Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Laos

4,583,000 (1995).2,769,000 or 71% speakers of Daic languages, 1,100,000 or 24.1% Austro-Asiatic languages, 175,000 or 4% Miao-Yao languages, 42,500 or 1% Tibeto-Burman languages (1991 J. Matisoff). Lao People's Democratic Republic, Sathanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao. Literacy rate 43% to 45%. Also includes Central Khmer 10,400 (1984), Vietnamese 76,000, Chinese 25,000 (1984 MARC). Information mainly from H. Purnell OMF 1973, Wurm and Hattori 1981. Data accuracy estimate: B, C. Buddhist, traditional religion, secular, Christian, Muslim. Blind population 10,000 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Laos is 92.

AKHA (KAW, EKAW, KO, AKA, IKAW, AK'A, AHKA, KHAKO, KHA KO, KHAO KHA KO, IKOR, AINI, YANI) [AKA] 6,400 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 25,000 in Thailand (1986); 130,000 in China (1990); 200,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS); 360,000 or more in all countries. Extreme northern and northwest Laos. Also in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1968-1987. Bible portions 1939-1991.

ALAK 1 (HRLAK 1) [ALK] 3,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Laos, mainly in Saravane Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Closest to Bahnar, Tampuan, Lamam. Distinct from Alak 2, which is East Katuic.

ALAK 2 (HRLAK 2) [ALQ] Southern Laos, near Ngeq. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang. Close to Ngeq, but a distinct language. Distinct from Alak 1, which is Bahnaric. Survey needed.

AREM [AEM] 1,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. May and Ruc are closely related. Survey needed.

BIT (KHABIT, KHBIT, PHSING, PHSIN) [BGK] 1,530 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 500 in China (1990 J-O Svantesson); 2,000 in all countries. Near the northern border with China, southeast of Nam Tha and south of Boun Neua; 2 areas. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao. Not Khmuic but Palaungic (J-O Svantesson 1990). Related to Khao in Viet Nam. Survey needed.

BO [BGL] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Laos inland from the bend of the Mekong, Nhang River, around Nape and Lak Sao. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Survey needed.

BRAO (BRAOU, BRAU, PROUE, BROU, LOVE, LAVE, LAVEH) [BRB] 18,000 in all countries in Laos and Cambodia (1984); 5,000 in Cambodia (1988 govt. figure); over 90 in USA (1990); 5 in France. Stung Treng and Ratanakiri provinces, Laos-Cambodian border. Also in Viet Nam, Providence, RI; Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Charlotte, N.C.; Dallas, Texas; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Stockton, California; Portland, Oregon; USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Closely related to Krung 2 and Kravet in Cambodia. Work in progress.

BRU, EASTERN (GALLER, BROU, VANKIEU) [BRU] 64,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 50,000 in Viet Nam (1991); 114,000 in all countries. Savannehkhet Province: Tchepone area east of Vietnamese border. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. It is partially intelligible with Western Bru of Thailand. 15% to 25% literate. NT 1981. Bible portions 1868.

CON [CNO] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwestern corner, southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Lametic. Survey needed.

HALANG (KOYONG) [HAL] 2,000 to 4,000 in Laos; 10,000 in Viet Nam; 12,000 in all countries (1973 SIL). Attopeu Province, southern Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Closely related to Jeh. 25% to 50% literate. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1970-1972.

HALANG DOAN (HALANG DUAN, DUAN, DOAN) [HLD] 1,000 in Laos (1962 Lafont); 2,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Attopeu Province, Kasseng Plateau and the left banks of the Se Kamane and Dak Robay Rivers. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan. May be intelligible with Takua, Kayong, Halang Daksut, Rengao. Salang way be an alternate name. Survey needed.

HANI (HANHI, HAW) [HNI] 30,000 in Laos (1994); 500,000 in China, 180,000 in Myanmar (1994); 37,000 in Viet Nam (1993); 747,000 in all countries. Scattered along the Yunnan border. None in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya. An official nationality in China. Polytheist, ancestor worship.

