Ethnologue: Areas: Pacific

Papua New Guinea

4,553,000 (1995); 78% Papuan, 20% Melanesian. Literacy rate 32% to 43%. 600 islands. Also includes Chinese 10,000, Filipino, people from India. Information mainly from J. Brownie SIL 1996, Wurm and Hattori 1981, M. Ross 1988. Data accuracy estimate: A2. Literacy rate 32%. Christian, traditional religion, cargo cult, Baha'i. Blind population 12,500. The number of languages listed for Papua New Guinea is 826. Of those, 817 are living languages and 9 are extinct.

ABAGA [ABG] 5 (1994 SIL). Ethnic group: 1,200 (1975 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Abaga. People are bilingual in Kamano and Benabena, with few speakers left. Nearly extinct.

ABASAKUR [ABW] 761 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Omosan. Related language: Koguman. Survey needed.

ABAU (GREEN RIVER) [AAU] 4,545 (1981 Wurm and Hattori) in 28 villages. Sandaun Province, Green River District, Sepik and Green rivers. Not in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Abau. Grammar. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

ABU (ADJORA, ADJORIA, AZAO) [ADO] 2,400 (1986 PBT). Madang Province, East Sepik Province, Ramu River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper. Bible portions 1969.

ADZERA (AZERA, ATZERA, ACIRA) [AZR] 20,675 (1988 Holzknecht), including 367 Ngariawan (1978 McElhanon); 497 Sarasira (1988 Holzknecht); 990 Sukurum (1990). Morobe Province, Markham Valley, Kaiapit District, Leron River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Adzera. Dialects: YARUS, AMARI, AZERA, NGAROWAPUM, TSUMANGGORUN, GURUF-NGARIAWANG (NGARIAWAN), SARASIRA (SIRASIRA), SUKURUM. The dialects form a chain. Grammar. NT 1976. Bible portions 1968.

AEKYOM (AWIN, AIWIN, AKIUM, WEST AWIN) [AWI] 8,000 (1987 UBS). Western Province, Kiunga area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare. Dialects: NORTH AWIN, SOUTH AWIN, EAST AWIN. NT 1987. Bible portions 1958-1964.

AGALA (SINALE) [AGL] 350 (1986 SIL). Western Province, Upper Strickland River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland. Bogala language speakers have moved into Agala territory, dividing the Agala into 2 geographical areas. Closest to Kalamo and Konai. Survey needed.

AGARABI (AGARABE) [AGD] 16,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Close to Gadsup. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,640 meters. Bible portions 1970. Work in progress.

AGI [AIF] 700 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Survey needed.

AGOB (DABU) [KIT] 3,500 (1990 SIL). Western Province, along the Pahoturi River and southern coast. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Pahoturi. Dialects: AGOB, ENDE, KAWAM. One end of a dialect chain stretching to Idi. Ende and Kawam are closest to Agob. Distinct from, but related to Idi (Tame) and Waia. 3 government schools. Typology: SOV. Savannah, lowland forest, palm swamp. Riverine, Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, hunters. Altitude: 0 to 5 meters.

AIKLEP (MOEWEHAFEN, EKLEP, AGERLEP, LOKO) [MWG] 3,697 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, A Viklo Island near Kandrian. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Dialect chain with Gimi and Apalik. Survey needed.

AIKU (MINENDON, MENANDON, MALEK) [MZF] 750 to 900 (1990 SIL). Sandaun Province, Maimai Namblo Division, Wemil village, and more in West Palei Division. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Survey needed.

AIMELE (KWARE) [AIL] 500 (1981 Shaw). Southwest corner of Southern Highlands Province around Mt. Bosavi; Western Province around Lake Campbell. Most have moved to Wawoi Falls area of Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Survey needed.

AINBAI [AIC] 110 to 250 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, south of Bewani station. 2 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani. 30% lexical similarity with Manem, 25% with Pagi. Survey needed.

AIOME (AYOM) [AKI] 751 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 70 miles west of Madang city, scattered houses. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Aian. Mountain slope, valleys. Agriculturalists: sweet potato, pigs, sugarcane, bananas. Altitude: 50 to 100 meters. Traditional religion.

AION [AEW] 857 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper. Survey needed.

AK [AKQ] 83 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River. Closest to Namia and Awun. Survey needed.

AKOLET [AKT] 954 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast, including Pililo, Kambun, and Sauren. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Dialect chain. 3 primary schools, provincial high school, vocational school. Tropical forest. Raised coral coast. Survey needed.

AKRUKAY [AFI] 191 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Survey needed.

ALAMBLAK (ALAMBUK) [AMP] 1,500 (1987 SIL). 9 villages (900 speakers) on Middle Karawari and Wagupmeri rivers. Another dialect has 4 villages (400 speakers) near Kuvanmas Lake. East Sepik Province, Angoram District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak. Dialects: KUVENMAS, KARAWARI. Karawari is distinct from Karawari in the Pondo branch. Grammar. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1974-1987. Work in progress.

ALATIL (ARU, ERU) [ALX] 125 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Survey needed.

ALEKANO (GAHUKU, GAFUKU) [GAH] 16,103 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Goroka District, Eastern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena. Grammar. NT 1973-1986. Bible portions 1963-1968.

AMA (SAWIYANU) [AMM] 475 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Waniap Creek, south of the Sepik River, south of Namia. Villages: Ama (Wopolu I, Wopolu II (Nokonufa), Kauvia (Kawiya), Yonuwai; all on hills rising from the swamp. Left May. Dialects have converged into one. Semi-nomadic. Typology: SOV. Hunter-gatherers; sago. Altitude: 100 to 200 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1990. Bible portions 1981-1991.

AMAIMON [ALI] 366 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Amaimon. Survey needed.

AMAL (ALAI) [AAD] 388 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, on Wagana River, near the confluence with Wanibe Creek. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam. Survey needed.

AMANAB [AMN] 4,000 (1982 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Not in Irian Jaya. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 600 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

AMARA (LONGA, BIBLING) [AIE] 1,165 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest interior. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Amara. Related to Mouk-Aria and Lamogai. Speakers use Bariai as second language. Dictionary. Survey needed.

AMBULAS (ABULAS, ABELAM) [ABT] 44,000 (1991 SIL), including 27,000 in Wosera (1991 SIL); 9,000 in Maprik (1991 SIL); 8,000 in Wingei (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Dialects: MAPRIK, WINGEI, WOSERA-KAMU, WOSERA-MAMU. Typology: OSV. Tropical forest. Riverine, narrow valleys. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 250 to 500 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1983. Bible portions 1989-1992.

AMELE (AMALE) [AMI] 5,300 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, in the hills up from Astrolabe Bay, between the Gum and Gogol rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Dialects: HUAR, JAGAHALA, HAIJA. Related languages: Gumalu, Sihan, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Grammar. Typology: SOV. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1952-1989.

AMPEELI-WOJOKESO (AMPALE, AMPELE, AMBARI, SAFEYOKA) [APZ] 2,388 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Kaiapit, Lae-Wamba, and Menyamya districts. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Dialects: AIEWOMBA, WAJAKES (WOJOKESO). The second languages used are Tok Pisin and Yabem. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 1,500 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1989. Bible portions 1971-1977.

AMTO (KI) [AMT] 230 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, south of the Upper Sepik River, toward the headwaters of the Left May River on the Samaia River. Villages: Amto, Habiyon (Sernion). Amto-Musan. Dialects: AMTO, SIAWI. Acculturating rapidly. Survey needed.

ANAM (PONDOMA) [PDA] 684 (1990 census). Madang Province, villages around Josephstaal. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan. Different villages are shifting to Anamgura, Mum, or Tok Pisin. Mountain slope, riverine. Swidden agriculturalists, sago. Survey needed.

ANAMGURA (IKUNDUN, MINDIVI) [IMI] 1,253 (1990 census). Madang Province, northwest of Josephstaal. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan.

ANDARUM [AOD] 1,084 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan. Related to Igom. Survey needed.

ANDRA-HUS (AHUS, HA'US) [ANX] 810 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Andra and Hus islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Kurti. Close to Ponam. Survey needed.

ANEM (KARAIAI) [ANZ] 500 to 600 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast and inland. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Anem. Speakers in one village among the Bariai use Bariai as second language. Survey needed.

ANEME WAKE (ABIE, ABIA) [ABY] 650 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, Afore District, both sides of Owen Stanley Range, Central Province; north from Ianu along Foasi and Domara creeks. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban. Dialects: MORI, BUNIABURA, AUWAKA, JARI, DOMA. 65% to 73% lexical similarity with Moikodi (closest). Speakers are bilingual in Motu or Yareba. Foothills. NT 1988.

ANGAATIHA (LANGIMAR, ANGATAHA, ANGAATIYA, ANGAATAHA) [AGM] 1,200 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,400 to 1,600 meters. Bible portions 1976-1980. Work in progress.

ANGAL (EAST ANGAL, MENDI) [AGE] 10,000 (1971 ACTNM). Southern Highlands Province, Mendi area, north into Mendi Valley, west into Lai Valley, east bank, west of Mt. Glouwe. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. Typology: SOV, Time-Subject-Object-Location-Verb. Highland forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

ANGAL ENEN (SOUTH ANGAL HENENG, SOUTH MENDI) [AOE] 22,000 (1995 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, 10 to 12 km. south of Nipa, north of the Erave River, east of Lake Kutubu, west of Lai Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. Dialect: MEGI. Typology: SOV, Time-Subject-Object-Location-Verb. Highland forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 4,500 to 8,500 feet. Bible portions 1968-1996. Work in progress.

ANGAL HENENG (AUGU, WEST MENDI, WEST ANGAL HENENG, AGARAR, WAGE, KATINJA) [AKH] 40,000 (1994 V. Schlatter SPIM). Southern Highlands Province, south of Margarima and Kandep, north of Lake Butubu, west of the Lai Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. Dialects: WAOLA (WALA), AUGU, NIPA. Typology: SOV, Time-Subject-Object-Location-Verb. Highland forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 4,500 to 8,500. NT 1978. Bible portions 1967.

ANGOR (WATAPOR, SENAGI, ANGGOR) [AGG] 1,266 including 836 in Nai, 430 in Samanai(1990 census). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. 11 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Senagi. Dialects: NAI (CENTRAL ANGOR), SAMANAI (SOUTHERN ANGOR). 15% to 25% literate. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Lowland foothills. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 150 to 500 meters. Bible portions 1973-1992. Work in progress.

ANGORAM (PONDO, TJIMUNDO, OLEM) [AOG] 6,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, along lower Sepik River, Angoram District. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo. Speakers use Tok Pisin as second language. Survey needed.

ANGOYA (AKOINKAKE, AKOYE, LOHIKI, OBI, MAI-HEA-RI, MAIHIRI) [MIW] 900 (1991 SIL). Gulf Province, Kaberofe District, valleys between the Nabo Range and the Albert Mountains, Lohiki River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Close to Ivori linguistically. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

ANJAM (BOGATI, BOM, BOGAJIM, BOGADJIM, LALOK) [BOJ] 1,300 (1986 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: sea level. Cargo cult. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

ANKAVE (ANGAVE) [AAK] 1,600 (1987 SIL). Gulf Province, Kerema District, in the valleys of the Mbwei and Swanson rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Dialects: SAWUVE, WIYAGWA, WUNAVAI, MIYATNU, ANKAI, BU'U. Below 5% literate. Traditional religion. NT 1991. Bible portions 1986-1992.

ANOR [ANJ] 574 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Aian. Survey needed.

ANUKI (GABOBORA) [AUI] 542 (census). North coast, Cape Vogel, Milne Bay Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Anuki. 49% to 57% lexical similarity with Gapapaiwa (closest). Survey needed.

AP MA (KAMBOT, AP MA BOTIN, BOTIN) [KBX] 7,000 (1990 UBS). Angoram District, East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper. Dialect: KAMBARAMBA. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

APALI (EMERUM, APAL) [ENA] 600 (1992 M. Wade PBT). Madang Province, upper Ramu River area, Aiome District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Emuan. Dialects: AKI, ACI. Bible portions 1993. Work in progress.

APALIK (PALIK, AMBUL) [PLI] 374 (1979 census). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. In a dialect chain with Gimi and Aiklep. Survey needed.

APOS (KWANGA, GAWANGA, WOMSAK) [APO] 500 (1996 SIL). East Sepik Province, extending beyond the western boundary of Maprik District; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. Dialects: TAU, BONGOMAISI (BONGAMAISE). Typology: OSV. Tropical forest. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 50 to 60 meters. NT 1992, \PR 1982, TAKASHI & KAZUE MANABE SIL 1978-1992: MENDE, APOS, BONGOS, WASAMBU, YUBANAKOR?. Bible portions 1982, TAKASHI & KAZUE MANABE SIL 1978-1992: MENDE, APOS, BONGOS, WASAMBU, YUBANAKOR?. Survey needed.

