland, France, Poland, Czech Republic. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Northern. Not intelligible with Vlach Romani. A Gypsy language. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian. Bible portions 1875-1930. Work in progress.
UYGHUR (UIGHUR, UIGUIR, UIGHUIR, UYGUR, NOVOUYGUR) [UIG] 300,000 in Kazakhstan (1993), 86% speak it as mother tongue; 23,942 in Uzbekistan; 3,581 in Tajikistan; 7,214,431 in China (1990 census); 3,000 in Afghanistan; 1,000 in Mongolia; 500 or more in Turkey (1981); a few hundred families of traders in Pakistan; 7,464,000 in all countries. Taranchi dialect in Kazakhstan, Kashgar-Yarkand dialect in Uzbekistan. Also in Kyrghyzstan, Taiwan, possibly Iran. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Dialects: TARANCHI (KULJA), KASHGAR-YARKAND. It has literary status. Cyrillic script. Significant dialect differences. The literary language is close to the Taranchi dialect. There are dialect differences between China and Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, and Uzbekistan. Agriculturalists. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1950. NT 1914-1939. Bible portions 1898-1995. Work in progress.
Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.
If you have questions, comments, or updates on the Ethnologue, go to the Feedback page.
[Asia | Areas | Ethnologue Home | SIL Home]