HMONG DAW (WHITE MEO, WHITE MIAO, MEO KAO, WHITE LUM, BAI MIAO) [MWW] 160,000 or more in all countries; 60,000 in China (1987); 25,000 to 30,000 in Thailand (1984 OMF); 70,000 in USA (1987 UBS); 10,000 in France. 250,000 all Hmong in Laos. Also in Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Dialects: HMONG GU MBA (HMONG QUA MBA, STRIPED HMONG), MONG LENG. Also spoken by the Hmong Qua Mba people, no significant dialect difference. Largely intelligible with Hmong Njua. Mong Leng is intelligible with Hmong Daw, but sociolinguistic factors require separate literature. NT 1975-1984. Bible portions 1922-1984.

HMONG NJUA (BLUE MEO, BLUE MIAO, TAK MEO, HMONG NJWA, HMONG LENG, MIAO, MEO) [BLU] 100,000 in Laos (1975 Katzner); 1,000,000 in China (1987); 33,000 in Thailand; 10,000 in Myanmar (1987); 70,000 in USA including Hawaii (1986 UBS); 2,000 possibly in France; 1,500 in French Guiana; 1,149,000 or more in all countries. Also in southwestern Viet Nam, Australia. Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. This dialect is closer to Hmong Daw in Laos than the two varieties in Thailand. NT 1975-1983. Bible portions 1955-1959.

IR (IN, YIR) [IRR] 10,000 together with Ong (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravane Province, east of Saravane. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ta-Oy-Tong. Closest to Ong. Survey needed.

IU MIEN (MIEN, MAN, YAO, MYEN, HIGHLAND YAO) [IUM] 60,000 or fewer in Laos (1995 H. Purnell); 892,000 in all countries. Also in Thailand, China, Viet Nam, Myanmar, France, USA, Taiwan, Canada. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. The language is the same as Thailand and Viet Nam Mien. Not all ethnic Yao speak the language. Almost all refugees in the West have come from Laos, so the number of speakers in Laos may be smaller. Polytheist, ancestor worship. NT 1975-1991. Bible portions 1932-1968.

JEH (DIE, YEH, GIE) [JEH] (10,000 in Viet Nam; 1973). Basin of Poko, Se Kamane and Dak Main rivers in southern Laos. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Dialects: JEH BRI LA, JEH MANG RAM. The language is closely related to Halang. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1967-1978.

JENG (CHENG) [JEG] 5,400 (1981); 20,000 together with Oy, Sapuan, Sok (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North of Attopeu. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Related to Oy, Sapuan, Sok. Survey needed.

KADO (KADU, KATU, ASAK, SAK, GADU, THET) [KDV] (128,500 in Myanmar, 1983; 100,000 in China, 1990). Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Luish. Dialects: KADU, GANAAN (GANAN), ANDRO, SENGMAI, CHAKPA, PHAYENG. Kado and Ganaan may be separate languages. Distinct from Katu, a Mon-Khmer language of Viet Nam and Laos. Bible portions 1939. Survey needed.

KADUO (GAZHUO) [KTP] 5,000 in Laos (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 4,000 to 6,200 in China (1994); 9,000 to 11,200 in all countries. North central on the China border, north of Mong Ou Tay. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Northern, Unclassified. Distinct from Kado and Katu. Related to Sani, Lisu. Survey needed.

KANG [KYP] (34,065 in China; 1993). Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Survey needed.

KANTU (HIGH KATU) [KTT] 50,000 (1991 J. Matisoff); 80,000 together with Katu (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central near Viet Nam border, east of Pa Leng. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Thap. Dialects: KANTU TANGPRIL-TALUY, KANTU PILU'. Closely related to Katu, but distinct. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed.

KASSENG (KOSENG, KASENG, KRASENG) [KGC] 6,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Laos near Viet Nam border, Boloven Plateau area north of Attopeu, and between the Jeh, Alak, Laven, and Tareng peoples. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kaseng. Also classified as West Bahnaric. Survey needed.

KATAANG (KATANG) [KGD] 10,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Laos near the Ta'oih and Bru peoples, around Muong Nong. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kataang. Not intelligible with Ta'oih. 25% to 50% literate. Survey needed.