ARA (ROUKU, WÄRÄ, YUMBAR, UPPER MOREHEAD, KAMINDJO, TJOKWAI, TOKWASA) [TCI] 350 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, near Morehead. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. 4 primary schools. Swamp, savannah. Altitude: below 300 meters. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

ARAFUNDI (ALFENDIO) [ARF] 733 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, on the Arafundi River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Arafundi. Dialect: MEAKAMBUT. Meakambut may be a separate language. Survey needed.

ARAMBA (SERKISETAVI, UPPER MOREHEAD, SERKI) [STK] 600 (1992 SIL). Western Province, Morehead Subprovince, southwest of Suki. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. 4 primary schools. Swamp, savannah. Altitude: below 300 meters. Work in progress.

ARAPESH, BUMBITA (WERI) [AON] 4,000 (1994 R. Conrad SIL) in 13 villages (1986 PBT). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, south of Wom. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh. Dialects: BONAHOI, URITA, TIMINGIR, WERIL, WERIR. 21% lexical similarity with Southern Arapesh, 30% with Bukiyip. Weril and Werir are inherently intelligible to each other's speakers, but for beginning literacy they use different materials. Middle aged and older speakers use Weri, but except for 2 villages, younger members of the ethnic group mainly use Tok Pisin. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: taro, tobacco; animal husbandry: pigs. Survey needed.

ARAWUM [AWM] 75 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Related languages: Siroi, Pulabu, Kolom, Lemio. Survey needed.

ARE (MUKAWA) [MWC] 1,231 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, tip of Cape Vogel. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 47% to 55% lexical similarity with Doga (closest). Close to Gapapaiwa. Grammar. Bible 1925. NT 1921. Bible portions 1904-1912.

ARI [AAC] 80 to 100 (1976 G. Reesink SIL). Ari and Serea villages, Aramia River area, Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala. Speakers use Gogodala as second language. Survey needed.

ARIBWATSA (LAE, LAHE) [LAZ] Morobe Province, lower Wamped River, living in Bukawa villages of Butibum and Kamkumun at Lae. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. No speakers left (1995). The ethnic group now speaks Bukawa. Extinct.

ARIBWAUNG (ARIBWAUNGG, YALU, JALOC) [YLU] 1,000 (1994 Eckerman LBT). Morobe Province, lower Markham Valley, Yalu village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. Jaloc is the Yabem spelling of the village name. Closely related to Musom, Guwot, Sirak, Wampar. Survey needed.

ARIFAMA-MINIAFIA (MINIAFIA-ARIFAMA) [AAI] 2,147 (1977 Wurm). Four locations along the coast of Cape Nelson and Collingwood Bay, Oro Province, Tufi District. 20 to 25 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. Dialects: ARIFAMA, MINIAFIA. 39% lexical similarity with Ubir. People are 10% literate. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, mangrove swamp. Coastal. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 200 meters. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

AROP-LOKEP (SIASI, SIASSI, TOLOKIWA, MOROMIRANGA) [APR] 2,200 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District. Arop is on Long Island, and Lokep on Tolokiwa Island. Half the people are on the mainland between Saidor and Seure, and in Morobe Province, Siassi District, and north tip of Umboi Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Dialects: AROP (POONO), LOKEP (LUKEP, LOKEWE). Different from Arop-Sissano in Sandaun Province. Bible portions 1990-1993. Work in progress.

AROP-SISSANO (AROP) [APS] 1,700 (1981 Whitacre SIL). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, Arop village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Related to Sissano, Malol, and Sera, but different enough to be a separate language. Bible portions 1988-1994. Work in progress.

ARUAMU (MIKAREW, ARIAWIAI, MAKARUP, MAKARUB, MIKARUP, MIKAREW-ARIAW) [MSY] 8,000 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, west of Bogia. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

ARUEK (DJANG) [AUR] 614 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, north of Kombio. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Survey needed.

ARUOP (LAUISARANGA, LAU'U) [LSR] 700 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, 6 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. 1 community school. Mountain ridge. Altitude: 2,500 feet.

ASARO'O (MORAFA) [MTV] 672 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, southeast of Saidor. At least 4 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Morafa is a clan name. Related languages: Asat, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guiarak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Coastal, mountain slope. Altitude: sea level to 400 metres.

ASAS (KOW) [ASD] 333 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia. Related languages: Sinsauru, Sausi, Kesawai, Dumpu. Survey needed.

ASAT (MURATAIK) [ASX] 1,047 (1980 census). Madang Province, Rai Coast District, east of Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Related languages: Asaro'o, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guiarak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. People in Yagomi villages are said to speak Asat. Coastal, mountain slope. Altitude: sea level to 1200 meters.

ATEMBLE (ATEMPLE-APRIS, ATEMPLE) [ATE] 65 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Atan. Survey needed.

ATURU (ATURA, ADULU, MAKAEYAM) [AUP] 220 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, Sumogi Island in Fly Estuary, Adulu, Lewada, and Suame villages. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. 78% lexical similarity with Lewada-Dewara. Survey needed.

AU [AVT] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Lumi District, 19 villages in the foothills of the Torricelli Mountains. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Grammar. Typology: SVO, extensive agreement system. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Hunter-gatherers. Altitude: 200 to 600 meters. NT 1982. Bible portions 1971-1972.

'AUHELAWA ((NUAKATA, KURADA ('URADA))) [KUD] 935 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, Esa'ala District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. 52% lexical similarity with Duau (closest). Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1986-1993. Work in progress.

AUNALEI (ONELE, ONE, ONI) [AUN] 2,206 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). 40% live north of the mountains, 60% south. Sandaun Province. Lumi and Aitape districts, Toricelli Mts. 11 villages. Torricelli, West Wapei. Dialects: NORTH AUNALEI, CENTRAL AUNALEI, SOUTH AUNALEI. Speakers have routine bilingual proficiency in Tok Pisin. Mountain slope. Survey needed.

AVAU (AWAU) [AVB] 6,000 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest, inland from Gasmata. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Tropical forest. Survey needed.

AWA (MOBUTA) [AWB] 1,789 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Okapa and Kainantu districts, Eastern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Dialects: TAUNA, ILAKIA, NORTHEAST AWA, SOUTH AWA. 25% to 50% literate. Grammar. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden, peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,700 to 1,800 meters. NT 1974. Bible portions 1964.

AWAD BING (BILIAU, SENGAM, BING) [BCU] 700 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, 7 villages west of Saidor, Astrolabe Bay area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe. Dialects: BILIAU, YAMAI, SUIT, GALEG. Distinct from, but closely related to, Mindiri and Wab. Four dialects. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

AWAR [AYA] 572 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien. Dialects: AWAR, NUBIA. Survey needed.

AWARA [AWX] 1,627 (1994 govt. figure). Morobe Province, Lae District, neaar the Wantoat. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat. Dialects: AWARA, UPPER LERON. Formerly thought to be a dialect of Wantoat. 35% literate. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, savannah. Mountain ridge, plateau. Swidden agriculturalists: coffee. Altitude: 3,500 to 6,000 feet. Work in progress.

AWIYAANA (AUYANA) [AUY] 6,500 (1975 SIL). Kainantu, Okapa districts, Eastern Highlands Province. 15 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain ridge. Agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,208 to 1,988 meters. NT 1984. Bible portions 1980.

AWTUW (KAMNUM, AUTU) [KMN] 394 (1979 census). Sandaun Province. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ram. Grammar. Related languages: Karawa, Pouye. Tropical forest. Sago gatherers. Altitude: 300 to 400 meters. Survey needed.

AWUN (AWON) [AWW] 384 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, east of Namia. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River. Related to Namia and Ak. Survey needed.

BAGUPI [BPI] 58 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Mosimo, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Matepi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

BAHINEMO (GAHOM, WOGU) [BJH] 400 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Hunstein Range, south of the Sepik River. 6 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Dialect: INARU. Speakers are bilingual in Tok Pisin. Tropical forest. Low mountains. Hunter-gatherers, sago palm. Altitude: 60 to 1,000 meters. Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1973-1983. Work in progress.

BAIBAI [BBF] 271 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Kwomtari-Baibai, Baibai. Survey needed.

BAIMAK [BMX] 441 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 20 miles west of Madang city. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related to Gal. Survey needed.

BAINAPI (PIKIWA, DIBIASU, TURUMASA) [PIK] 400 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, villages of Makapa, Pikiwa, and Bamustu, via Balimo. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi.

BALI [BBN] 7,000 (1989 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Witu Islands off the northwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu. Separate from Vitu.

BALUAN-PAM [BLQ] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Baluan and Pam islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Dialects: BALUAN, PAM. Two close dialects; Baluan is the larger one. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Lou or Titan. Typology: SVO. Win Nesien cult. Survey needed.

BAMU (BAMU KIWAI) [BCF] 4,231 (1990 SIL). Western Province from the mouth of the Bamu River to 50 miles upriver. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian. Dialects: PIRUPIRU (GAMA), MIDDLE BAMU, SISIAME. Closely related to Wabuda. Bible portions 1952. Work in progress.

BANARO (BANAR, BANARA) [BYZ] 2,484 (1991 SIL). Madang and East Sepik provinces. 2 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Banaro. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

BANONI (TSUNARI) [BCM] 1,000 (1977 Lincoln). North Solomons Province, southwestern Bougainville. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni. Grammar. Survey needed.

BARAI [BCA] 3,000 (1975 SIL). Inland Oro Province, Afore District, to the middle of Central Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic. Dialects: MOGONI, UMWATE, UFIA, KOKORA, PIRIMI, EMO RIVER. Barai on the southern slopes of the Owen Stanley Mountains in the Central Province may be a separate language. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 700 to 900 meters. NT 1994. Bible portions 1973-1980.

BARAMU [BMZ] 478 (1979 census). Western Province, Baramula and Tirio villages. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. Different from Aturu, Tirio, or Were. Survey needed.

BARGAM (MUGIL, BUNU, SAKER) [MLP] 3,500 to 4,000 (1987 M. Hepner). Madang Province, Madang District, north coast just opposite Karkar Island. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Mugil. The name 'Mugil' refers to an RC station. 'Bunu' is a village name. Bible portions 1989-1991. Work in progress.

BARIAI (KABANA) [BCH] 1,062 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, east of Cape Gloucester, northwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Coastal. Work in progress.

BARIJI (AGA BEREHO) [BJC] 256 (1973 SIL). Oro Province, on the south bank of the Bariji River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban. Bilingual in Hiri Motu. 49% lexical similarity with Moikodi. Speakers are reported to know Moikodi or Yareba. Survey needed.

BARIM [BBV] 450 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, 4 villages on mainland near Wasu and 3 on southwestern Umboi Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Malasanga is a separate language. Coastal.

BAROK (KOMALU, KANAPIT, KULUBI, KOLUBE, KANALU) [BJK] 2,116 (1985 AIL). New Ireland, south central, east and west coasts. 15 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak. Dialects: USEN, BAROK. Bible portions 1929. Work in progress.

BARUGA [BBB] 1,170 (1971 Dutton) including 119 in Dogoro (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Tufi District, east of the Managalasi, between the Gaina and the Korafe. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: BARUGA, DOGORO. Some speakers are bilingual in Tok Pisin and Hiri Motu. Work in progress.

BARUYA (BARUA, YIPMA) [BYR] 6,600 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Dialects: WANTAKIA, BARUYA, GULICHA, USIRAMPIA. 'Yipma' is the name most acceptable to speakers of most dialects. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,040 to 3,459 meters. NT 1992. Bible portions 1973-1980.

BAU [BBD] 1,789 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Related languages: Sihan, Gumalu, Isebe, Amele, Panim. Different from Bao in New Britain, an Oceanic language. Survey needed.

BAUWAKI (BAWAKI) [BWK] 398 (1980 census). Most are at Amau (Mori River), Central Province, extending into Oro Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. 66% lexical similarity with Abia (closest), 39% with Domu. Dutton says this is a bridge language between the Mailuan and Yareban families. 85% to 100% of speakers are bilingual in Magi, Suau, Motu, or English. Survey needed.

BEAMI (BEDAMINI, BEDAMUNI, MOUGULU) [BEO] 4,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, east of Nomad, extending into Southern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Dialects: KOMOFIO, NORTH BEAMI. NT 1991. Bible portions 1977.

BEBELI (BENAULE, BANAULE, KAPORE, BELI) [BEK] 1,050 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, Stettin Bay, Cape Hoskins area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Different from Beli in Sandaun Province. Survey needed.

BELI (MUKILI, AKUWAGEL, MAKARIM) [BEY] 1,453 including 1,400 in area and 53 outside (1978 census). Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Torricelli, Maimai, Beli. Different from Bebeli (Beli) in West New Britain. Survey needed.

BEMAL (KEIN) [BMH] 700 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon. Related languages: Girawa, Munit. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Interfluvial. Agriculturalists. Altitude: above 40 meters. Survey needed.

