Ethnologue: Areas: Asia

Pakistan

141,599,000 (1995). Islamic Republic of Pakistan, Islam-i Jamhuriya-e Pakistan. Literacy rate 26%. Also includes Arabic 122,000, Chinese 6,000. Information mainly from G. Morgenstierne 1970, 1974; R.F. Strand 1973; J.R. Payne 1987; C. Shackle 1979, 1980; J.C. Sharma 1982; J.S. Addleton 1986; C.P. Masica 1991; SIL 1992. Data accuracy estimate: B. Muslim, Hindu, Christian (1981 census). Blind population 1,500,000. Deaf institutions: 31. The number of languages listed for Pakistan is 66.

BADESHI [BDZ] Upper reaches of Bishigram (Chail) Valley, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan. One village. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Unclassified. Existence unconfirmed. Second language is Pashto. The Torwali say they speak Ushojo, and the Ushojo say they speak Torwali. May be a family name of people who came from Badakhshan. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

BAGRI (BAGARI, BAGRIA, BAGRIS, BAORIAS, BAHGRI) [BGQ] 200,000 in Pakistan (1993), including 15,000 Bagri in Sind Province (1980 Grainger); 1,721,000 in India (1994 IMA); 1,921,000 in all countries. Nomadic between Pakistan and India, Punjab, Rajasthan. In the Sind in settlements around larger towns. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Speakers related to Bhil groups and Marwari. Nomadic. Speak some Sindhi and understand some Urdu. 76% lexical similarity with Marwari Bhil of Jodhpur (closest). Distinct from Vaghri. Does not seem close to any other language. Practice begging. Below 5% literate. Survey needed.

BALOCHI, EASTERN (BALUCHI, BALUCI, BALOCI) [BGP] 1,730,000 in Pakistan (1981 census); 5,000 in India (1977); 1,735,000 in all countries. 3,800,000 all Balochi in Pakistan (1981 census); 5,000,000 total Balochi speakers, all varietiess (1995 WA). Northeastern Balochistan Province, northwestern Sind, southwestern Punjab. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Baluchi. One of the major languages in Pakistan. Distinct from Western Balochi of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan; and Southern Balochi of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, United Arab Emirates. Urdu script used. Baluchi is a literary language, with a small body of literature. Radio broadcasts. 5% to 15% literate. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1815-1906.

BALOCHI, SOUTHERN (BALUCHI, BALUCI, BALOCI, MAKRANI) [BCC] 2,350,000 in Pakistan (1996); 130,000 in Oman (1995); 100,000 in United Arab Emirates; 405,000 in Iran; 2,985,300 in all countries. Southern Balochistan, southern Sind, Karachi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Baluchi. Dialects: COASTAL BALOCHI, KECHI, MAKRANI (LOTUNI). Distinct from Eastern Balochi and fairly distinct from Western Balochi. Balochi is a literary language with a small body of literature. Urdu script is used. 5% to 15% literate. Sunni Muslim, and about 700,000 Zigri (Zikri) sect (semi-Muslim). Bible portions 1992-1994. Work in progress.

BALOCHI, WESTERN (BALUCHI, BALOCI, BALUCI) [BGN] 1,000,000 in Pakistan (1996); 451,000 in Iran; 200,000 in Afghanistan; 28,000 in Turkmenistan (1993); 4,842 in Tajikistan; 1,670,000 in all countries. Northwestern Balochistan Province. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Baluchi. Dialects: RAKHSHANI (RAXSHANI), SARAWANI. Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. It is a literary language with a small body of literature. Urdu script is used. 5% to 15% literate. Sunni Muslim. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress.

BALTI (SBALTI, BALTISTANI, BHOTIA OF BALTISTAN) [BFT] 270,000 in Pakistan or 90% of the Baltistan population (1992); 63,640 in India (1994 IMA); 333,640 in all countries. Primarily northeastern Pakistan: Baltistan District, Skardu, Rondu, Shigar, Khapalu, Kharmang, and Gultari valleys. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Bodic, Bodish, Tibetan, Western. 87% to 100% lexical similarity among dialects, 78% to 85% with Purik. Chorbat is the most divergent dialect. Speakers call themselves and their language 'Balti'. Some Shina is used as second language, and Urdu proficiency is reported to be high in some places. Women and uneducated people have little knowledge of Urdu. Many Purik have shifted to Balti. Perso-Arabic script is the accepted one. Literacy in Urdu is 3% to 5%. Shi'ah Muslim. Bible portions 1903-1940. Needs survey.

BHATNERI [BHN] (134,000 in India;; 1993). Northeast Pakistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified. Rajput group. Devanagari script. Considered to be a mixture of Panjabi and Rajasthani. Existence unconfirmed in Pakistan. Muslim. NT 1818-1826, out of print.

BRAHUI (BRAHUIDI, BIRAHUI, BRAHUIGI, KUR GALLI) [BRH] 1,500,000 in Pakistan (1981), 1.2% of the population; 10,000 in Iran (1983); 200,000 in Afghanistan (1980 Dupree); 1,710,000 in all countries. South central, Quetta and Kalat region, east Baluchistan and Sind provinces. Also in Turkmenistan. Dravidian, Northern. Dialects: JHARAWAN, KALAT, SARAWAN. Kalat is the standard dialect, Jharawan is lowland. Literary language with a small body of literature. Nastaliq script is used. Some bilingualism in Western Baluchi. Below 5% literate. Pastoralists. Muslim. Bible portions 1905-1978. Work in progress.