KATU (ATTOUAT, TEU, KAO, KHAT, THAP, TA RIVER, CAO, KADO, VAN KIEU) [KTV] 30,000 in all countries (1989 SIL); 80,000 together with Kantu (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Upper Se Kong River, high basin of Song Boung River along watershed between Laos and Viet Nam. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Thap. NT 1978. Bible portions 1969.

KHA TONG LUANG (PHI TONG LUANG, YELLOW LEAF) [KHQ] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, on the Viet Nam border, Mu Gia Pass, north of B. Xang. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. May be related to Thavung. Different from Mlabri, a Khmuic group also called 'Yellow Leaf'. Survey needed.

KHLOR (KLOR, LOR) [LLO] 6,000; 10,000 together with Ngeh (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravane Province, south of Ir and Ong. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang. Closest to Ngeq. Survey needed.

KHMU (KMHMU, KHMU', KHAMU, KAMU, KAMMU, KHAMUK, KAMHMU, KHOMU, MOU, POUTENG, PU THENH, TENH, THENG, LAO TERNG) [KJG] 389,694 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 15,000 to 40,000 in Thailand; 500 possibly in France; 1,600 in China (1984); over 2,000 in USA; 42,853 in Viet Nam (1989 F. Proschan); 500,000 in all countries (1996 F. Proschan). Scattered through northern Laos. Also in Myanmar, USA: Santa Ana, Ft. Worth, Oklahoma City. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. Dialects: YUAN, KHROONG (KRONG), LUANG PRABANG, SAYABURY, LYY, ROK, U, HAT. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1918. Work in progress.

KHUA [XHU] 5,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central; northwest of Boualapha. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Related to Bru, Mangkong, Leun. Distinct from Cua. Survey needed.

KHUEN (KWEEN, KHWEEN, KHOUEN) [KHF] (1,000 in China; 1993). Near the Lamet people. Also in USA (Richmond, California and Seattle, Washington). Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. Work in progress.

KIM MUN (MUN, LAN TIN, LOWLAND YAO, MAN LAN-TIEN, LANTEN, JIM MUN) [MJI] 3,600 in Laos, 770 families (1995); 66,000 in China (1993); 200,000 in all countries. Northwestern Laos, Nam Tha District and Province; Huay Sai Province; Nam Moh District, Udom Sai Province; Long District, Luang Nam Tha Province. Also in Viet Nam. Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. A few know Lahu.

KIORR (SAAMTAAV, CON, COL) [XKO] 2,359 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Also in Myanmar. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Survey needed.

KUAN [UAN] Khammouan Province. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Some classification problems, possibly because of migration. Survey needed.

KUY (SUAI, SOAI, SOUEI, SUOI, SUEI, KUOY, KUI, KHAMEN-BORAN, OLD KHMER, CUOI) [KDT] 64,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 234,000 in Thailand (1993); 16,000 in Cambodia (1993); 314,000 in all countries, or 650,000 total (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravane, Sedone provinces. A large group on both sides of the Mekong in southern Laos, Cambodia. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuy-Suei. Dialects: DAMREY, ANLOUR, O, KRAOL, ANTRA, NA NHYANG. 80% monolingual. NT 1978-1992. Bible portions 1965.

LAHU (MUSSUH, MUHSO, MUSSO) [LAH] 2,000 to 2,500 in Laos (1973 Matisoff); 411,476 in China; 125,000 in Myanmar (1993); 28,000 in Thailand (1993); 580,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Nam Tha. Also in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha, Lahu. Dialects: NA (BLACK LAHU, MUSSER DAM, NORTHERN LAHU, LOHEIRN), NYI (RED LAHU, SOUTHERN LAHU, MUSSEH DAENG, LUHISHI, LUHUSHI), SHEHLEH. Black Lahu, Red Lahu, and Shehleh dialects are close. Lahu Shi (Yellow Lahu, Kutsung) is distinct. Bible 1989. NT 1932-1962. Bible portions 1924-1962.