BENABENA (BENA) [BEF] 20,315 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena. Grammar. NT 1983. Bible portions 1969.

BEPOUR [BIE] 57 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan. Related languages: Mauwake, Moere. Survey needed.

BIANGAI [BIG] 1,400 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Wau District, headwaters of the Bulolo River. 7 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa. Dialects: NGOWIYE, YONGOLEI. Typology: SOV. Mixed forests. Interfluvial below mountain slopes. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 950 to 1,100 meters. NT 1985. Bible portions 1973.

BIEM (BAM) [BMC] 1,455 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Viai, Blupblup, Kadovar, and Bam islands east of Wewak. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. May be intelligible with Manam. Survey needed.

BIKARU (PIKARU, BUGALU) [BIC] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, headwaters of April River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Nomadic. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

BIKSI (INISINE, BIAKSI) [BDX] 400, including 200 in Papua New Guinea (1992 SIL); 200 in Irian Jaya, Indonesia; 1978 SIL). South of the Green River, and into Irian Jaya. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Biksi. Survey needed.

BILAKURA [BQL] 34 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Related languages: Usan, Yaben, Yarawata, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Nearly extinct.

BILBIL (BILIBIL) [BRZ] 700 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast just south of Madang town. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern. Survey needed.

BILUR (BIRAR) [BXF] 1,447 (1979 census). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, 9 villages southeast of Cape Gazelle. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic. Survey needed.

BIMIN [BHL] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Bak-Bimin District, and Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Closely related to Faiwol. Much intermarriage and cultural exchange with Oksapmin. Work in progress.

BINA [BMN] (2 non-primary speakers left; 1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Province, north of Baibara. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric. Extinct.

BINAHARI [BXZ] 764 (1980 census). Central Province, both sides of a range of hills inland from Cloudy Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. Dialects: NEME (NEMEA), MA. 70% lexical similarity with Morawa (closest). 80% to 100% bilingual in Magi, Suau, Hiri Motu, or English. Survey needed.

BINANDERE (IOMA BINANDERE) [BHG] 4,500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori), including 1,200 in Ambasi. Oro Province, along the Eia, Ope, Mambere, and Kumusi rivers, between Zia and Ambasi; a few in Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: AEKA (AIGA), AMBASI (TAIN-DAWARE, DAVARI, DAWARI), BINANDERE. 50% to 54% lexical similarity with Suena and Zia, 67% with Ambasi. Speakers who live near the coast are more bilingual. Sago swamp, plains. Fishermen; hunters; agriculturalists: tobacco; wood carvers; potters. Bible portions 1912-1949. Work in progress.

BINE (ORIOMO, PINE) [ORM] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Daru District, south of Fly River. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly. Dialects: KUNINI, BOZE-GIRINGAREDE, SOGAL, MASINGLE, TÄTE, IRUPI-DRAGELI, SEBE. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, mangrove swamp, savannah. Coastal, riverine. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: sea level. NT 1993. Bible portions 1934-1982.

BINUMARIEN (BINUMARIA, BINAMARIR) [BJR] 360 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora. 75% to 100% literate. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,350 meters. NT 1983. Bible portions 1968.

BIPI (SISI-BIPI) [BIQ] 1,200 (1990 SIL). Manus Province, west coast, Maso, Matahei, and Salapai villages, Bipi and Sisi islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Close to Loniu. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

BISIS (YAMBIYAMBI) [BNW] 500 (1986 W. Dye SIL). East Sepik Province, Hunstein Range, Ambunti District, next to the Bahinemo, between the Lower Salumei River and Chambri Lake. 3 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Tropical forest. Low mountains. Hunter-gatherers, sago palm. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

BISORIO (INYAI-GADIO-BISORIO, INIAI) [BIR] 230 to 280 (1983 SIL), including 50 to 100 Pikaru. East Sepik Province, headwaters of the Karawari, Wagupmeri, and Korosameri rivers; villages of Bisorio, Iniai, Gadio. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. Dialect: PIKARU (BIKARU). 70% lexical similarity with Nete. NT 1993. Bible portions 1984.

BITARA [BIT] 256 (1983 SIL). East Sepik Province, April River. Several villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Dialect: APOWASI (KAKIRU). It is the most accessible of the tributary groups. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Tok Pisin. Survey needed.

BIWAT (MUNDUGUMOR, MUNDUGUMA) [BWM] 1,642 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province, lower and middle Yuat River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat. Related to Kyenele. Related languages: Changriwa, Mekmek, Miyak, Bun.

BIYOM (SASIME) [BPM] 379 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, southeast of Gende. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman. Related languages: Isabi, Tauya, Faita. Survey needed.

BLAFE (TONDA, INDORODORO) [IND] 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Province, west of Nambu language. Indorodoro town is center. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. Different from Ara (Rouku), although related. Survey needed.

BO (PO) [BPW] 175 (1975 Conrad and Dye). Sandaun Province, the heart of the western range; Bo, Kobaru, Kaumifi, Nigyama Umarita villages. Left May. The area is seldom entered by outsiders. Unconfirmed as a separate language. Survey needed.

BOAZI (BOADJI, BWADJI, MBAGU) [KVG] 2,000 (1990 SIL). Western Province, Lake Murray District. None now in Irian Jaya (1978 SIL). Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Boazi. Dialects: KUNI, NORTH BOAZI, SOUTH BOAZI. Some are educated. Related to Zimakani. Low sand ridges between swamps and lagoons. Work in progress.

BOGAYA (POGAYA, BOGAIA) [BOQ] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, some also in base of northern neck of Southern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya.

BOHUAI (PAHAVAI, PELIPOWAI, BOWAI, POHUAI, BOHUAI-TULU, TULU-BOHUAI) [RAK] 1,400 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Bohuai, Peli Island, Pelipowai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Dialects: KELI, BOHUAI, TULU (TULUN, TJUDUN). Speakers are bilingual in Kurti, Titan, or Ere. Close to Levei-Ndrehet. Survey needed.

BOIANAKI (GALAVI, BOANAKI, BOINAKI, BOANAI) [BMK] 1,757 (1979 census). Milne Bay Province, the coast west from Vidia to Rabaraba and Wagi to Uga. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 73% lexical similarity with Gapapaiwa (closest). Most speakers are literate. There are reported to be reservations toward the use of Wedau. Bilingualism in Wedau, Gapapaiwa, and English needs investigation. Survey needed.

BOIKIN (BOIKEN, NUCUM, YANGORU, YENGORU) [BZF] 35,204 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Yangoru District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Dialects: WEST BOIKIN, CENTRAL BOIKIN, EAST BOIKIN, MUNJI, HARIPMOR, KWUSAUN, KUNAI, ISLAND BOIKIN. Speakers use Tok Pisin as second language. Bible portions 1971-1979. Survey needed.

BOLA (BAKOVI, BOLA-BAKOVI) [BNP] 7,533 including 6,194 in Bola, 1,339 in Harua (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, northeast coast, most of Willaumez Peninsula. Harua is on the east side of Kimbe. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Dialects: HARUA (KARUA, XARUA, GARUA, MAI), BOLA. Harua is a dialect that has developed as a result of a group of people being resettled on an oil palm plantation. 11 vernacular preparatory schools. NT 1934, out of print. Work in progress.

BONGOS (BONGOMASI, W'HAUKIA, APEKU, MASALAGA) [BXY] 3,000 (1994 SIL). East Sepik Province, extending beyond the western boundary of Maprik District; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District; Sandaun Province, east of Mehek. 40 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. Dialects: BONGOS, APEKU. A dialect chain of 5 sub-dialects, 2 main dialects. Typology: OSV. Tropical forest. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 50 to 60 meters. Survey needed.

BONGU [BPU] 415 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay, Rai Coast. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Survey needed.

BONKIMAN [BOP] 175 (1991 SIL). Madang and Morobe provinces. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. People's second language is Tok Pisin. Passive bilingualism with neighboring languages. Survey needed.

BOREI (GAMEI, GAMAI, MBOREI, MBORE) [GAI] 2,000 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, Bogia District. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien. Dialects: BOROI, BOREWAR, BOTBOT. Work in progress.

BOSILEWA [BOS] 350 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, north shore of Fergusson Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. 61% lexical similarity with Galeya (closest). Speakers use Dobu as second language.

BOSNGUN (BOSMAN) [BQS] 717 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien. People's second language is Tok Pisin. Survey needed.

BRAGAT (ALAUAGAT, YAUAN) [AOF] 400 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, 4 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. 1 community school. Most closely related to Aru. Mountain ridge. Altitude: 1500 to 1800 feet. Survey needed.

BRERI (KUANGA) [BRQ] 1,100 (1986 PBT). Madang Province, lower Ramu Valley, 80 miles west of Madang City. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Related dialects or languages: Kominimung, Igana, Itutang. Swampy plain. Survey needed.

BUANG, MANGGA (MANGA BUANG, KAIDEMUI) [MMO] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Morobe Province, mid-upper Snake River area, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Dialects: LAGIS, KWASANG. Typology: SVO. Savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 670 to 1,830 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1981. Bible portions 1972.

BUANG, MAPOS (MAPOS, CENTRAL BUANG) [BZH] 6,666 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, upper Snake River area, Mumeng District. 10 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Dialects: WAGAU, MAMBUMP, BUWEYEU, WINS, CHIMBULUK, PAPAKENE, MAPOS. 61% lexical similarity between Mambump and Mangga. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Scrub forest, tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,000 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1978. Bible portions 1971.

BUDIBUD (NADA) [BTP] 170 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, Lachlan Islands, 50 miles east of Woodlark Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila. 65% lexical similarity with Muyuw. Speakers use Muyuw as second language but they prefer Budibud. The name 'Nada' is no longer used. Christian, traditional religion. Survey needed.

BUGAWAC (BUKAWA, BUKAUA, BUKAWAC, KAWA, KAWAC, YOM GAWAC) [BUK] 9,694 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, coast of Huon Gulf. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North. Yabem is decreasingly used as church language. Yabem bilingual proficiency is decreasing with those educated in Yabem up to the 1960's. Closely related to Yabem. Work in progress.

BUHUTU (BOHUTU, BUHULU, YALEBA, SIASIADA) [BXH] 1,065 (1972 census). Eastern tip of Papua, Sagarai Valley, Milne Bay Province, Alotau District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. 68% lexical similarity with Suau. Almost all speakers know Suau. Work in progress.

BUIN (TELEI, TEREI, RUGARA) [BUO] 25,000 to 28,000 (1996 SIL). Southern North Solomons Province, Buin District. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin. Closest to Uisai. Bible portions 1973-1978. Work in progress.

BUKIYIP (BUKIYÚP, MOUNTAIN ARAPESH, KAVU) [APE] 12,000 (1995 SIL) including 5,000 Coastal Arapesh (1991 R. Conrad SIL). East Sepik Province, west Yangoru District, Torricelli Mountains. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh. Dialects: COASTAL ARAPESH, MOUNTAIN ARAPESH. 60% lexical similarity with Southern Arapesh. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Scrub forest, tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 500 meters. NT 1994. Bible portions 1976-1990.

BULGEBI [BMP] 52 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 10 miles southeast of Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Related to Asaro'o, Asat, Degenan, Forak, Guiarak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Survey needed.

BULU [BJL] 566 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, Willaumez Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Speakers use Bola as second language.

BUN [BUV] 194 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat. Related languages: Changriwa, Mekmek, Biwat, Miyak. May be intelligible with Biwat. Survey needed.

BUNA [BVN] 500 to 1,000 (1994 SIL). East Sepik Province, Angoram District. Torricelli, Marienberg. Dialects: KASMIN, MASAN. Apparently 2 dialects: 1 in Kasmin, Boig, Waskurin, and Arapang villages, and 1 in Masan, Mangan, and Garien villages. Survey needed.

BUNABUN (BUNUBUN, BUBUBUN) [BUQ] 498 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Mabuan. Survey needed.

BUNAMA [BDD] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Milne Bay Province, southern Normanby Island, Esa'ala District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Dialects: BUNAMA, BARABARA, SAWATUPWA, LOMITAWA, SIPUPU, WEYOKO, MEUDANA, KEROROGEA, KUMALAHU, KASIKASI, SAWABWALA. 66% lexical similarity with Mwateba, 75% with most Dobu dialects. Speakers use Dobu as second language, although proficiency is limited. Agriculturalists: yams. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1991. Bible portions 1978-1986.

BUNGAIN [BUT] 2,451 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province. Yaugiba is one village. Torricelli, Marienberg. Survey needed.

BURUI [BRY] 150 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Most adults are fluent in Gaikundi. Survey needed.