BURUSHASKI (BRUSHASKI, BURUSHAKI, BURUCAKI, BURUSHKI, BURUCASKI, BILTUM, KHAJUNA, KUNJUT) [BSK] 55,000 to 60,000 (1981). Hunza-Nagar area and Yasin area in Gilgit District, Northern Areas. Scattered speakers also in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. Only a few in India. Language Isolate. Dialects: NAGAR (NAGIR), HUNZA, YASIN (WERCHIKWAR). People are called Burusho. Nagar and Hunza dialects have 91% to 94% lexical similarity. Werchikwar has 67% to 72% lexical similarity with Hunza, 66% to 71% with Nagar, and may be a separate language. It is geographically separated from the others. Werchikwar speakers are somewhat bilingual in Khowar. Knowledge of Urdu is limited among women and some others. 20% literate. Typology: SOV. Ismaili Muslim, Shi'a Muslim (Nagar). Needs survey.

CHILISSO (CHILISS, GALOS) [CLH] 1,600 to 3,000 (1992 SIL). All may not be speakers. Scattered families in the Koli, Palas, Jalkot area of the Indus Kohistan, east bank of the Indus River. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. 70% lexical similarity with Indus Kohistani, 65% to 68% with Gowro, 54% with Bateri, 48% to 56% with Shina. 26% with Torwali, 25% with Kalami. Socially integrated with the Kohistani Shina, and most or all speak that as first or second language. Survey needed.

DAMELI (DAMEL, DAMEDI, DAMIA, GUDOJI) [DML] 5,000 (1992 SIL). In the Damel Valley, about 32 miles south of Drosh in southern Chitral District, on the east side of the Kunar River. 11 villages. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar. 44% lexical similarity with Gawar-Bati, Savi, and Phalura, 33% with Kamviiri, 29% with Kati. Dameli is used in the home and for in-group communication. Use is vigorous. Pashto is the second language used, but few women speak it. Only a few men have any ability in Urdu. Two groups: Shintari and Swati, but no significant dialect variation. They are reported to have come from Afghanistan several hundred years ago. The language has been influenced by Nuristani languages. Mountain valleys. Pastoralists. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

DEHWARI (DEGHWARI) [DEH] 10,000 possibly (1987). Central Baluchistan, in Kalat and Mastung. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Influenced by Brahui. Below 5% literate. Survey needed.

DHATKI (DHATI) [MKI] 200,000 (1919 Grierson); 100,000 in Sind (1987). Probably considerably more. Lower Sind in Tharparkar and Sanghar districts. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari. Dialects: EASTERN DHATKI, SOUTHERN DHATKI, CENTRAL DHATKI, BARRAGE. Varies considerably from northern Marwari, although they claim to understand one another. 80% to 83% lexical similarity with Marwari dialects. People also speak some Sindhi and Urdu. Dhatki of Rajasthan and Dhatki of Thar are 88% lexically similar. Below 5% literate. Muslim, Hindu, Christian. Work in progress.

DOMAAKI (DUMAKI, DOMA) [DMK] 500 (1989). Gilgit District, Northern Areas, mainly in Hunza Valley, Mominabad village, a few households in Big Nagar, Shishkat (Gojal), Dumial in Gilgit, Oshkandas (east of Gilgit), and Bakor village in Punyal. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone. 40% lexical similarity with Gilgit Shina. It has loan words from Shina and Burushaski, but is not intelligible to speakers of those languages. Domaaki is used in the home. Bilingualism in Burushaski is fairly high, especially among young people. The people are called 'Bericho' or 'Dom'. Musicians and blacksmiths. Muslim. Survey needed.

ENGLISH [ENG] Mainly second language speakers in Pakistan; 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

FARSI, EASTERN (DARI, TAJIK, MADAGLASHTI, BADAKHSHI) [PRS] 1,000,000 in Pakistan, plus 1,400 in Madaglasht, and many refugees (1992 SIL); 5,600,000 in Afghanistan (1992); 7,000,000 in all countries. Southeast Chitral, Madaglasht village of Shishi Koh Valley, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, other large cities. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Madaglasht community came from Badakhshan, Afghanistan 200 years ago. Other communities have been in Pakistan for many generations. Muslim. NT 1982-1985. Bible portions 1974.

GAWAR-BATI (NARSATI, GOWAR-BATI, NARISATI, GOWARI, ARANDUI, SATRE) [GWT] 1,500 in Pakistan plus refugees (1992); 8,000 or more in Afghanistan; 9,500 to 10,000 in all countries (1992). Southern Chitral, Arandu, and several villages along the Kunar River south of Arandu. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar. A distinct language from its neighbors; 47% lexical similarity with Shumashti, 44% with Dameli, 42% with Savi and Grangali. Still viable in Pakistan; used in the home and for in-group communication. Pashto is the main second language for some speakers. Mountain valleys. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

GOWRO (GABARO, GABAR KHEL) [GWF] 200 or fewer (1990). Indus Kohistan on the eastern bank, Kolai area, Mahrin village. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. 65% to 68% lexical similarity with Chilisso, 62% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Bateri, 40% to 43% with Shina, 25% with Torwali, 24% with Kalami. Different from Gawri, an alternate name for Kalami. Shina is used as second language. Survey needed.