LAMET (LEMET, KHA LAMET, KHAMET, KHAMED, RMEET) [LBN] 14,355 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 100 in Thailand; (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 6 to 10 families in USA (1986 E. Preisig); 14,500 in all countries. Northwestern Laos, in the midst of the Khmu, Namthat area. Also in Thailand and California and Washington D.C. USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Lametic. Dialects: UPPER LAMET, LOWER LAMET. Called 'Lamet' in Laos and 'Khamet' in Thailand. 25% to 50% literate. Work in progress.

LAO (LAOTIAN TAI, LAOTIAN, PHOU LAO, EASTERN THAI, LUM LAO, LAO WIANG, LAO KAO, RONG KONG, TAI LAO, LAO-TAI, LÀO, LAO-LUM, LAO-NOI) [NOL] 3,000,000 in Laos (1991 UBS); 171,577 in USA (1990 census); 17,000 Lao (1993); 3,188,000 in all countries. 4,000,000 in Laos including second language users (1991 WA). Mekong River Valley from Luang Prabang south to the Cambodian border. The Lao Kao went to Thailand and are in Nan, Loei, Saraburi, and elsewhere; the Lao-Khrang are in the Nakhonsawan and Nakhon Pathom area. Also in Cambodia and Canada. May also be in Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Lao-Phutai. Dialects: LUANG PRABANG, VIENTIANE (WIANG JAN), SAVANNAKHET (SUWANNAKHET), PAKSE, LAO-KAO, LAO-KHRANG. 100% monolingual. Dialect continuum with Northeastern Tai of Thailand. 50% to 75% literate. National language. Typology: SOV. Buddhist, traditional religion. Bible 1932, in press (1996). NT 1926-1973. Bible portions 1906-1967.

LAVEN (LOVEN, BOLOVEN, LAWEENJRU, JARU) [LBO] 32,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southwestern Laos, Boloven Plateau, near the Alak. Also in Stockton, California, USA. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven. Different from Brao.

LEUN (LEUNG, LEU, MUONG LEUNG, LUUN, RUUL) [LLE] Saravane Province, Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Survey needed.

(LUE, LU, PAI-I, SHUI-PAI-I) [KHB] 20,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 78,000 in Thailand (1993); 3,000 in Viet Nam (1959); 250,000 to 770,000 in China (1990); 200,000 in Myanmar (1981 SIL); 551,000 to 1,070,000 in all countries. Western Phong Saly, north and west Haut Mekong, Luang Prabang, and along Nam Tha and Nam Beng. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. An official nationality in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhist. NT 1933, out of print. Bible portions 1921-1932. Work in progress.

MAL (KHATIN, T'IN, HTIN, THIN, TIN, T'IN) [MLF] 13,977 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 3,000 to 4,000 in Thailand (1982); 17,000 to 18,000 in all countries. 40,000 in the Mal-Phrai language group including Thailand. Also in northern California, USA (Thin). Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai. Not intelligible with Lua, Phai, or Pray 3. 'Mal' and 'Madl' are self names. 'T'in' is an ethnic name used in Thailand. NT 1994. Bible portions 1983.

MANGKONG (MANG-KOONG, MAKONG, SO MAKON, MANKOONG, MANG CONG) [XMK] 10,000 in all countries (1991). East central; northeast of Kouang to Viet Nam border, and into Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Related to Bru, Khua, Leun. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed.

MAY [MVZ] 1,500 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, east of Phuc Trach, southeast of Arem. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Arem and Ruc are closely related. Survey needed.

MLABRI (MLA, MLA BRI, MABRI, MRABRI, YUMBRI, MA KU, YELLOW LEAF) [MRA] 24 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 300 in all countries (1982 E. R. Long NTM). Laos border area. Also in Thailand. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri. Nomadic. Mlabri are different from Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf), which are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Forest. Work in progress.

NGEQ (NGEH, NGE', KRIANG, NKRIANG) [NGT] 4,000; 10,000 together with Khlor (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Laos, in the Muong Phine-Bung Sai area. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang. 70% monolingual. "Kha Koh" means '(derogatory) mountain people'. 'Nkriang' is their name for themselves. Closest to Khlor. Related to Alak 2. 15% to 25% literate. Work in progress.