BURUM-MINDIK (BULUM, BURUM, MINDIK) [BMU] 7,000 including 4,500 in Somba, 2,500 in Siawari (1989 SIL). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, 30 villages in Central Huon Peninsula, south of Cromwell Range, Burum River valley and some western slopes of Kuat River. (Burum and Kuat are tributaries of the main Mongi River.) Several hundred live in towns, 1,000 in Lae. 3 airstrips: Ogeramnang, Mindik, Nomanene. Somba is centered in Burum and Siawari in Mindik. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Dialects: SOMBA, SIAWARI. 92% lexical similarity between the dialects. 7 community schools. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 500 to 1,700 meters. NT 1996. Bible portions 1984-1992.

BUSA [BHF] 307 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Upper Sepik River, west of Namia. 3 villages. Yare is north and east, Abau is south and west, Biaka is northwest. Language Isolate. No schools. Some intermarriage with the Yale. Lowland swamps. Hunter-gatherers. Altitude: 300 feet.

BWAIDOKA (BWAIDOGA) [BWD] 6,000 (1994 SIL). Milne Bay Province, southeast tip of Goodenough Island and west Fergusson Island, Bolubolu District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Dialects: MATAITAI, WAGIFA, KILIA, LAUWELA, BWAIDOGA. Some speakers are bilingual in Dobu. 72% lexical similarity with Iduna (closest). Bwaidoka speakers consider Iduna to be a less important language. Half of the children are in school. Trade language and church language for Goodenough Island and part of Fergusson Island. Bible portions 1934-1994. Work in progress.

BWANABWANA (TUBETUBE) [TTE] 2,015 (1994 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Bwanabwana District, Engineer Islands, Laseinie Islands, Ware Island, Kitai Island and southeast peninsula of Basilaki Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Dialects: WALE (WARI, WARE), KWALAIWA. 52% lexical similarity with Duau (closest). Important language at the center of the trade route. Older people know Dobu, the traditional church language, and language of kula trade. Some people are bilingual in Dobu, Suau, Tawala, Duau, or Misima. Access by boat or helicopter. Bible portions 1928-1994. Work in progress.

CHAMBRI (TSHAMBERI, TCHAMBULI) [CAN] 1,700 (1991). East Sepik Province, marsh dwellers east and north of Sepik Hill area, southeastern shore and island in Chambri Lake. 3 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo. Speakers are highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Wealth comes from fishing. Fishermen, poultry husbandry, turtle catching. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

CHANGRIWA [CGA] 498 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat. Related languages: Mekmek, Miyak, Biwat, Bun. Survey needed.

CHENAPIAN (TSENAP, ZENAP, CHENAP) [CJN] 187 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, on the Sepik River west of Wogamusin. 1 village. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Wogamusin. Many Tok Pisin speakers. Some young people are learning English.

CHUAVE (TJUAVE) [CJV] 23,107 (1981 Wurm and Hattori), including 4,290 Sua (1962 Wurm). Simbu Province, Chuave District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Dialects: ELIMBARI, KEBAI, GOMIA, CHUAVE, SUA. Kebai is more distinct, but intelligible. Typology: SOV. Savannah. Mountain mesa. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,200 meters. NT 1992-1994. Bible portions 1973-1987.

DADIBI (DARIBI, KARIMUI) [MPS] 10,000 (1988 SIL). Southern Simbu Province, Karimui District, eastern corner of Southern Highlands Province. 28 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Teberan. Dialect: ERAVE. Grammar. Speakers in 2 or 3 villages on the Erave River are heavily bilingual in Folopa. Those villages have minor dialect differences from standard Dadibi in the Karimui and Negabo areas. 50% to 75% literate. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Plateau. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 1,150 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1987. Bible portions 1976-1981.

DAGA (DIMUGA, NAWP) [DGZ] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, and Central Province, Abau District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. Related languages: Bagoi, Galeva, Swoiden, Kanamara, Makiara, Maneao, Moibiri, Pue, Tevi, Turaka. Grammar. NT 1974. Bible portions 1970.

DAMBI [DAC] 445 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In the Mumeng language chain. Some intelligibility with Kumalu. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters. Survey needed.

DAMI (HAM) [DAD] 1,495 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Madang District, inland around Gogol River. 10 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Southern. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Interfluvial. Agriculturalists. Altitude: above 40 meters. Work in progress.

DANARU [DNR] 115 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka. Related languages: Usino, Urigina, Sumau. Survey needed.

DANO (UPPER ASARO, ASARO) [ASO] 30,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena. Dialects: UPPER ASARO, LUNUBE MADO, BOHENA, AMAIZUHO, KONGI. Typology: SOV. Savannah. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,300 meters. NT 1989. Bible portions 1969-1994.

DAONDA [DND] 200 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District near Imonda. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Adults can understand Waris. Survey needed.

DAWAWA (DAWANA) [DWW] 2,500 (1994 SIL). West and inland from Wedau in Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Kakabai. 58% lexical similarity with Kakabai. Older speakers know Wedau, and some English. Wedau is used primarily in church. Dawawa is used in home and village life. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1991-1992. Work in progress.

DEDUA (DEDUAE) [DED] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District, headwaters of the Masaweng and Tewae rivers, south of Mt. Besenona. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Dialects: DEEIGOC, FANIC. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

DEGENAN [DGE] 358 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Related languages: Asaro'o, Asat, Bulgebi, Forak, Guiarak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Survey needed.

DENGALU [DEA] 140 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In Mumeng dialect chain. Survey needed.

DIA (ALU, METRU, GALU) [DIA] 1,880 (1973 Laycock). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei.

DIMIR (BOSKIEN, BOSIKEN) [DMC] 1,700 (1986 PBT). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Dimir.

DIODIO [DDI] 1,200 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, west coast of Goodenough Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Dialects: IAUIAULA, UTALO, AWALE, CENTRAL DIODIO. Isolated. Speakers are bilingual in Bwaidoka. Bwaidoka is the church language. 66% lexical similarity with Bwaidoka (closest). Many literate.

DOBU [DOB] 8,000 (1987 SIL); lingua franca for 100,000 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Esa'ala District, Sanaroa, Dobu, and parts of Fergusson and Normanby islands. 500 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Dialects: GALUEWA, SANAROA, UBUIA, CENTRAL DOBU, LOBODA (ROBODA, DAWADA-SIAUSI). Many schools. Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Motu, English, adjacent languages. 56% lexical similarity with Morima (closest). Dictionary. 90% literate. Trade language of most of D'entrecasteaux Islands. Typology: SOV. Braille code available. Bible 1926. NT 1908-1986. Bible portions 1894-1919.

DOGA (MAGABARA) [DGG] 200 (1975 SIL). Milne Bay Province, north coast of Cape Vogel. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 47% to 55% lexical similarity with Are (closest). 60% of young people know English, others Anuki and Dima. Most young people are literate. Survey needed.

DOM [DOA] 12,000 (1994 NTM). Simbu Province, mainly south of the Wahgi River from Kundiawa west of the Sinasina area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Bible portions. Work in progress.

DOMU (DOM) [DOF] 593 (1979 census). Central Province, coast east of Cape Rodney and inland. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. 85% to 100% of the speakers are bilingual in Mailu, Suau, Hiri Motu, English. 66% lexical similarity with Bauwaki (closest).

DOMUNG [DEV] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Tapen, Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. Survey needed.

DOROMU (DORAM) [KQC] 1,200 (1993 SIL). Central Province, south of Mt. Obree, west of Mt. Brown. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Manubaran. Dialects: KOKILA, KORIKO, KOKI (DOROMU). 63% lexical similarity with Maria (closest).

DOURA [DON] 800 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Province, around Galley Reach. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. Many know Motu and Hiri Motu. 54% lexical similarity with Motu (closest). Survey needed.

DUAU [DUA] 3,550 (1991 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Sawabwala, Normanby islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Dialects: MWALUKWASIA, SOMWADINA, GULEGULEU (GURAGUREU), DAWADA, SIAUSI. Dialects are diverse. No central or dominant dialect. 75% lexical similarity with Bunama, 52% with Mwatebu, Auhelawa, and Tubetube. There are many schools, but many speakers are illiterate. Dobu is the second language used. Trade language. Christian, traditional religion.

DUDUELA [DUK] 469 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Survey needed.

DUMPU (WATIFA, WATIWA) [WTF] 261 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, two villages: Bebei and Dumpu. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia. Related languages: Sinsauru, Asas, Sausi, Kesawai. All men use Tok Pisin as second language. Survey needed.

DUMUN (BAI) [DUI] 42 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon. Related languages: Yabong, Ganglau, Saep. Survey needed.

DUNA (YUNA) [DUC] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kopiago and Koroba districts, some in Western Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Duna-Bogaya. NT 1976. Bible portions 1968.

DUWET (GUWET, GUWOT, WAING) [GVE] 398 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Busu River area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. Survey needed.

EDOLO (ETORO, EDOLO ADO) [ETR] 990 (1994 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Tari District, and Western Province, Nomad District; southwest of Mt. Sisa. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Dialects: EASTERN EDOLO, WESTERN EDOLO. 38% lexical similarity with Beami. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 365 to 1000 meters. Work in progress.

EITIEP [EIT] 394 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, southwest of Kombio, and partially in Sandaun Province, across Bongos River. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Close to Kombio. Survey needed.

EIVO [EIV] 1,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Mountains of south central North Solomons Province. East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Rotokas. Close to Kunua. Survey needed.

ELEPI (SAMAP) [ELE] 149 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, coast around Samap. Torricelli, Marienberg. Survey needed.

ELKEI (OLKOI) [ELK] 1,590 (1988 SIL). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. At least 3 dialects.

ELU [ELU] 216 (1983 SIL). Manus Province, north coast of Manus Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Most speakers are bilingual in Kurti. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

ENGA (CAGA, TSAGA, TCHAGA) [ENQ] 164,750 (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 12,000 in Sau (1990 UBS). Enga Province. The Maramuni are nomadic, and are in the lower reaches of the central range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. Dialects: KANDEPE, LAYAPO, TAYATO, MAE (MAI, WABAG), MARAMUNI (MALAMUNI), KAINA, KAPONA, SAU (SAU ENGA, WAPI), YANDAPO, LAPALAMA 1, LAPALAMA 2, LAIAGAM, SARI. Mae is the standard dialect; all understand it. Layapo is between Mae and Kyaka. Dictionary. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,200 to 2,700 meters. NT 1979-1988. Bible portions 1965.

ENGLISH [ENG] 50,000 in Papua New Guinea (1987), 1.5% of the population; 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Official language. Used in schools. Official language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1535-1987.

ERAVE (POLE, SOUTH KEWA, KEWA SOUTH) [KJY] 6,000 (1991 UBS). Southern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. NT 1993. Bible portions 1975-1990.

ERE (NANE, E) [TWP] 1,030 (1980 census). Manus Province, south coast, Drabitou, Lohe, Londru, Metawari, Pau, Piterait, Taui-Undrau, Hatwara, and Loi villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Speakers are highly bilingual in Kele. Typology: SVO.

EWAGE-NOTU (NOTU, EWAGE) [NOU] 12,900 (1988 SIL). Oro Province, Popondetta District, on the coast between Bakumbari and Pongani. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: EWAGE-NOTU, YEGA (GONA, OKEINA, OKENA). Also spoken by the Soverapa people. People do not like the name 'Ewage' in the Ovo Bay, Dongani, and Ako areas. The name 'Ewage' is preferred in the Buna and Gona areas where the name 'Notu' is not liked. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 60 meters. NT 1987. Bible portions 1930-1952.

FAITA [FAT] 57 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman. Related languages: Biyom, Isabi, Tauya. Survey needed.

FAIWOL (FAIWOLMIN, FEGOLMIN, UNKIA) [FAI] 4,500 (1987 SIL). Western Province, Tabubil District, at the headwaters of the Fly and Palmer rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Many dialects. Typology: SOV. Gallery forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters. NT 1995. Bible portions 1980-1990.

FAS (BEMBI) [FAS] 1,600 or more (1988 W. Baron SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab and Aitape districts. Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari. Dialects: EASTERN FAS, WESTERN FAS. Dialect differences are small. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, riverine. Hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 600 meters.

FASU (NAMOME) [FAA] 1,200 including 750 Fasu, 300 Namuni, 150 Some (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, Nipa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, West. Dialects: SOME, KAIBU (KAIPU), NAMOME (NAMUMI, NAMUNI). Wurm and Hattori treat Some and Namuni as separate languages. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1976-1995. Bible portions 1964.

FINUNGWA (FINUNGWAN) [FAG] 469 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

FIWAGA (FIMAGA, FIWAGE) [FIW] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, northeast of Tama. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, East. Wurm and Hattori treat Fiwage and Foi as separate languages. Survey needed.

FOI (FOE, MUBI RIVER) [FOI] 2,800 (1980 UBS). Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Lake Kutubu and Mubi River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Kutubuan, East. Dialects: IFIGI, KAFA, KUTUBU, MUBI. NT 1978. Bible portions 1961-1968.