GUJARATI (GUJERATHI, GUJERATI) [GJR] 44,000,000 in all countries. Lower Punjab, Sindh, India. Also Bangladesh. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Some Pakistani dialects are closer to standard Gujarati than others. Pakistani Gujarati is probably a subdialect of Patani (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Bible 1823-1994. NT 1820-1985. Bible portions 1809-1965.

GUJARI (GUJURI, GUJURI RAJASTHANI, GUJER, GOJRI, GOGRI, KASHMIR GUJURI, GOJARI, GUJJARI) [GJU] 300,000 or more in Pakistan (1992) including 2,910 in Chitral (1969), 20,000 in Swat Kohistan (1987), 200,000 to 700,000 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (1989); 538,691 in India (1994 IMA); 2,000 or fewer in Afghanistan (1994); 840,000 or more in all countries. Throughout northern Pakistan, mainly in the east in Hazari District, NWFP, in Kaghan Valley, Azad Jammu, and Kashmir. Scattered communities in southern Chitral, Swat Kohistan, and Dir Kohistan, NWFP, and Gilgit Agency, Northern Areas. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Dialects: WESTERN GUJARI, EASTERN GUJARI. 64% to 94% lexical similarity among dialects. Eastern Gujari appears closer to Northern Hindko or Pahari-Potwari. Western Gujari speakers appear to understand the Eastern dialect better than vice versa. Comparison with India varieties is needed. It is reported that most Gujars in Pakistani Punjab have shifted to Panjabi. Spoken in some pockets of Punhab by immigrants from elsewhere. Some speakers move with herds up in summer, down in winter. Radio broadcasts, some unpublished literature. Pastoralists, dairy, nomadic; some settled agriculturalists. Muslim. Needs survey.

HAZARAGI (HAZARA, HEZAREH, HEZARE'I) [HAZ] 70,000 in Pakistan (1993); 1,756,000 or more in all countries. Some estimates go as high as 6,000,000. Quetta. Also in Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Europe and North America. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. The alternate names listed refer to the people. Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad, Kabul. They speak a language related to Eastern Farsi (Dari). Below 5% literate. Agriculturalists, semi-sedentary pastoralists. Imami Shi'a Muslim. Survey needed.

HINDKO, NORTHERN (HAZARA HINDKO, HINDKI, KAGHANI, KAGANI) [HNO] 1,875,000 (1981 census); both Hindko languages had 305,505 households, 2.4% of the population (1981 census). Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993). Hazara Division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts, Indus and Kaghan valleys and valleys of Indus tributaries, NWFP. Rural and urban. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Lexical similarities within Northern Hindko dialects are 82% to 92%; between Northern and Southern Hindko varieties 67% to 82%. Also related to Panjabi, Siraiki, and Pahari-Potwari; which have all been called 'Greater Panjabi', forming part of 'Lahnda'. Literacy rate probably below 20%. Perso-Arabic script is used. In recent years there have been some publications, mainly poetry. Some radio and television broadcasts. Second languages are Urdu for the educated, with varied proficiency, and Pashto or Panjabi. Bilingual proficiency is generally limited. Plains, low hills. Sunni Muslim. NT 1991. Bible portions 1929.

HINDKO, SOUTHERN [HIN] 625,000 (1981 census). Attock District, Punjab Province, and into the southernmost portion of Hazara Division, NWFP; Kohat and Peshawar districts, NWFP. Rural and urban. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Dialects: PESHAWAR HINDKO (PESHAWARI), ATTOCK HINDKO (ATTOCK-HARIPUR HINDKO), KOHAT HINDKO (KOHATI), RURAL PESHAWAR HINDKO. Investigation of intelligibility of Peshawar dialect with others is needed. Most people have limited bilingual proficiency in Urdu, Pashto, Panjabi, or other languages. Urdu is known by educated speakers. Perso-Arabic script is used. Peshawari has a literary tradition, and is being promoted as standard within NWFP. Radio and television broadcasts. The dialect in Dera Ismail Khan, sometimes called 'Hindko', is apparently closer to Siraiki. Plains, low hills. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

JADGALI (JATGALI, JATKI, JAT) [JAV] A few thousand (1987). Southeast Baluchistan Province, southwest Sind. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. May be intelligible with Sindhi. People called Jats. Distinct from Jakati of Afghanistan, Moldova, Ukraine, and Russian Central Asia. Below 5% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