NGUÔN [NUO] 2,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West central, south of Bai Dinh. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Closest to Muong. Survey needed.

NUNG (NONG) [NUT] A few in Laos; 100,000 possibly in China; 700,000 in Viet Nam (1992 J.A. Edmondson); 1,500,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Also in USA, Canada, and Australia. Daic, Tai, Central. Different from Chinese Nung (Cantonese in Viet Nam) and Tibeto-Burman Nung. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Bible portions 1971-1975. Work in progress.

NYAHEUN (NHA HEUN, NYAH HEUNY, HOEN, NIA HOEN, HUN, HIN, NIAHON, NYAHÖN) [NEV] 4,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern part of Boloven Plateau near Saravane and Paksong. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun. 15% to 25% literate.

O'DU (O DU, IDUH, 'IDUH, "TAY HAT", HAT, HAAT) [TYH] 194 in Laos (1989 F. Proschan 1996); 200 in Viet Nam (1985 F. Proschan 1996); 400 in both countries. Northern. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu'. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Speakers call themselves 'O Du'.

ONG [OOG] (10,000 together with Ir; 1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravane Province, north of Saravane. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ta-Oy-Tong. Closest to Ir. Survey needed.

OY (HUEI, OI) [OYB] 10,600 (1981); 20,000 together with Sok, Sapuan, Jeng (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South, foot of Boloven Plateau and Pakse. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Dialects: RIYAO, TAMAL EUY, INN TEA, KRANYEU. Related to Jeng, Sapuan, Sok, The. 80% monolingual. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

PACOH (BO RIVER VAN KIEU, POKOH) [PAC] 15,000 in all countries (SIL 1973). Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Pacoh-Phuong. Dialect: PAHI. Related to Phuong. 'Koh' in 'Pacoh' means 'mountain'. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1965-1969.

PAKATAN (MA LENG) [PKT] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, Theun River, around B. Si Nho. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Survey needed.

PHAI (THUNG CHAN PRAY, PHAY, KHA PHAY, PRAY 1, PRAI) [PRT] (31,000 in Thailand; 1993 Johnstone). West of B. Na Sing. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai. Distinct from Lua, Mal, and Pray 3. Work in progress.

PHANA' (PANA', BANA') [PHN] 5,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). One village in north Laos. Larger number near Yunnan border. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Akha. Adults speak some Lahu. Survey needed.

PHON SUNG (PHON SOUNG, AHO) [PHS] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, around and east of B. Song Khone, Theun River, south of Thavung language. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung. Survey needed.

PHU THAI (PUTAI, PHUTAI, PUTHAY) [PHT] 128,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 156,000 in Thailand (1993); 150,000 in Viet Nam (1993); 300,000 in all countries (1990 A. Diller ANU) to 434,000 total (1993 Johnstone). Also in Viet Nam, and Los Angeles, California, USA. Possibly in China. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Lao-Phutai. Various dialects. Close to Tai Dam and Tai Don. Agriculturalists.

PHUAN (LAO PHUAN, PHU UN) [PHU] 96,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone). Also in Thailand. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Closest to Northern Tai, Song, and Tai Dam; close to Lao. The name is also used for Lao speakers in Thailand. Survey needed.

PHUNOI (PHOUNOY, PHU NOI, PUNOI, CÔÔNG) [PHO] 20,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone); 1,300 in Viet Nam (1989 census); 32,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North central, around Phony Saly. Some in Thailand. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern, Phunoi. Dialects: BLACK KHOANY, WHITE KHOANY, MUNG, HWETHOM, KHASKHONG. Bisu, Pyen, and Mpi are closely related. Those listed as dialects may be separate languages. Called 'Phunoi' or 'Phounoy' in Laos, 'Côông' in Viet Nam. "Kha Punoi" is derogatory.

PONG 1 (TAY PONG, TAYPONG, TAI PHONG, KHA PONG, KHA PHONG, PHONG, POONG) [KPN] 18,165 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Northeast, Neun River, east of Sam Thong. Also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Distinct from Pong 2 and Pong 3. Survey needed.