FOLOPA (PODOPA, POLOPA, PODOBA, FORABA) [PPO] 3,000 (1985 SIL). Gulf Province, Baimuru District, Kerabi Valley; also in Southern Highlands Province. 20 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Teberan. Dialects: RO (KEAI, WORUGL), BARA (HARAHUI, HARAHU), SESA (MAMISA, SONGU, IBUKAIRU), KEWAH, TEBERA, AUREI, WARAGA, PUPITAU, BORO, SURI, SILIGI, SOPESE, KEBA-WOPASALI. Closest to Dadibi. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists. Altitude: 600 to 1,000 meters. Bible portions 1978-1989. Work in progress.

FORAK [FRO] 163 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Saidor District, Mamgak village, 5 miles west and inland from Seure on the coast. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Asaro'o, Asat, Bulgebi, Degenan, Guiarak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Mountain slope.

FORE [FOR] 17,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Fore. Dialects: PAMUSA (SOUTH FORE), NORTH CENTRAL FORE. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV. NT 1970-1974. Bible portions 1966-1969.

FUYUG (FUYUGE, FUJUGE, FUYUGHE, MAFUFU, WOITAPE) [FUY] 18,000 (1994 SIL). Central Province, southeastern Goilala District. Extends into Oro Province, Chirima River valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan. Dialects: ONONGE (ONANGE), VANAPA RIVER, DILAVA RIVER, AUGA RIVER, CHIRIMA RIVER. 28% lexical similarity with Kunimaipa (closest). Selections 1982. Work in progress.

GABUTAMON [GAV] 302 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 10 miles west southwest of Gali. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. Related to Yupna, Mebu. Survey needed.

GADSUP [GAJ] 10,000 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Dialects: OYANA (OIYANA), GADSUP. Ontenu is a related but separate language. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,538 meters. NT 1981. Bible portions 1968.

GAIKUNDI (GAIKUNTI) [GBF] 700 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Close to Sawos. Bible portions 1978.

GAINA [GCN] 1,130 including 1,000 in Bareji, 130 in Gaina (1971 Dutton). Oro Province, next to the Baruga, the villages around Iwuji. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: BAREJI (BAREDJI), GAINA. 61% lexical similarity with Dogoro (closest). Sago swamp. Survey needed.

GAL (BAIMAK, WEIM) [GAP] 224 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, on the Gogol River. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

GALEYA (GAREA) [GAR] 1,876 (1972 Govt. survey). Milne Bay Province, northeast coast, Fergusson Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Dialects: WADALEI, GAMETA, URUA, BASIMA, SEBUTUIA, GAREA (GALEYA). Dobu is well known. Less than half of children are in school. 61% lexical similarity with Bosilewa (closest). Galeya and Basima dialects have 80% lexical similarity. Coastal. Christian, traditional religion.

GANGLAU [GGL] 154 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon. Related languages: Yabong, Dumun, Saep. Survey needed.

GANTS (GAJ) [GAO] 1,884 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Gants. Survey needed.

GAPAPAIWA (MANAPE, GAPA, PAIWA) [PWG] 2,200 (1994 SIL), including about 900 in western dialect, 1,300 in eastern. Milne Bay Province, Makamaka District, south coast of Cape Vogel and inland along the Ruaba River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 73% lexical similarity with Boanaki (closest). Wedau is used as church language, now English. People over 30 understand Wedau better, under 30 English better. Tok Pisin is seldom heard. Men are more fluent than women. A number of well educated people. 80% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV, genitives, adjectives, numerals after noun heads, relatives before noun heads, question word initial, 3 prefixes, 2 suffixes, CV, non-tonal. Levels of bilingualism in English, Wedau for English: 0:58%, 1:30%, 2:10%, 3:2%, 4:0%, 5:0%; Wedau: 0:75%%, 1:20%, 2:3%, 3:2%, 4:0%, 5:0%. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, coconut palm. Altitude: 0 to 50 meters. Work in progress.

GARUS (ATE, EM, KURUPI) [GYB] 1,394 (1980 census). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Bagupi, Matepi, Mosimo, Murupi, Rapting, Samosa, Silopi. Speakers are moving to roads; becoming more bilingual.

GARUWAHI [GRW] 225 (1972 census). Between Taupota, Wedau and East Cape, Milne Bay Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. 66% lexical similarity with Tawala (closest). Speakers are bilingual in Wedau, Motu, Tawala.

GASMATA [GSA] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West New Britain Province, southwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Older speakers understand Avau, but it is not understood by others. Tropical forest. Raised coral coast. Survey needed.

GEDAGED (BEL, GRAGED, STAR, STAR-RAGETTA, TIARA, MITEBOG, RAGETTA, RIO, SEK, SZEAK-BAGILI) [GDD] 2,764 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province; Sek, Yabob, Karkar, and Bagabag islands, Astrolabe Bay, and coastal villages around Madang. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern. NT 1960. Bible portions 1925-1935.

GENDE (BUNDI, GENE, GENDEKA) [GAF] 8,000 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bundi District near Bundi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gende. Vigorous language use. Mountain slope. Altitude: 4,000 to 6,500 feet. Work in progress.

GETMATA [GET] West New Britain Province, Kandrian District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Dialect chain with Kaulong and Karore. May be extinct. Survey needed.

GIDRA (ORIOMO, JIBU, WIPI) [GDR] 1,800 (1976 SIL). Western Province, eastern third of area between Fly Delta, estuary, and south coast. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly. Dialects: DOROGORI, ABAM, PEAWA, UME, KURU, ZIM, WONIE, IAMEGA, GAMAEWE, PODARI, WIPIM, KAPAL, RUAL, GUIAM, YUTA. Work in progress.

GIMI [GIM] 22,463 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Fore. Dialects: EAST GIMI, WEST GIMI (GOUNO). Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1994. Bible portions 1974-1985.

GIMI (LOKO) [GIP] 3,697 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast and inland, Johanna River to Anu River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Dialect chain with Aiklep and Apalik. Different from Gimi in Eastern Highlands Province. Work in progress.

GINUMAN (DIME) [GNM] 775 (1971 Dutton). Milne Bay Province, Mt. Simpson to coast at Naraka. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. 42% lexical similarity with Kanasi (Dombosaina village).

GIRA [GRG] 500 (1987 census). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Survey needed.

GIRAWA (BEGASIN, BAGASIN) [BBR] 4,003 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Ramu District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon. Related languages: Munit, Bemal. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 1,000 meters. NT 1994. Bible portions 1987.

GITUA (GITOA, KELANA) [GIL] 483 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam. Survey needed.

GIZRA [TOF] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Western Province, villages of Togo, Kuperi, Waidoro. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly. Dialects: WAIDORO, KUPERE, TOGO (TOGA). Work in progress.

GNAU [GNU] 980 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Namblo Census Division, northwest of Maimai. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Survey needed.

GOBASI [GOI] 1,400 (1982 SIL). Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland. Related to Samo-Kubo-Bibo.

GOGODALA (GOGODARA) [GOH] 10,000 (1991 UBS). Western Province, north bank of Fly River, Aramia River. 301 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala. Closest to Ari. NT 1981. Bible portions 1942-1988.

GOLIN (GOLLUM, GUMINE) [GVF] 51,105 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province, Gumine District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Dialects: YURI, KIA (KIARI), GOLIN, KERI, MARIGL. Close to Dom. Nondiri is not a language, but a village where the Mian bush people live. They speak Golin. Grammar. NT 1980. Bible portions 1969-1970.

GORAKOR [GOC] 2,741 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, including Yanta. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In the Mumeng language chain. Some intelligibility with Patep. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters. Survey needed.

GOROVU (GOROVA, YERANI) [GRQ] 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Bangapela village, Ramu River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Grass, Grass Proper. Banaro is replacing the language. Nearly extinct.

GUHU-SAMANE (PAIAWA, TAHARI, MURI, BIA, MID-WARIA) [GHS] 6,289 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District, and a few in Oro Province, from Kanoma and Sidema villages northward. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Guhu-Samane. Dialect: SEKARE. 18% lexical similarity with Suena and Zia (closest). NT 1975-1983. Bible portions 1966-1983.

GUIARAK [GKA] 131 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 10 to 15 miles west of Seure. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Related to Asaro'o, Asat, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Gwahatike, Yagomi. Survey needed.

GUMALU [GMU] 271 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Related languages: Sihan, Amele, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Survey needed.

GUMAWANA (GUMASI, DOMDOM) [GVS] 250 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, Esa'ala District, Amphlett Islands; a barren group north of Fergusson. 2 or 3 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Gumawana. 48% lexical similarity with Galeya, 47% with Dobu (closest). People do not mix with others. Grammar. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

GUNTAI [GNT] 168 (1980 census). Western Province, Morehead District. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. Survey needed.

GURAMALUM [GRZ] 3 or 4 speakers (1987 SIL). New Ireland Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Nearly extinct.

GURIASO [GRX] 350 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari. Distinct language from Kwomtari.

GUSAN [GSN] 794 (1980 census). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Survey needed.

GWAHATIKE (GWATIKE, DAHATING) [DAH] 1,200 (1995 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, several villages south of Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. Dialects: GWAHATIKE, GWAHAMERE, GORA, GWAPTI. 70% literate. Related languages: Asaro'o, Asat, Bulgebi, Degenan, Forak, Guiarak, Yagomi. Typology: SOV. Foothills. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,800 feet. Christian, traditional religion, cargo cult. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

HAHON (HANON) [HAH] 1,300 (1977 Lincoln). Northwest North Solomons Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Dialects: KURUR, RATSUA, ARAVIA. Moderate acculturation. Survey needed.

HAKÖ (HAKU) [HAO] 5,000 (1982 SIL). North Solomons Province, North Bougainville District, northeastern Buka Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia. Dialect: LONTES. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest, deciduous forest. Coastal, coral escarpment. Fishermen; intensive agriculturalists: cocoa, copra. Altitude: 0 to 70 meters. Survey needed.

HALIA (TASI) [HLA] 20,000 or more (1994 J. Allen SIL). North Solomons Province, North Bougainville District, northeastern Buka Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka, Halia. Dialects: HANAHAN, HANGAN, TOULOUN (TULON, TULUN), SELAU. Distinct from Tulun in Manus Province (see Bohuai). Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest, deciduous forest. Coastal, coral escarpment. Fishermen; intensive agriculturalists: cocoa, copra. Altitude: 0 to 70 meters. NT 1978. Bible portions 1970-1976.

HAMTAI (HAMDE, HAMDAY, KAPAU, KAMEA, WATUT, "KUKUKUKU") [HMT] 40,000 (1986 A. Wainzo PNGBTA). Gulf Province, Kukipi District, along the Tauri River inland east to the Ladedamu River; Morobe Province, Lae District, Kodama Range into Bulolo-Watut divide, across to Mt. Grosse and north to Mt. Taylor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Dialects: WENTA, HOWI, PMASA'A, HAMTAI, KAINTIBA. The people dislike the name "Kukukuku". The name 'Kamea' is used in Gulf Province. 'Hamtai' is preferred elsewhere. Grammar. NT 1974. Bible portions 1963.

HANGA HUNDI (KWASENGEN, WEST WOSERA) [WOS] 6,008 (1983 SIL). East Sepik Province, Pagwi District. 16 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Closely related to Ambulas. Poor road access. 3 community schools. Savannah, hills, swamp. Altitude: 150 to 300 feet. Work in progress.

HARUAI (HARWAY, WAIBUK, WIYAW, WIYAU, WOVAN, TAMAN) [TMD] 1,000 speakers of all ages (1988 B. Comrie). Madang Province, southwest corner, southwest Mid-Ramu (Simbai) District, western Schrader Range, west of the Kobon. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Piawi. Dialects: NORTH WAIBUK (HAMIL), CENTRAL WAIBUK (MAMBAR), SOUTH WAIBUK (ARAMA). Haruai is self name. Related languages: Pinai-Hagahai, Wapi, though none are inherently intelligible with Haruai. Some similarities to Kalam languages due to borrowing (Comrie). 37% lexical similarity with Aramo, 35% with Kobon. More loanwords from Kobon are used in the northern area. Word taboo is practiced, but does not seem to impede intelligibility among related varieties. Many are monolingual, but young men are likely to know Tok Pisin or Kobon, many children speak good Tok Pisin, and many women are at least communicatively competent in Tok Pisin (Comrie). Speeches and sermons by outsiders are always translated into Haruai. Typology: SOV; postpositions (few); genitives precede noun heads; possessives, adjectives, numerals, relative clauses follow noun heads; postclitic demonstratives; suffixes; V, CV, VC, CVC. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 2,000 to 6,000 feet.

HERMIT (AGOMES, LUF, MARON) [LLF] Western Manus Province, Luf and Maron islands in Hermit Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Extinct.