KALAMI (GARWI, GAWRI, GOWRI, GARWA, GAAWRO, KALAMI KOHISTANI, KOHISTANI, KOHISTANA, BASHKARIK, BASHGHARIK, DIR KOHISTANI, DIRI, DIRWALI) [GWC] 40,000 (1987). Upper Swat Kohistan from between Peshmal and Kalam north to upper valleys above Kalam, also in Dir Kohistan, in Thal, Lamuti (Kinolam), Biar (Jiar), and Rajkot (Patrak) villages. People at Khata Khotan, China, are reported to be related, recognized by their clothing and language. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. Dialects: KALAM, USHU, THAL, LAMUTI (LAMTI), RAJKOTI (PATRAK), DASHWA. Dialect differences do not hinder communication, except that speakers of other dialects have difficulty with Rajkot. 90% to 93% lexical similarity among the main dialects; Rajkoti has 75% with Kalam; Dashwa has 77% with Kalam, and 74% with Rajkoti. Kalam and Ushu speakers indicate some negative attitudes toward each other's speech. The most widely understood indigenous language in northern Swat and Dir Kohistan. Men are fairly bilingual in Pashto; women are more limited. Rajkoti men have high bilingualism in Pashto. Uneducated men and women are limited in Urdu. Dashwa is a clan name of people originally from around Rajkot; little information available. There appear to be few active speakers of Dashwa. About one-third migrate in winter to Mingora, Mardan, Peshawar, or the Punjab in search of work. Speakers of Pashto, Gujari,k Khowar, and other Kohistani languages live among them, but they are generally in the majority. Patrilineal descent groups are: Drekhel, Nilor (Niliyor), Jaflor (Jafalor). The Drekhel are divided into the Kalamkhel, Akarkhel, and Chinorkhel. The Mullakhel are Pashtoons from Lower Swat who now speak Pashto as first language, but speak, understand, and identify with Kalami. Muslim. Survey needed.

KALASHA (KALASHAMON, KALASH) [KLS] 2,900 to 5,700 (1992). Southern Chitral District. The largest village is Balanguru in Rumbur Valley. Southern Kalasha is in Urtsun Valley; Northern Kalasha in Rumbur, Bumboret, and Birir valleys. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral. Dialects: SOUTHERN KALASHA (URTSUN), NORTHERN KALASHA (RUMBUR, BUMBORET, BIRIR). The southern dialect has 75% lexical similarity with the northern dialects, and there seems to be little contact between them. Kalasha is used in the home and for in-group communication in the north. In the south Khowar or Kati are sometimes used in the home and within the group. Related to Khowar, which is the main second language. Proficiency is limited; in Birir some men do not speak Khowar, and most of the women and children are monolingual. There may be an eastern dialect on the east side of the Chitral River south of Drosh. Typology: SOV. Pastoralists: goats, sheep, cattle; agriculturalists: wheat, barley, corn, apples, mulberries, walnuts, grapes. Traditional religion (north), Muslim (south). Needs survey.

KALKOTI [XKA] 4,000 or more (1990). Dir Kohistan, NWFP, in Kalkot village. A little more than half the people in the village are speakers. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. 69% lexical similarity with Kalami. Kalami is used as second language. Kalami do not understand Kalkoti. All men and most women are reported to speak Pashto as second language. Muslim. Survey needed.

KAMVIRI (KAMDESHI, LAMERTIVIRI, SHEKHANI, KAMIK) [QMV] 1,500 to 2,000 in Pakistan plus refugees (1992); 4,000 in Afghanistan (1973 R. Strand); 6,000 in all countries. Southern Chitral District, Langorbat or Lamerot, Badrugal, and the Urtsun Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: KAMVIRI, SHEKHANI. Shekhani may be a separate language. This Shekhani is different from the Kati dialect also called 'Shekhani'. Some bilingualism in Pashto. Mountain valley. Survey needed.

KASHMIRI (KASCHEMIRI, CASHMIRI, CASHMEEREE, KACMIRI, KESHUR) [KSH] 105,000 in Pakistan (1993); 4,381,000 in all countries. Jammu and Kashmir, south of Shina. Also in India and United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri. Institute of Kashmir Studies in Muzaffarabad does some language promotion. Radio broadcasts. Attitude of people toward own language is poor. Transitional dialects to Panjabi. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri. May need different script for Pakistan. Bible 1899, out of print. NT 1821-1884. Bible portions 1921-1954. Survey needed.

KATI (BASHGALI, KATIVIRI, NURISTANI) [BSH] 3,700 to 5,100 Eastern Kativiri in Pakistan, plus refugees (1992); 15,000 in Afghanistan (1994); 20,000 in all countries. Eastern Kativiri is in the Chitral District; in Gobar in the Lutkuh Valley, Kunisht in the Rumbur Valley, Shekhanan Deh in the Bumboret Valley, and in the Urtsun Valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani. Dialects: EASTERN KATIVIRI (SHEKHANI), WESTERN KATIVIRI, MUMVIRI. Eastern Kativiri is often called 'Shekhani' in Pakistan, but is different from the Kamviri which is also called 'Shekhani' in Southern Chitral. Differences between dialects needs investigation. Mumviri may be a separate language. Mountain valleys. Survey needed.

KHETRANI [QKT] A few thousand (1987). Northeast Baluchistan Province. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Related to Siraiki. Influenced by Baluchi. Below 5% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

KHOWAR (KHOWARI, KHOWAR, KHAWAR, CHITRALI, CITRALI, CHITRARI, ARNIYA, PATU, QASHQARI, KASHKARI) [KHW] 222,800 (1992). Chitral; Shandur Pass to Fupis in Ghizr Valley, Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys in Gilgit Agency, Ushu in northern Swat Valley, and large communities in Peshawar and Rawalpindi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral. Dialects: NORTH KHOWAR, SOUTH KHOWAR, EAST KHOWAR, SWAT KHOWAR. 86% to 98% lexical similarity among dialects. The northern dialect is considered to be more 'pure'. The most important language of Chitral. Related to Kalasha, but distinct. Urdu schools; some girls go through fifth grade or higher. Different second languages used in different areas: Pashto in the south, Shina and Burushaski in the Gilgit Agency, Kalami and some Pashto in Swat, Urdu and English among the educated. 'Kho' means 'people', 'war' means 'language'. Radio broadcasts. Monthly journal in Khowar. Literacy rate: 15% to 20% men, 1% women. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Mountain valleys. Sunni and Ismaili Muslim. Survey needed.