PONG 2 (POONG) [PGO] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast central, on the Viet Nam border, south of the Hung language in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Hung and Tum are closely related. Distinct from Pong 1 and Pong 3. Survey needed.

PONG 3 (KHANIANG, LAO PHONG, PHONG-KNIANG) [PNX] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northeast, Neun River, around Hua Muong. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Related to Puoc and Khang. Different from Pong 1 and Pong 2. Many are educated. Survey needed.

PU KO [PUK] Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Two villages. Survey needed.

PUOC (KHA PUHOC, PUHOC, PUOK, POU HOK, XINH MUL, XIN MUL, SING MUN, KSING MUL, LAO MUH, KHA NIANG) [PUO] 2,164 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan); 10,890 in Viet Nam (1989 F. Proschan); 13,000 in all countries. Northeast, Hua Phan and Xieng Khouang, Het River, along the Viet Nam border. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Related to Khang and Pong 3. Buddhist.

RIEN [RIE] Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Survey needed.

RUC [RUL] 500 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Viet Nam border area, south of May, north of Sach. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Survey needed.

SAEK (SEK, TAI SEK) [SKB] 25,000 in all countries, with more than half in Laos (1990 A. Diller ANU); 11,000 in Thailand (1993 Johnstone). Central Laos near the Viet Nam border. Daic, Tai, Northern. Second language is Lao.

SAPOIN (HAPOOL) [SPH] Saravane Province, Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Distinct from Sapuan. Survey needed.

SAPUAN (SAPOUAN) [SPU] 2,400 (1981); 20,000 together with Oy, Sok, Jeng (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Banks of the Se Kong and Se Kamane, Attopeu Province, southern Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Related to Oy, Sok, Jeng. Distinct from Sapoin. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

SILA [SLT] 19,000 in Laos (1993 Johnstone). North central, north of Muong Hai. Also in Viet Nam. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Burmese-Lolo, Lolo, Southern. An official ethnic community in Viet Nam.

(KAH SO, THRO) [SSS] 102,000 in Laos; 55,000 in Thailand (1993); 157,000 in all countries. Both sides of the Mekong River in Thakhek and Savannakhet Provinces in Laos and Thailand. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Dialects: SO TRONG, SO SLOUY, SO PHONG, CHALI (CHARI, SHARI), KALEU. Because of contact with the Laotian Tai, they speak Tai dialects. Closely related to Bru. Same dialect as Thailand. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

SO TRI (TRI, SO TRII) [SZT] 10,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 5,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Also in Thailand. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, So-Bru. Close to So. 15% to 25% literate. Survey needed.

SOK (SORK, SAWK) [SKK] 1,600 (1981); 20,000 including Oy, Sapuan, Sok (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Attopeu Province, southern Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Related to Oy, Sapuan, Jeng. Survey needed.

SOU (SUQ, SOUK, SU, SU') [SQQ] 1,000 (1962 Lafont). Attopeu Province, southern Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Survey needed.

TAI DAENG (RED THAI, THAI DO, THAI DANG, TAI DENG, DAENG) [TYR] 25,000 in Laos (CMA 1991); 100,000 in Viet Nam (1990); 125,000 in all countries. Northeastern Laos, near the Viet Nam border. Also in USA. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Part of the official Thai ethnic community in Viet Nam. Survey needed.

TAI DAM (BLACK TAI, TAI NOIR, THAI DEN) [BLT] 534,000 or more in all countries; 500,000 in Viet Nam (1990); 10,000 in China (1995); 3,000 in USA; 1,000 to 1,500 in France; 20,000 in Thailand (1991 J. Matisoff). Khammouan Province. Also in China. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Dialect: TAI MUOI (TAI MUEI, TAY MUEAI, MEUAY). They live mixed with White Tai (Tai Kao). The two are not inherently intelligible, but are very closely related. Part of the Dai official nationality in China and the Thai official nationality in Viet Nam. Bible portions 1982-1993. Work in progress.