HEWA (SISIMIN) [HAM] 2,147 (1986 P. Vollrath SIL), including 290 in Yoliapi (1982 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Koroba District; Enga Province, Lagaip District; Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Lagaip River area, in the mountains north of Duna and Ipili. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Dialects: UPPER LAGAIP, CENTRAL LAGAIP, LOWER LAGAIP, NORTH HEWA. Semi-nomadic. Typology: SOV. Levels of bilingualism in Tok Pisin, English, Ipili, Duna, Oksapmin for Tok Pisin: 0:85%, 1:8%, 2:5%, 3:2%, 4:0%, 5:0%; English: 0:99%, 1:1%, 2-5:0%; Ipili: 0:98%, 1-5:2%; Duna: 0:96%, 1:2%, 2:1%, 3:1%, 4:0%, 5:0%; Oksapmin: 0:99%, 1-5:1%. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers traditionally. Altitude: 480 to 1,700 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1985. Work in progress.

HINIHON [HIH] 1,100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, north central. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran. Related dialect or language: Kowaki.

HOTE (HO'TEI, HOTEC) [HOT] 3,250 including 3,000 Hote (1987 SIL) and 251 Misim (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District, Francisco River area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote. Dialect: MISIM. 90% lexical similarity between Hote and Misim, 70% with Yamap. Speakers consider them all to be one language. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

HULA (VULAA) [HUL] 3,000 (1987 SIL). Central Province, Hood Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara. NT 1954. Bible portions 1949.

HULI (HULI-HULIDANA, HURI) [HUI] 70,000 (1991 UBS). Southern Highlands Province around Tari, and southern fringe of Enga Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Huli. Grammar. Braille Scripture in progress. NT 1983. Bible portions 1965-1991.

HUMENE [HUF] 438 (1966 census). Central Province, lower edge of Sogeri Plateau and adjacent plain between Gaire and Kapakapa villages. Manugoro is principal village. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean. Dialects: LAGUME (LAKUME, MANUKOLU), HUMENE. 65% to 74% lexical similarity with Kwale (closest). Some speakers know Hiri Motu and Motu, some English.

IAMALELE (YAMALELE) [YML] 2,800 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Bwaidoka District, west Fergusson Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Dialects: DIDIGAVU, GWABEGWABE, MASIMASI, MAIODOM, CENTRAL YAMALELE, SOUTHERN YAMALELE. 64% lexical similarity with Kalokalo (closest). Some bilingualism in Bwaidoka and Dobu. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal plains, mountain slopes. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 1,500 meters. NT 1984. Bible portions 1976.

IATMUL (BIG SEPIK, NGEPMA KWUNDI, GEPMA KWUDI, GEPMA KWUNDI) [IAN] 12,000 (1986 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti and Angoram districts, Sepik River villages from Tambunum to Japandai, Kundungay area. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Dialects: NYAURA, PALIMBEI. Riverine. Fishermen, sago gatherers. NT 1975. Bible portions 1965.

IDI (TA:ME, DIMSISI, DIMISI, DIBLAEG) [IDI] 2,000 (1990 census). Western Province, northwest of Agöb, east of Nambu language. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Pahoturi. Dialects: TAME, IDI. One end of a dialect chain stretching to Agöb. Distinct from but close to Agob. 50% literate. 3 primary schools. Savannah, tropical forest, palm swamp. Lowland swamp. Hunters, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 5 meters. Work in progress.

IDUNA (VIVIGANA, VIVIGANI) [VIV] 6,000 (1984 SIL). Milne Bay Province, north coast, Goodenough Island, Esa'ala District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Dialects: WAIBULA, UFAUFA, IDAKAMENAI, BELEBELE, KALAUNA, GOIALA, UFUFU, CENTRAL VIVIGANI. 72% lexical similarity with Bwaidoka (closest). Three quarters of the children are in school. 75% to 100% literate. Grammar. NT 1983. Bible portions 1973.

IGANA [IGG] 114 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Josephstaal. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Related languages: Romkun, Breri, Kominimung, Akrukay, Itutang, Inapang. Survey needed.

IGOM [IGM] 1,082 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Tanggu. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan. Related languages: Andarum, Tangu, Tanguat. Survey needed.

IKOBI-MENA (KOPO-MONIA, KASERE, WAILEMI, MENI, IKOBI KAIRI) [MEB] 650 (1977 R. Lloyd SIL), including 350 Ikobi, 300 Mena (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gulf Province, south of Kibirowi Island, around upper Omati River and around Middle Turama River. Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian. Dialects: MENI, MENA, PIMURU, GORAU, UTABI. Closest language is Omati (Mini). Wurm and Hattori treat Ikobi and Mena as separate languages.

IMBONGU (IMBO UNGU, IBO UGU, IMBONGGO, AWA, AUA, AU) [IMO] 16,000 (1985 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel. Altitude: 5,500 to 7,000 feet. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

IMONDA [IMN] 250 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, near Imonda airstrip. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. A separate language from Waris. Grammar. Survey needed.

INAPANG (MIDSIVINDI) [MZU] 1,611 (1990 census). Madang Province, Josephstaal Subdistrict. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan.

INOKE-YATE (INOKE, YATE) [INO] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria. NT 1992. Bible portions 1968-1987.

IPIKO (IPIKOI, HIGA, EPAI) [IPK] 200 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, 5 miles up Pie River beyond Baimuri, villages of Ipiko and Pahemuba. Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Ipiko. Slightly related to Minanibai and Tao-Suamato. Semi-nomadic. Vigorous language use. Tropical forest. Lowland swamp. Altitude: Below 300 meters.

IPILI (IPILI-PAIELA, IPILI-PAYALA) [IPI] 7,764 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Enga Province around Porgera patrol post. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. Dialect: TIPININI. Tipinini dialect is more like Enga. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,200 meters. Bible portions 1978. Work in progress.

IRUMU (GUMIA, UPPER IRUMU, TUMA) [IOU] 1,300 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Wantoat District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 1,350 meters. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

ISABI (MARUHIA) [ISA] 280 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman. Related languages: Biyom, Tauya, Faita. Survey needed.

ISEBE (BALAHAIM) [IGO] 913 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, northern bank of Gum River, west of Madang Town. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Dialects: ISEBE, URUKUN, MIRKUK. Related languages: Sihan, Gumalu, Amele, Bau, Panim. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 60 to 250 meters. Christian, traditional religion, cargo cult. Survey needed.

ITERI (ASOWI, SORIMIN, YINIBU) [ITR] 128 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, between the Rocky Peak and Bo languages geographically and linguistically. Left May. Area seldom entered by outsiders. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

ITUTANG [ITU] 220 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Related languages: Romkun, Breri, Kominimung, Akrukay, Igana, Inapang. Survey needed.

IWAL (KAIWA) [KBM] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, between Wau and Salamaua. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Kaiwa. Close to Yabem. NT 1984. Bible portions 1975.

IWAM (MAY RIVER) [IWM] 2,000 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam. Close to Amal and Sepik Iwam. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

IWAM, SEPIK (YAWENIAN) [IWS] 2,500 (1987 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Villages along the Sepik River, and on lagoons north and south of the River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Iwam. Riverine. Sago gatherers, fishermen. NT 1989. Bible portions 1971.

JILIM [JIL] 409 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Kwato, Ogea, Usu, Duduela, Rerau, Yangulam. Survey needed.

JIMAJIMA (DIMA) [JMA] 542 (1971 Dutton). Milne Bay Province, along the coast east of Moi Bay almost to Midino, and along the Ruaba River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. Dialects: WEST COASTAL JIMAJIMA, EAST INLAND JIMAJIMA. 41% lexical similarity with Daga (closest). Jimajima and Paiwa are spoken in villages in the same area.

KABADI (GABADI) [KBT] 1,500 (1975 SIL). Central Province, north of Galley Reach. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Gabadi. 49% lexical similarity with Doura (closest).

KAIAN (KAYAN) [KCT] 322 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien. Survey needed.

KAIEP (SAMAP) [KBW] 300 (1993 SIL). East Sepik Province, coast around Taul at Kaiep. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru. May be intelligible with Manam and Terebu. Survey needed.

KAIRAK [CKR] 750 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. Many people are passively bilingual in Uramat. There is a primary school. Mountains and foothills. Survey needed.

KAIRIRU [KXA] 3,507 (1981 R. Wivell). East Sepik Province, Wewak District, Kairiru, Yuo, Karesau Islands, several coastal villages on the mainland between Cape Karawop and Cape Samein, and northern and western Mushu Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru. Close to Kaiep. Speakers are highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Grammar. Survey needed.

KAKABAI (IGORA) [KQF] 1,134 (1979 census). Inland villages, eastern tip of Papua, Milne Bay Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Kakabai. People are partially bilingual in Wedau and Motu.

KAKI AE (TATE, RAEPA TATI, TATI, LORABADA, LOU) [TBD] 310 (1993 SIL). Gulf Province, southeast of Kerema. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Tate. The people are bilingual in Toaripi. Distinct from Torricelli (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Lou in Manus Province. Altitude: sea level to 15 meters.

KALAM (AFORO, KARAM) [KMH] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Ramu District, and in Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, along the north side of the Jimi River into the Kaironk Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Kalam-Kobon. Related languages: Gants, Kobon. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,000 meters. NT 1992. Bible portions 1982-1986.

KALAMO (NOMAD, TOMU, TOMU RIVER) [KKC] 500 (1992 SIL). Western Province from south bank of middle Rentoul River past the middle Tomu River in Southern Highlands Province. Most at Wawoi Falls now. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland. Closest to Agala and Konai. Work in progress.

KALOU (YAWA) [YWA] 820 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, northwest of Hauna in the Sepik Iwam area. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama. Tropical forest. Lowland swamp.

KALULI (BOSAVI) [BCO] 2,500 (1994 Grosh SIL). Southern Highlands Province, extending into Western Province, on the northern and western slopes of Mt. Bosavi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Dialects: OLOGO, KALULI, WALULU, KUGENESI. No significant dialect differencess. Closely related to but different from Kasua. 'Bosavi' is a geographic name. Some speakers between 15 and 25 years old speak a little Tok Pisin for common topics. Typology: SOV; prepositions; articles, adjectives, numerals after noun heads; question word initial; 1-4 prefixes; word order important; affixes indicate case; verb affixes mark person; ergativity; CV, CVC, CVV; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Tok Pisin, English for Tok Pisin: 0:60%, 1:20%, 2:15%, 3:5%, 4:0%, 5:0%; English: 0:89%, 1:8%, 2-5:3%. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 800 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Selections 1979. Work in progress.

KAMANO (KAMANO-KAFE) [KBQ] 70,000 (1994 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Henganofi districts. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria. No major dialect differences. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Savannah, scrub forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists: coffee cash crop. Altitude: 1,800 meters. NT 1977-1982. Bible portions 1967.

KAMASA [KLP] 20 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, in part of the Katsiong census unit. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Nearly extinct.

KAMASAU (WAND TUAN) [KMS] 787 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Wewak District. Segi is in Kamasau, Tring, and Wau villages, Hagi in Kenyari and Paruwa, Ghini in Yibab and Wandomi. Torricelli, Marienberg. Dialects: HAGI, SEGI, GHINI. Bible portions 1985-1992. Work in progress.

KAMBAIRA [KYY] 135 (1971 Wurm). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Kambaira. Trilingual in Binumarien, Gadsup. Survey needed.

KAMBERATARO (DERA, DRA, MANGGUAR, KOMBERATORO, KAMBERATORO) [KBV] 687 in Papua New Guinea; 1,000 in Irian Jaya (1987 SIL); 1,700 in all countries. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, both sides of the Faringi River. Trans-New Guinea, Senagi. Dialects: NORTH KAMBERATARO, SOUTH KAMBERATARO, MENGAU, LIHEN, DUKA-EKOR.

KAMULA (KAMURA, WAWOL) [KHM] 740 (1992 SIL). Villages of Wasapea, Aramia River area, and villages of Keseki, Sokolonepi, Wawoi Falls area, Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare. Speakers are basically monolingual. The closest language is Pare (G. Reesink SIL 1976). Work in progress.

KANASI (DIMA, SONA) [SOQ] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on both sides of the main range river valleys from Mt. Thomson. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. 42% lexical similarity with Ginuman (closest). Grammar. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1993.

KANDAS (KING) [KQW] 480 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Watpi, King, and Kait villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Survey needed.

KANDAWO (NARAKE) [GAM] 5,000 (1994 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District in the upper Jimi headwaters, on the slopes of Mt. Wilhelm. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi. Mountain slope. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

KANIET [KTK] Manus Province, Anchorite and Kaniet Islands, western. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western. Extinct since 1950.

KANINGRA (KANINGARA) [KNR] 327 (2 villages). East Sepik Province, Blackwater River just south of Kuvanmas Lake. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Alamblak. Highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Survey needed.