KOHISTANI, INDUS (KOHISTANI, KOHISTE~, KHILI, MAIYON, MAIR, MAIYÃ, SHUTHUN) [MVY] 220,000 (1993). Indus Kohistan District on the western bank of the Indus River. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. Dialects: INDUS (MANI, SEO, PATTAN, JIJAL), DUBER-KANDIA (MANZARI, KHILI). A separate language from nearby varieties (Bateri, Chilisso, Gowro, Shina, Torwali, Kalami). Lexical similarity among dialects is 90%. The names 'Mani' and 'Manzari' are not used by speakers for the dialects, but refer to legendary brothers whose descendants settled in the two dialect areas. 70% lexical similarity with Chilisso, 61% with Gowro, 58% with Bateri, 49% with Shina, 28% with Kalami and Torwali. Needs survey.

KOLI, KACHI (KUCHIKOLI, KACHCHI, KATCHI, KACHI, KOHLI, KHOLI, KOLHI, KORI, VAGHRI, VAGARI, WAGARIA) [GJK] 80,000 to 100,000 (1995). Lower Sind in an area bordered by Sukrand and Nawabshah in the north, Matli in the south, and east beyond Mirpur Khas and Jamesabad. Concentrated in an area around the towns of Tando Allahyar and Tando Adam. There may be an equal number in India. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Dialects: KACHI, NIARDIAY, BAJANIA, KAVAH, RAVARIA, KARIA (LOHAR), RAHABARI. 78% lexical similarity with Gujarati, 76% with Tharadari Koli. Intermediate between Sindhi and Gujarati; it is becoming more like Sindhi. Below 1% literate. Arabic. Sharecropper agriculturalists. Hindu, Christian. Bible portions 1834-1995. Work in progress.

KOLI, PARKARI (PARKARI) [KVX] 150,000 to 250,000 (1995). Tharparkar District, especially the town of Nagar Parkar in the southeastern tip of Sind bordering India. It covers most of the lower Thar desert and west as far as the Indus River, bordered in the north and west by Hyderabad, and down to the south and west of Badin. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. 77% to 83% lexical similarity with Marwari Bhil; 83% with Tharadari Koli. Below 5% literate. Arabic. Agriculturalists: sharecroppers in irrigated area, subsistence and stockbreeders in desert (east). Hindu, Christian. NT in press (1996).

KOLI, THARADARI (THARADARI) [KXQ] 30,000 (1980 Grainger). Lower Thar desert and west as far as Mirpur Khas. Originally from Tharad, Gujarat, India. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. 76% lexical similarity with Kachi Koli. Intelligibility testing needed with Kachi Koli and Wadiyara Koli. Below 5% literate. Survey needed.

KOLI, WADIYARA (WADARIA) [KXP] 75,000 (1980 Grainger). Sind in an area bounded by Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Mirpur Khas in the north, and Matli and Jamesabad in the south. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Dialects: MEWASI (MAYVASI), WADIYARA. 78% lexical similarity with Kachi Koli. Mewasi and Wadiyara are almost the same linguistically, and are coming together as a caste. Intelligibility testing needed with Kachi Koli and Tharadari Koli. Below 5% literate. Survey needed.

LASI (LASSI) [LSS] A few thousand (1987). Southeast Baluchistan Province, Las Bela District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. May be intelligible with Sindhi. Influenced by Baluchi. Below 5% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

MAJHI [MJH] (15,000 in India; 1994 IMA). Lahore District. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Panjabi. Grierson says this is the purest form of Panjabi. Distinct from Majhi in Bihar, India, and Nepal. Survey needed.

MARWARI, NORTHERN (MERWARI, RAJASTHANI, MEGHWAR, JAISELMER, MARAWAR, MARWARI BHIL) [MRI] 50,000 (1992). South Punjab north of Dadu and Nawabshah. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Sindhi. Educated speakers are trilingual in Urdu. The literary language of Rajasthan is Hindi; Marwari is not usually written, but there are newspapers. 79% to 83% lexical similarity with Dhatki, 87% with Southern Marwari. Some grammatical differences with Southern Marwari. The name 'Rajasthani' is a linguistic cover term for a group of languages. Speakers tend to be urban and educated. Northern Bhil tribes: Marwari-Thori, Gulguli, Shikari, Jogi, Sochi. 2% literate in Sindhi or Urdu. Hindu, Muslim. Bible portions 1969-1991. Work in progress.

MARWARI, SOUTHERN (MERWARI, RAJASTHANI, MEGHWAR, JAISELMER, MARAWAR, MARWARI BHIL) [MQH] 50,000 (1992). Sindh and southern Punjab provinces, between Tando Mohammed Khan and Tando Ghulam Ali to the south, Dadu and Nawabshah to the north. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari. People are moderately bilingual in Sindhi; some are trilingual in Urdu. The literary language of Rajasthan is Hindi; Marwari is not usually written, but there are newspapers. 79% to 83% lexical similarity with Dhatki, 87% with Northern Marwari. The name Rajasthani is a linguistic cover term for a group of languages. Some grammatical differences with Northern Marwari. Below 5% literate. Agriculturalists: sharecroppers. Hindu, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions. Work in progress.

