4,696,000 (1995). Formerly part of USSR. Capital: Bishkek. 76,642 square miles. Literacy rate 99%. Also includes 3,285 Armenian, 17,207 North Azerbaijani, 1,973 Karachay-Balkar, 3,250 Bashkir, 7,676 Belorussian, 2,092 Chuvash, 38,000 Crimean Turkish, 1,419 Dargwa, 5,390 Erzya, 1,002 Georgian, Kalmyk-Oirat, Karakalpak, 37,000 Kazakh, 18,000 Korean, 14,000 Kurmanji, 257 Lak, 1,599 Lezgi, 430 Lithuanian, 1,375 Rumanian, 916,000 Russian, 34,000 Tajiki, 70,000 Tatar, Turkish, 352 Turkmen, 109,000 Ukrainian, 37,000 Uyghur, 550,000 Northern Uzbek. Data accuracy estimate: B. Muslim, Jewish (7,680). The number of languages listed for Kyrghyzstan is 2.
DUNGAN (DZHUNYAN, TUNGAN, HUI-ZU) [DNG] 38,000 in Kyrghyzstan (1993 Johnstone). 49,400 in all countries mother tongue speakers (95%) out of an ethnic population of 52,000 in the former USSR (1979 census), including 22,500 in Kazakhstan, 1,400 in Uzbekistan. The Gansu dialect is mainly in Prschewalsk and Osch, Kyrghyzstan, the Shensi dialect in Kazakhstan, and in Fergana, Uzbekistan. Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Dialects: GANSU, SHENSI, YAGE. A literary language, based on the Gansu dialect. Cyrillic script. Dungan has two tones (Standard Mandarin tones 1 and 2 are merged), but they are not indicated in writing. Also different from Mandarin in phonology and lexicon. The people call themselves 'Hui-Zu', 'Chinese Muslims'. Their second language is Russian. Sunni Muslim.
KIRGHIZ (KARA-KIRGIZ, KIRGIZ) [KDO] 2,448,220 in the former USSR (1993 UBS), 98% of the 2,539,000 Kirghiz speak it as mother tongue; 9,612 in Kazakhstan; 64,000 in Tajikistan; 175,776 in Uzbekistan; 141,549 in China (1990 census); 500 in Afghanistan; 1,137 in Turkey (1982); 2,631,420 in all countries. Also in the mountains of surrounding republics. Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Dialects: NORTHERN KIRGIZ, SOUTHERN KIRGIZ. Has status of literary language. Cyrillic script. Increasing education. Increasing feelings of Islamic brotherhood. The Ichkilik are a Kirghiz-speaking people of non-Kirghiz origin. The names 'Eastern Kirghiz' and 'Western Kirghiz' have been erroneously applied to Kazakh. Newspapers, books, radio programs, TV, theaters, films, schools in Kirghiz. 29% speak Russian as second language. Mountain slope. Sunni Muslim, some Lamaism. NT 1991. Bible portions 1982-1987.
Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.
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