KANITE [KMU] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria. Closely related to Keyagana, Inoke-Yate. NT 1980. Bible portions 1965-1968.

KANUM (ENKELEMBU) [KCD] 320 in all countries (1975 Wurm). Western Province, southwestern half of area between Fly River and coast. Also in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. Dialects: NORTH KANUM (SOTA), SOUTH KANUM, CENTRAL KANUM (BRONGA, BERONK). 4 different languages. Related to Ara, Aramba, Blafe, Bothar, Peremka. 4 primary schools. Savannah, tropical forest. Lowland swamp. Altitude: below 300 meters.

KAPIN (SAMBIO, TAIAK, TAYEK, KATUMENE) [TBX] 2,351 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Bulolo District, 5 villages in the hills southwest of Mumeng, and settlements in Wau and Lae. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Dialects: KAPIN, GARAWA (GAWAWA). May be part of the Mumeng language chain. Kapin is used with other Kapin speakers. Tok Pisin is used with others by all under the age of 40, and by men and half the women over 40. Tok Pisin is used in church; Yabem was the former church language. There is some literacy in Tok Pisin; possibly 10% are fluent readers, 25% halting. Roads give access to Lae. Typology: SVO, prepositions, genitives before nouns, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads, V, CV, CVC, CVV, CVVC, CVCC, VC, non-tonal. Tropical forest, gallery forest. Mountain valley. Swidden agriculturalists, coffee producers, gold traders. Altitude: 1600 to 3500 feet. Traditional religion.

KAPRIMAN (WASARE, MUGUMUTE) [DJU] 1,450 in 6 villages (1986 PBT). East Sepik Province, Blackwater River and Korosameri River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Dialects: KAPRIMAN, KARAMBIT. Survey needed.

KARA (LEMUSMUS, LEMAKOT) [LEU] 4,800 (1991 SIL). New Ireland Province, northern New Ireland District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Dialects: EAST KARA, WEST KARA. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. Bible portions 1982-1986. Work in progress.

KARAMI [XAR] Gulf Province, on Western Province border, northeast of Tao-Suamoto. Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai. Extinct.

KARAWA (BULAWA) [QKR] 463 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ram. Related languages: Awtuw, Pouye. Pouye speakers consider Karawa to be part of their language, although they have only 67% lexical similarity. Survey needed.

KARE [KMF] 384 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kare. Survey needed.

KARKAR-YURI (YURI, KARKAR) [YUJ] 1,142 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, along the Irian Jaya border. Language Isolate. Dialects: NORTH CENTRAL YURI, AUIA-TARAUWI, USARI. No known relationships. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 100 to 700 meters. NT 1994. Bible portions 1986-1990.

KARORE [XKX] 500 to 600 (1995 SIL). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Dialect chain with Kaulong and Getmata. Survey needed.

KASUA [KHS] 600 in 6 villages (1990 SILm). Southern Highlands Province, east and south of Mt. Bosavi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Work in progress.

KÂTE (KAI, KÂTE DONG) [KMG] 6,125 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Dialects: MAGOBINENG (BAMOTA), WAMORA (WAMOLA), WEMO, PAREC, WANA. Used by Lutherans as a religious language in the area for 80,000 (1980 UBS). Those listed as dialects may be separate languages. Dictionary. Christian. Bible 1978. NT 1938-1965. Bible portions 1919-1965.

KAULONG (PASISMANUA, KOWLONG) [PSS] 3,000 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Kandrian District, southwest hinterland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Dialects: KAULONG, EAST INLAND KAULONG. Dialect chain. Miu, Bao, and Senseng are treated as dialects by Wurm and Hattori. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 25 to 500 meters. Work in progress.

KAUWOL (KAWOL, KAVWOL) [KYW] 500 in all countries (1971 Wurm). Western Province, upper Kauwol Valley on both sides of Irian Jaya-Papua New Guinea border. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Closely related to Faiwol. Setaman is a related language.

KAWACHA (KAWATSA) [KCB] 30 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, east of Ampale, in part of the Katsiong census unit. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Speakers are bilingual in Yagwoia. Nearly extinct.

KELA (GELA, KELANA, LAUKANU) [KCL] 2,145 (1980 census). Morobe Province, southern coast of Huon Gulf, between Salamaua and Kui, Paiawa River. 10 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North. Coastal.

KELE (GELE') [SBC] 600 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, south coast inland, Buyang, Droia, Kawaliap, Koruniat, Tingau. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Bilingual in Kurti and Ere. Typology: SVO. Win Nesien cult. Survey needed.

KENATI (KENATHI, GANATI, AZIANA) [GAT] 950 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Wonenara District. All 3 villages are within ten miles of Wonenara. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kenati. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: sweet potatoes, yams, bananas, coffee. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

KEOPARA (KEAPARA, KEREPUNU) [KHZ] 16,423 (1975 SIL). Central Province, coast from east of Hood Peninsula to Lalaura west of Cape Rodney. 3 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara. Dialects: BABAGA, KALO, KEOPARA, AROMA (ARONA, ALOMA, GALOMA), MAOPA, WANIGELA, KAPARI, LALAURA. Dialect chain to Hula. High educational standard and income level. Coastal. Bible portions 1892-1905.

KEREWO (KEREWA, KEREWA-GOARI) [KXZ] 2,200 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, west bank of Omati River, east and inland to Samoa village. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian. Dialect: GIBARIO (GOARIBARI). Bible portions 1926-1941.

KERIAKA [KJX] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North Solomons Province, coast. East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Keriaka.

KESAWAI (NAMUYA) [QKE] 538 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia. Related languages: Sinsauru, Asas, Sausi, Dumpu. Survey needed.

KEURU (KEURO, BELEPA, HAURA, HAURA HAELA) [QQK] 4,523 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gulf Province, from the mouth of the Purari River east to the Bairu River. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western. Dialect: AHEAVE. Survey needed.

KEWA, EAST [KJS] 25,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu and Kagua districts. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. Bible portions 1967-1988.

KEWA, WEST (PASUMA) [KEW] 25,000 (1982 SIL). Southern Highlands Province, Kagua and Mendi districts. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, some savannah, scrub forest. Mountain mesa. Swidden agriculturalists, some cash crops. Altitude: below 2,000 meters. NT 1973.

KEYAGANA (KEIGANA, KEIAGANA, KE'YAGANA) [KYG] 12,284 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Okapa and Henganofi districts, Eastern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1969.

KHEHEK (LEVEI-DREHET, LEVEI-NDREHET) [TLX] 1,600 (1991 SIL). Manus Province, Soparibeu District. Ndrehet, Levei, and Bucho villages; Ndrehet is the center. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Dialects: LEVEI (LEBEI, LEBEJ), DREHET (KHEHEK, CHEHEK, CHECHEK), BUCHO. Those in the Levei area speak a dialect closely related to that of Bucho in the south. A distinct language from Tulu and Bohuai. Work in progress.

KIBIRI (POROME, POLOME) [PRM] 1,100 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Kikori District, near Aird Hills, on several tributaries of Kikori River, villages of Tipeowo, Doibo, Paile, Babaguina, Ero, and Wowa. Language Isolate. Dialects: AIRD HILLS (KIBIRI), POROME. Unrelated to other languages in Gulf Province. Distinct from Kairi, which is also called Kibiri.

KILMERI (KILMERA) [KIH] 2,231 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District near Ossima. 15 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani. Dialects: WESTERN KILMERI (ISI), EASTERN KILMERI (OSSIMA). Bible portions 1880.

KINALAKNA [KCO] 219 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Survey needed.

KIRE (GIRE, GIRI, KIRE-PUIRE) [GEB] 2,000 (1986 PBT). Madang Province, lower Ramu, around Garati village. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

KILIVILA (KIRIWINA) [KIJ] 22,000 (1991 UBS). Milne Bay Province, Trobriand Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila. Dialects: KITAVA, VAKUTA, SINAKETA. 68% lexical similarity with Muyuw (closest). Kitava Island has 80% lexical similarity. Various dialects. Many schools. Dictionary. Grammar. Agriculturalists: yam, sweet potato, taro, cassava, greens, coconuts. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1985. Bible portions 1908-1995.

KIS [KIS] 216 (1977 Lincoln). East Sepik Province, 10 to 20 miles south southeast of Samap, inland from the coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Survey needed.

KIWAI, NORTHEAST (GIBAIO) [KIW] 4,400 including 1,300 in Kope, 700 in Gibaio, 1,700 in Urama, 700 in Arigibi (1986 Foley). Gulf Province. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian. Dialects: GIBAIO, KOPE (GOPE, ERA RIVER), URAMA, ARIGIBI (ANIGIBI). Wurm and Hattori treat Arigibi as a separate language.

KIWAI, SOUTHERN [KJD] 9,700 (1975 Wurm); including 3,800 in Coast Kiwai; 1,000 in Daru; 4,500 in Island Kiwai; 400 in Doumori. Western Province, Fly River Delta. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian. Dialects: DOUMORI, COAST KIWAI, SOUTHERN COAST KIWAI, DARU KIWAI, EASTERN KIWAI, ISLAND KIWAI. NT 1960. Bible portions 1911-1927.

KIWAI, WABUDA (WABUDA) [KMX] 2,000 (1993 SIL). Western Province, Wabuda Island. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian.

KOBON [KPW] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Middle Ramu District, and Western Highlands Province on Kaironk River in lower Jimi River area north of Mt. Hagen. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Kalam-Kobon. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,000 meters. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

KOGUMAN [QKG] 943 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Omosan. Related language: Abasakur. Survey needed.

KOIALI, MOUNTAIN (MOUNTAIN KOIARI) [KPX] 1,700 (1975 SIL). Central Province, Port Moresby District, north of Koita, Koiari, and Barai. One village is Efogi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric. 50% to 57% lexical similarity with Grass Koiari (closest). Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 800 to 1,400 meters. NT 1981. Bible portions 1974.

KOIARI, GRASS (KOIARI) [KBK] 1,800 (1973 SIL). Central Province, east of Port Moresby and to coast. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric. 60% to 65% lexical similarity with Koitabu (closest). Dictionary.

KOITABU (KOITA) [KQI] 3,000 (1989 SIL). Central Province, around Port Moresby. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Koiaric. Dialects: WEST KOITA, EAST KOITA. Some speakers are bilingual in Hiri Motu, Motu, Tok Pisin, or English. 60% to 65% lexical similarity with Grass Koiari (closest). Levels of bilingualism in Hiri Motu, Motu, Tok Pisin, English for Hiri Motu: 0:33%, 1:10%, 2:20%, 3:20%, 4:13%, 5:4%; Motu: 0:80%, 1+:5%, 2+:5%, 3+:5%, 4+:5%, 5:0%. Traditionally hunters, agriculturalists.

KOIWAT [KXT] 450 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Survey needed.

KOL (KOLE, KOLA) [KOL] 4,000 (1991 SIL), including 1,300 Sui; 1,900 Kol (1987). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, Open Bay to the waterfall. Most are on the south side of the Island. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain. Dialects: SUI, KOL (NAKGAKTAI). Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain mesa. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 800 meters. Work in progress.

KOLOM [KLM] 209 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Survey needed.

KOLUAWA (KALOKALO, KOLUWAWA) [KLX] 1,000 (1992 SIL). Milne Bay Province, northwest tip of Fergusson Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. 64% lexical similarity with Iamalele (closest). Work in progress.

KOMBA [KPF] 12,235 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Kabwum District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Dialects: EAST KOMBA, CENTRAL KOMBA, WEST CENTRAL KOMBA, BORDER KOMBA, WEST KOMBA. Typology: SOV. Savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,330 to 2,000 meters. NT 1980. Bible portions 1974.

KOMBIO (ENDANGEN) [KOK] 2,545 (1980 census). East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, Torricelli Mts. 31 villages. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Dialects: NORTH KOMBIO, CENTRAL KOMBIO, SOUTH KOMBIO. Typology: SVO. Tropical rainforest. No significant natural water source but high water table. Foothills, mountain ridges. Agriculturalists: yam, sweet potato, coffee, cocoa; coconut, sago. Altitude: 900 to 3,000 feet. Selections 1993. Work in progress.

KOMINIMUNG [QKM] 328 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Related languages: Romkun, Breri, Igana, Akrukay, Itutang, Inapang. Survey needed.

KOMUTU [KLT] 510 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa. Survey needed.

KONAI (MIRAPMIN) [KXW] 600 (1991 SIL). Western Province, west side of Upper Strickland River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland. Closest to Kalamo and Agala. Work in progress.

KONOMALA [KOA] 800 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, southeastern coast. 8 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Dialects: LAKET, KONOMALA. People now apparently speak Siar. Survey needed.

KOPAR [QKO] 229 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Nor. Related language: Murik. Survey needed.