OD (OAD, ODKI) [ODK] 30,000 to 50,000 (1986 J.A. Tebbe). Widely scattered in the Sindh and a few in southern Punjab. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Resembles Marathi with Gujarathi features and borrowings from Marwari and Panjabi. 80% are bilingual in Sindhi; 10% are trilingual in Urdu, Sindhi, and Odki. 86% to 88% lexical similarity among dialects in Dadu, Shikarpur, and Pithoro. 70% to 78% lexical similarity with Marwari, Dhatki, and Bagri. Brickmakers, builders.

ORMURI (URMURI, ORMUR, ORMUI, BARGISTA, BARAKS, BARAKI) [ORU] 3,000 or more in Pakistan (1992); 50 speakers in Afghanistan; 3,050 or more in all countries. Kaniguram, a pocket in Mahsud Pashto area northwest of Dera Ismail Khan, Wazirstan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi. Dialects: KANIGURAMI, LOGAR. The Kanigurami retain the language. 27% lexical similarity with Waneci, 25% to 33% with Pashto dialects. Survey needed.

PAHARI-POTWARI (POTWARI, POTHOHARI, POTOHARI, CHIBHALI, DHUNDI-KAIRALI) [PHR] Murree Hills north of Rawalpindi, and east to Azad Kashmir. To the north in the lower half of the Neelum Valley. Poonchi is east of Rawalakot. Potwari is in the plains around Rawalpindi. Punchhi and Chibhali are reported to be in Jammu and Kashmir. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Western Pahari. Dialects: PAHARI (DHUNDI-KAIRALI), POTHWARI (POTWARI), CHIBHALI, PUNCHHI (POONCHI). Pahari means 'hill language' referring to a string of divergent dialects, some of which may be separate languages. 76% to 83% lexical similarity among varieties called 'Pahari', 'Potwari', and some called 'Hindko'in Mansehra, Muzzaffarabad, and Jammun. A dialect chain with Panjabi and Hindko. Closeness to western Pahari is unknown. Muslim. Survey needed.

PAKISTAN SIGN LANGUAGE [PKS] Deaf sign language. Dictionary. Survey needed.

PANJABI, WESTERN (WESTERN PUNJABI, LAHNDA, LAHANDA, LAHNDI) [PNB] 30,000,000 to 45,000,000 in Pakistan (1981 census); 52,000 in India (1991 IMA). Mainly in the Punjab area of Pakistan. Also in Great Britain, United Arab Emirates and other Gulf countries, other European countries, Africa, Canada, USA. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Panjabi is a major language. There is a continuum of varieties between Eastern and Western Panjabi, and with Western Hindi and Urdu. 'Lahnda' is a name given earlier for Western Panjabi; an attempt to cover the dialect continuum between Hindko, Pahari-Potwari, and Western Panjabi in the north and Sindhi in the south. Several dozen dialects. Perso-Arabic script is used, but not often written in Pakistan. Movies, radio, and television broadcasts in Panjabi. The Balmiki (Valmiki) sweeper caste in Attock District speak a dialect of Panjabi. Mainly Muslim; Christian. NT 1819-1952. Bible portions 1885-1922.

PASHTO, CENTRAL (MAHSUDI) [PST] Wazirstan, Bannu, Karak. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Dialects: WACIRI (WAZIRI), BANNUCHI (BANNOCHI, BANNU). Lexical comparison and interviews indicate this is distinct from Eastern and Southern Pashto. Grammar, dictionary. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

PASHTO, EASTERN (PAKHTO, PUSTO, PASHTU, PASSTOO, PUSHTO, NINGRAHARIAN PASHTO, NORTHEASTERN PASHTO, NORTHERN PASHTO) [PBU] 9,585,000 in Pakistan or 8.47% of population (1993 estimate); 100,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986); 14,161 in India (1994 IMA). All Pashto in Pakistan are 13.2% of the population (1981 census). Along Afghanistan border, NWFP. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Dialects: KOHAT (KHATAK), YUSUFZAI (PESHAWAR), AFRIDI, SHINWARI, MOHMAND, SHILMANI. Distinct from Western Pashto, Central Pashto, and Southern Pashto. Modified Perso-Arabic script in use. Yusufzai is the literary dialect, used in schools and media in NWFP and adjacent tribal territories. Rich literary tradition. The Powinda are a nomadic Pashto-speaking group. Used for radio, TV, newspaper, movies. Low literacy rate. Dictionaries. Sunni Muslim, some Shi'a. Bible 1895. NT 1818-1991. Bible portions 1824-1989.

PASHTO, SOUTHERN [PBQ] 1,000,000 to 1,500,000 in Pakistan (1992); many in Afhanistan. Baluchistan in Pakistan and Qandahar in Afghanistan. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Dialects: SOUTHWEST PASHTO (QANDAHAR PASHTO), SOUTHEAST PASHTO (QUETTA PASHTO). Distinct from Eastern and Central Pashto, but with some intelligibility with Southern and Eastern Pashto. More differences than merely the 'hard' versus 'soft' sound shifts. Perso-Arabic script. Grammar. Muslim. Work in progress.