TAI DÓN (TAI BLANC, THÁI TRÁNG, TAI LAI, TAI KAO, WHITE TAI) [TWH] 400,000 in all countries (1990 A. Diller); 10,000 in China (1995); 190,000 in Viet Nam (1984). Northeastern Laos. Also in USA. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. A large influential group. Not intelligible with Tai Dam. Those who have had prolonged contact with Tai Dam have become bilingual in it. Many have not had that contact. Part of the Thai official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Bible portions 1969.

TAI LOI (LOI, TAILOI, WAKUT, MONGLWE) [TLQ] 1,500 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Doi is in the northwest corner near the Myanmar and Chinese borders. Tai Loi is across the border in Myanmar. Tai Loi may also be in China. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic. Dialects: TAI LOI, DOI. Survey needed.

TAI LONG [THI] Daic, Tai, Unclassified. May be the same as Mao (Tai-Long, Tai-Mao, Maw, Mau) on the Burma-Yunnan border, a variety of Dai in China. Survey needed.

TAI MAEN (TAI-MAEN, TAY MÈNÈ, TAI MENE, TAI MAN) [TMP] Khammouan Province. Daic, Tai, Northern. Survey needed.

TAI NÜA (CHINESE SHAN, TAI NEUA, TAI NUEA) [TDD] 120,000 in Laos (1990 A. Diller); 250,000 in China (1990); 72,400 in Myanmar (1983); 442,400. Northwestern Laos. Also possibly in north Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Northwest. A different dialect than in China. Called 'Dehong Dai' or 'Shan' in China. Bible portions 1931-1948. Survey needed.

TAI PAO [TPO] Khammouan Province. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Classification problems, possibly due to migration. Survey needed.

TAI, NORTHERN (LANNA, LAN NA, LANATAI, LANNATAI, "YUAN", "YOUON", "YOUANNE", MYANG, MUANG) [NOD] 3,000 to 5,000 in Laos (1962 Lafont); 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983); 6,005,000 in all countries. Haut Mekong and Sayaboury provinces, Laos. Daic, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng. Dialect: NAN. Bible 1927, out of print. NT 1914. Bible portions 1867-1968. Work in progress.

TALIENG (TALIANG, TARIANG) [TDF] Muong Phine-Bung Sai area, Savannakhet Province. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Unclassified. Related to Trieng or Hre in Viet Nam; may be the same as Trieng. Apparently different from Tareng, which is East Katuic. 'Tariang' means 'headhunters'. Survey needed.

TA'OIH, LOWER (TONG) [TTO] Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ta-Oy-Tong. Dialects: TONG, HANTONG'. Not intelligible with Upper Ta'oih, although some are bilingual in it. Survey needed.

TA'OIH, UPPER (TA-OY, TA-OI, TAU OI, TA HOI, KANTUA) [TTH] 30,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravane Province, Laos. Also in Stockton, California; Binghamton, NY, USA. Some are also in Viet Nam. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ta-Oy-Tong. Dialects: PASOOM, KAMUAN', PALEE'N, LEEM, HA'AANG (SA'ANG). Not intelligible with Lower Ta'oih until speakers have had at least 2 weeks' contact. Closer to Ngeq than to Kattang. 70% monolingual. Work in progress.

TARENG (TARIANG) [TGR] 5,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Just west of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Tareng. Apparently distinct from Talieng, which is North Bahnaric. Survey needed.

TAY KHANG [TNU] Small. Khammouan Province. Possibly also in Viet Nam. Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Some problem in classification and confusion with Khang of Viet Nam. Survey needed.

THAVUNG [THM] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, Theun River, east and south of Lak Sao. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung. Survey needed.

THE (THAE) [THX] 1,500 (1962 Lafont). Attopeu Province, southern Laos. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. May be intelligible with Oy. Survey needed.

TUM [TMK] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central, Nhang River, northeast of Nape, south of Pong 2. Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Hung and Pong 2 are closely related. Survey needed.

YOY (YOI, YOOI, YOOY) [YOY] (5,000 in Thailand; 1990). Daic, Tai, Unclassified. Second language is Lao. May be the same as Tai Yo of Khamouan Province, a Northern Tai language. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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