PHALURA (PALULA, PALOLA, PHALULO, DANGARIK, BIYORI) [PHL] 8,600 (1990). 7 villages on the east side of the lower Chitral Valley, possibly 1 village in Dir Kohistan; Purigal, Ghos, the Biori Valley, Kalkatak, and Ashret. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. Dialects: ASHRETI, NORTHERN PHALURA. Ashreti has 92% lexical similarity with Northern Phalura. 56% to 58% lexical similarity with Savi in Afghanistan, 38% to 42% with Shina. Speakers are called 'Phalulo'. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

SANSI [SSI] Northwestern Sind. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Bhils by caste. Second language is Sindhi, followed by Urdu and Panjabi. 71% lexical similarity with Urdu (closest). Below 5% literate. They practice begging. Survey needed.

SARAIKI (RIASITI, BAHAWALPURI, MULTANI, SOUTHERN PANJABI, SIRAIKI) [SKR] 15,000,000 in Pakistan (1976 Shackle), 9.8% of the population; 15,692 in India (1971 census); 15,020,000 in all countries. Southern Punjab and northern Sind, Indus River Valley, Jampur area. Derawali is in Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Bannu, and Dera Ghazi Khan. Jangli is in Sahiwal area. Also in United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda. Dialects: DERAWALI, MULTANI (KHATKI), BAHAWALPURI (RIASATI, REASATI), JANGLI, JATKI. 85% lexical similarity with Sindhi; 68% with Dhatki, Odki, and Sansi. Dialects blend into each other, into Panjabi to the east, and Sindhi to the south. Until recently it was considered to be a dialect of Panjabi. Literary movement centered in Multan and Bahawalpur. There are Saraiki literary societies. 5% to 15% literate. Grammars. Dictionaries. Muslim, Hindu. NT 1819, out of print. Bible portions 1898. Work in progress.

SHINA (SINA, SHINAKI) [SCL] 300,000 in Pakistan (1981 census); 20,416 in India (1994); 320,000 in all countries. Northern Areas including Gilgit District, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley; Diamer District, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley; scattered areas of Baltistan District, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; NWFP, east part of Kohistan District, Sazin, Harban. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. Dialects: GILGITI (GILGIT, PUNIAL, HUNZA-NAGAR, BAGROTE, HARAMOSH, RONDU, BUNJI), ASTORI (ASTOR, GUREZI, DRAS, SATPARA, KHARMANGI), CHILASI KOHISTANI (CHILAS, DAREL, TANGIR, SAZIN, HARBAN). 79% to 99% lexical similarity within the Gilgiti (Northern) dialect cluster, 81T to 96% among the Astori (Eastern) cluster, 84% to 98% among the Chilas (Diamer) cluster. Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. 'Brocpa' is the name used for Shina speakers in Baltistan and Ladakh. 'Brokskat' refers to their language. 'Brokskat' is used semi-officially in India to refer to a highly divergent variety of Shina spoken by Buddhists. Below 20% literacy rate. Muslim, some Shi'a, some Sunni. Bible portions 1929. Survey needed.

SHINA, KOHISTANI (PALASI-KOHISTANI, KOHISTANI, KOHISTYO) [PLK] 200,000 (1981 census). East bank of the Indus in Kohistan District, NWFP, in the Jalkot, Palas, and Kolai valleys and surrounding areas. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. Dialects: PALASI, JALKOTI, KOLAI. A somewhat divergent variety of Shina linguistically and socially. Closer to Shina of Chilas, but more distinct from that of Gilgit. Mainly Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

SINDHI [SND] 16,992,000 in Pakistan (1993 Johnstone), including 1,200,000 Hindu Sindhi (1986); 2,678,000 in India; 5,000 in Singapore (1993); 19,675,000 in all countries. Sindh. Also in Afghanistan, possibly United Arab Emirates. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Dialects: KACHCHI, LARI, LASI, THARELI, VICHOLO (VICHOLI, VICCHOLI, CENTRAL SINDHI), MACHARIA, DUKSLINU (HINDU SINDHI), SINDHI MUSALMANI (MUSLIM SINDHI). Official regional language. The generally accepted literary Sindhi is based on Vicholi. Rich literary tradition. Some southern Bhil groups speak dialects of Sindhi. Arabic and Gurumukhi scripts used. Dictionaries. Muslim, Christian. Bible 1954. NT 1890-1992. Bible portions 1825-1971.

SINDHI BHIL [SBN] Sind. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Intelligibility with Sindhi needs investigation. Survey needed.

TORWALI (TURVALI) [TRW] 60,000 (1987). Swat Kohistan, on both sides of Swat River from just beyond Madyan north to Asrit (between Mankjal and Peshmal), and in Chail Valley east of Madyan, Bahrain and Chail are centers. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani. Dialects: BAHRAIN, CHAIL. 44% lexical similarity with Kalkoti and Kalami, 89% between Behrain and Chail. Men are fairly bilingual in Pashto, more limited in Urdu. Women are limited in use of Pashto, and know almost no Urdu. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

TURKMEN [TCK] Several thousand refugees in Pakistan (1985); 5,397,500 in all countries. Several refugee camps and in cities. Also in Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, USA, Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Carpet weavers and merchants, textiles, leather business. Sunni Muslim. NT 1994. Bible portions 1880-1994.

URDU [URD] 10,719,000 mother tongue speakers in Pakistan (1993), 7.57% of the population; 45,773,000 in India (1994 IMA); 600,000 in Bangladesh (1993); 18,500 in Bahrain (1979 WA); 17,800 in Oman (1980 WA); 15,400 in Qatar; 382,000 in Saudi Arabia; 3,562 in Fiji (1980 WA); 23,000 in Germany; 14,000 in Norway; 56,584,000 or more in all countries. Also in Afghanistan, South Africa, Mauritius, United Arab Emirates, Thailand, United Kingdom. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani. The second or third language of most Pakistanis for whom it is not the mother tongue. Arabic script in Nastaliq style with several extra characters is used. Intelligible with Hindi, but has formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. The Valmiki (Balmiki) sweeper caste speaks standard Urdu or Hindi and do not have their own language. Valmiki in Attock District are reported to speak a dialect of Panjabi. National language. Muslim. Braille Bible. Bible 1843-1958. NT 1758-1993. Bible portions 1747-1894.

USHOJO (USHUJI) [USH] 2,000 (1992). Upper reaches of Bishigram (Chail) Valley, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan. 12 villages. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina. Not known by linguists until 1989. Reportedly came from Kolai, Indus Kohistan several hundred years ago. 50% lexical similarity with Kolai Shina, 48% with Palas Shina, 42% with Gilgiti Shina, 35% with Chail Torwali, 31% with Biori Phalura, 27% with Bateri, 23% with Kalami, 22% with Kalkoti. It is reported that children are learning Ushojo in the home, but Pashto seems to be influencing some adult speech. Pashto appears to be the main second language used. Education in Urdu is limited. Typology: SOV. Mountain valleys. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

UYGHUR (UIGHUR, UYGUR, UIGUR, UIGHUIR, UIGUIR) [UIG] A few hundred families in Pakistan; 7,464,000 or more in all countries. Gilgit. Also in China, Kazakhstan, Kyrghyzstan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Mongolia, Turkey, Taiwan. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Traders. Sunni Muslim. Bible 1950. NT 1914-1939. Bible portions 1898-1995. Work in progress.

UZBEK, SOUTHERN [UZS] 50,000 in Pakistan (1993); 1,981 in Turkey (1982); 1,403,000 in Afghanistan (1989 WA); 1,455,000 in all countries. Also possibly in Germany. Altaic, Turkic, Eastern. Refugees from Afghanistan. Distinct from Northern Uzbek of Uzbekistan and China. Sunni Muslim. Survey needed.

VAGHRI (VAGHRI KOLI) [VGR] 2,000 or more; at least 500 families (1980 Grainger). Sind. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Speak some Sindhi, Urdu, and Gujarati. 78% lexical similarity with Wadiyari Koli. Distinct from Vaghri Koli. Below 5%. Masons, fruit vendors. Survey needed.

WAKHI (WAKHANI, WAKHIGI, VAKHAN, KHIK) [WBL] 9,100 in Pakistan including 4,500 to 6,000 Gojal, 2,000 Ishkoman, 200 Yasin, 900 Yarkhun (1992), plus refugees; 7,000 in Afghanistan (1979); 7,000 in Tajikistan (1993); 6,000 in China; 29,000 in all countries. Northeasternmost part of Chitral, called Baroghil area; in glacier neighborhood. Gojal is in the upper Hunza valley from Gulmit to the Chinese and Afghanistan borders, and the Shimshal and Chupursan valleys; also in upper Yarkhun valley of Chitral, and upper Ishkoman valley. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Dialects: GOJAL, ISHKOMAN, YASIN, YARKHUN. Ishkoman and Gojal have 84% lexical similarity, Yasin and Gojal 89%, Ishkoman and Yasin 91%. Dialect intelligibility is reported to not be a problem even with those in other countries. Speakers have a positive language attitude toward Wakhi and Urdu, in which men and young people are fairly bilingual. Fewer than half the women, and few older people in remote areas speak Urdu. Older people and those who live in mixed villages in Gojal can use Burushaski. The people are called 'Guhjali' in upper Hunza, but call themselves 'Khik'. Valleys. Pastoralists: sheep, goats, cattle, yak, camels; agriculturalists: barley. Ismaili Muslim. Needs survey.

WANECI (WANECHI, WANETSI, VANECHI, TARINO, CHALGARI) [WNE] 90,000 (1992). Northeastern Baluchistan Province, Harnai area. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. 71% to 75% lexical similarity with Southern Pashto, 63% to 72% with other Pashto varieties, 27% with Ormuri. Below 5% literate. Muslim. Survey needed.

YIDGHA (YUDGHA, YUDGA, YIDGA, LUTKUHWAR) [YDG] 5,000 to 6,000 (1991). Upper Lutkuh Valley of Chitral, west of Garam Chishma. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. No significant dialect variation within Yidgha. Lexical similarity with Munji in Afghanistan is estimated at 56% to 80%. There is not much contact with Munji. Yidgha is used in many homes and for much in-group communication, and speakers have positive attitudes toward it. Khowar is the main second language used, although with much Yidgha language influence, and proficiency among women is limited. Mountain valleys. Altitude: 7600 to 7900 feet. Ismaili Muslim. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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