KORAFE (KORAPE, KORAFI, KWARAFE, KAILIKAILI) [KPR] 4,200 (1973 SIL). Oro Province, Tufi District, near Baruga. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: YEGA (MOKORUA), KORAFE. 44% lexical similarity with Baruga (closest). Yega dialect is distinct from Gona, also called 'Yega'. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. NT 1984.

KORAK [KOZ] 205 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Kowan. Survey needed.

KORO [KXR] 400 (1983 SIL). Manus Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Close to, and possibly intelligible with, Papitalai. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

KOROMIRA [KQJ] 1,562 including 1,448 Koromira and 114 Koianu (1990 C. Hurd SIL). North Solomons Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. Dialects: KOROMIRA, KOIANU. Koianu may need separate literature. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Swidden agriculturalists: cash crops.

KOSENA [KZE] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Okapa districts. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain ridges. Agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,200 to 2,000 meters. NT 1980. Bible portions 1973.

KOSORONG [KSR] 1,175 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 5 villages and 5 hamlets in the central Huon Peninsula between the Kuat and Burum rivers, south of Mindik airstrip. Burum and Kuat are tributaries of the Mongi River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Vigorous language use. Kâte, the church language, is decreasing in use; Tok Pisin is increasing. One community school. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 1,800 meters.

KOVAI (UMBOI, KOBAI, KOWAI) [KQB] 4,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, Umboi or Rooke Island, 12 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Kovai. Plateau. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

KOVE [KVC] 6,750 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. 24 villages, most on small islands off the coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. A separate language from Kaliai. Many highly educated people. Grammar. Coastal, coral islands. Swidden agricultualists; fishermen. Altitude: sea level.

KOWAKI [QKK] 31 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran. Related languages: Mawak, Hinihon, Musar, Wanambre. Survey needed.

KRISA [KRO] 400 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province near coast. Sko, Krisa. Related languages: Rawo, Puari, Warapu.

KUANUA (TOLAI, GUNANTUNA, TINATA TUNA, TUNA, BLANCHE BAY, NEW BRITAIN LANGUAGE) [KSD] 61,000 (1991 SIL); 80,000 including second language speakers (1985 UBS). East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle Peninsula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Dialects: VUNADIDIR, RAPITOK, RALUANA, VANUMAMI, LIVUAN, MATUPIT, KOKOPO, KABAKADA, NODUP, KININANGGUNAN, RAKUNEI, REBAR, WATOM, MASAWA. 'Tolai' is the name of the people; 'Kuanua' of the language. Trade language on New Britain and New Ireland. Braille code available. Bible 1983. NT 1901-1962. Bible portions 1885-1931.

KUBE (MONGI, HUBE) [KGF] 6,000 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Dindiu District, at the eastern headwaters of the Mongi River, on the eastern slopes of the lower Kua River valley and Foris River Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Dialects: KURUNGTUFU, YOANGEN (YOANGGENG). Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Work in progress.

KUMAI (MID WAHGI) [KMI] 3,938. Western Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi. Close to Kuman. Bible portions 1934. Survey needed.

KUMALU (KUMARA) [KSL] 2,583 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In the Mumeng language chain. Some intelligibility with Dambi. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters.

KUMAN (CHIMBU, SIMBU) [KUE] 80,000 (1994 SIL). Simbu Province, Kundiawa Subprovince, overlapping into Minj Subprovince of Western Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Dialects: KUMAN, NAGANE (GENAGANE, GENOGANE). Major language of area. 'Simbu' is the official name. Trade language. Bible portions 1968-1995. Work in progress.

KUMUKIO (KUMOKIO) [KUO] 552 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Survey needed.

KUNI [KSE] 4,500 (1993 SIL). Central Province, Kairuku and southwest Goilala districts, towards Port Moresby, south of Mekeo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. 52% lexical similarity with Nara, 47% with Mekeo, 40% with Roro, the closest varieties.

KUNIMAIPA [KUP] 11,000 (1991 SIL); including 1,429 in Morobe Province (1978 McElhanon). Central Province, northern Goilala District; Morobe Province, Wau District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa. Dialects: KARUAMA, KATE (HATE), GAJILI (GAJILA, GAZILI, HAZILI). Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 to 2,000 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1990. Bible portions 1979-1980.

KUNJA (LOWER MOREHEAD, THUNDAI-KANZA, PEREMKA) [PEP] 223 (1980 census). Western Province, extreme southwest. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. Dialects: GAMBADI, SEMARIJI. Related to Kanum, Aramba, Bothar, Rouku. Swamp, savannah. Altitude: below 300 meters.

KUNUA (KONUA, NAPOISI, RAPOISI) [KYX] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Northwest North Solomons Province, Kunua District. All villages are inland. East Papuan, Bougainville, West. Tok Pisin used in schools. Vigorous Kunua use. Close to Eivo and Keriaka. Work in progress.

KUOT (KUAT, PANARAS) [KTO] 1,000 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, northwest coast. 9 villages. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Kuot. Language use is vigorous on the west coast. Coastal. Bible portions 1994. Work in progress.

KURTI (KURUTI, KURUTI-PARE, NDRUGUL) [KTM] 2,600 (1990 census). Manus Province, north central coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. 50% to 75% literate. Typology: SVO. Work in progress.

KWALE (KWARE, TWARE, UARE) [KSJ] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Rigo Inland District, on the coast south of Port Moresby, Kemp Welsh River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean. Dialects: GARIA, KWALE. 65% to 74% lexical similarity with Humeme (closest). Different from Kware in the Bosavi family, Western Province. Work in progress.

KWATO (WAUPE) [KOP] 778 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Uya, Ogea, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam.

KWOMA (WASHKUK) [KMO] 2,865 in about 12 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, along the Sepik River, along the Sanchi River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. Dialects: KWOMA (WASHKUK), NUKUMA. Grammar. 15% to 25% literate. Low mountains, riverine. Swidden agriculturalists; sago; fishermen. Altitude: 50 meters. NT 1975. Bible portions 1968.

KWOMTARI [KWO] 900 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, north of Namia. 6 villages. Kwomtari-Baibai, Kwomtari. Dialects: WEST CENTRAL KWOMTARI, EKOS-YENABI-MARAGIN. Kwomtari is used for home and village life. Some men and boys and a few women can communicate in Tok Pisin. One school. Tropical forest. Swamp. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

KYAKA (BAIYER, ENGA-KYAKA) [KYC] 15,368 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Enga Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. NT 1973. Bible portions 1961-1987.

KYENELE (KEÑELE, KEYELE, KENEN BIRANG, KYENYING-BARANG, KENYING BULANG, MIYAK) [KQL] 1,000 (1986 UBS). East Sepik Province, Giling village, Yuat River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat. Bible portions 1994. Survey needed.

LABEL [LBB] 144 (1979 census). New Ireland Province, southwest coast, Nasko and Tampakar villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Survey needed.

LABU (LABU', LABO, HAPA) [LBU] 1,600, including 800 in Labu-Butu (1989 SIL). Morobe Province, coast near the mouth of the Markham River. 3 communities: Labu-Butu, Labu-Miti, and Labu-Tali. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Labu. Children are taught Tok Pisin first; use of Tok Pisin is active. Those who attend school learn English. Yabem was the church language, and there were schools in Yabem. Labu is only used in the home, especially when older people are present. The economy is strong, but the culture seems in decline. Grammar.

LAEKO-LIBUAT (LAEKO, LAEKO-LIMBUAT) [LKL] 538 including 518 in area and 20 outside (1978 census). Sandaun Province, Torricelli Mts., west of Mehek. Torricelli, Maimai, Laeko-Libuat.

LAMOGAI [LMG] 3,653 (1980 Johnston). West New Britain Province, northwest interior, and 2 regions on the south coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling, Rauto. Dialects: IBANGA (IVANGA), PULIE-RAUTO (RAUTO, ROTO). Work in progress.

LANGAM [LNM] 254 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Mongol-Langam. Related languages: Mongol, Yaul. Survey needed.

LANTANAI [LNI] 300 (1990 C. Hurd SIL). North Solomons Province, Kieta District, Piruneu' village. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. The language was quite different from others in the Nasioi group, but it may have converged to be more like Koromira or Nasioi. Survey needed.

LAUA (LABU) [LUF] 1 speaker (1987 SIL). Central Province, north and west of Laua. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. Different from Austronesian Labu in Morobe Province. Nearly extinct.

LAVATBURA-LAMUSONG (LAMASONG) [LBV] 1,308 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, central. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak. Dialects: UGANA, KONTU, LAVATBURA, LAMUSONG (LAMASONG). Survey needed.

LEIPON (PITILU, PITYILU) [LEK] 650 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Lolo village, Hauwai, Ndrilo, and Pityilu islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Speakers are very bilingual in Lele. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

LELE (LELE HAI, HAI, USIAI, MOANUS, MANUS, ELU-KARA) [UGA] 1,300 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Manus Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Dialect: SABON. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal, island. Swidden agriculturalists: copra, rubber, cocoa; fishermen. Altitude: sea level. NT 1956. Bible portions 1921.

LEMBENA [LEQ] 1,500 (1994 SIL). Enga Province, northeast corner, and into East Sepik Province. 10 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. Some bilingualism in Enga. Isolated. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Rugged mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 80 to 1520 meters. Work in progress.

LEMIO [LEI] 175 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, several villages on coast near Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Survey needed.

LENKAU [LER] 250 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, southwest Rambutyo Island. 1 village only. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Speakers are bilingual in Titan and Penchal. Typology: SVO.

LESING-ATUI [LET] 929 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, East Arawe. Dialects: LESING, ATUI. 3 primary schools. Tropical forest. Raised coral coast. Survey needed.

LEWADA-DEWARA (LEWADA, DEWALA-LEWADA) [LWD] 450 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, southern bank and hinterland of Fly Estuary, east of Tirio, and on Sumogi Island around Dewala. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. Dialects: BALAMULA (MATARU), DEWALA, LEWADA. 78% lexical similarity with Aturu. Survey needed.

LIHIR (LIR) [LIH] 6,000 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, Lihir Island and 3 smaller islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar. Traditional religion. Selections 1927.

LIKUM [LIB] 100 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Speakers are all bilingual in Lindrou. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

LILAU (NGAIMBOM) [LLL] 449 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Bogia District. Torricelli, Monumbo. Survey needed.

LONIU (LONIO, NDROKU) [LOS] 460 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Lolak and Loniu villages, south coast of Los Negros Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu. Moderate bilingualism in Lele and Papitalai. Close to Bipi. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SVO.

LOTE (UVOL) [UVL] 4,200 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, southeast coast and inland near Cape Dampier. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen. Easily accessible by sea or air. Work in progress.

LOU [LOJ] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Manus Province, Lou Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Dialect: REI. Three very similar dialects. Rei is dominant. The people are bilingual in Baluan-Pam and Titan. Distinct from Torricelli (Lou) in East Sepik Province or Tate (Lou) in Gulf Province. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

LUKEP (SIASI, SIASSI, TOLOKIWA, LOKEP) [LOA] 591 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Tolokiwa and north tip of Umboi Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Close to Arop.

LUSI (KALIAI) [KHL] 2,000 (1994 SIL). West New Britain Province, northwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Dialect: KALIAI. A distinct language from Kove. Grammar.

MADAK (MANDAK, LELET) [MMX] 3,000 (1985 UBS). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Madak. Dialects: DANU, KATINGAN, LELET, MESI, MALOM. NT 1995. Bible portions 1982-1992.

MAGORI [MDR] 200 (1971 Dutton). Central Province, eastern end of Table Bay, lower reaches of Bailebo-Tavenei River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric. Vocabulary is heavily influenced by Mailu. Most speakers are bilingual or trilingual in Suau, the Gadaisu dialect of Suau, Mailu, or Hiri Motu. Ouma, Yoba, and Bina are separate languages. Probably extinct.

MAIA (SAKI, PILA, SUARO, TURUTAP, YAKIBA, MAYA) [SKS] 2,500 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, on the mainland south of Manam Island. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran. Bible portions 1988. Work in progress.

MAIANI (TANI, BANARA, WAGIMUDA, MIANI SOUTH) [TNH] 2,496 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Bogia District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran. Distinct from Mala (Banara). Bible portions 1982-1988. Work in progress.

MAILU (MAGI) [MGU] 6,000 (1980 UBS). Central Province, south coast, Gadaisu to Baramata, Table Bay and Toulon Island. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. Dialects: DOMARA, DARAVA, ASIAORO, DEREBAI, ISLAND, GEAGEA, BOREBO, ILAI, BAIBARA. Education standard above average. Related dialect or language: Laua. NT 1936-1979. Bible portions 1907-1920.

MAISIN (MAISAN) [MBQ] 3,000 (1996 John Barker). Oro Province, villages along coast of Collingwood Bay and Kosirava swamp. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Maisin. Dialects: KOSIRAVA, MAISIN. Most Maisin are fluent in Oyan and Korafe, as well as Ubir. Dialects have 73% lexical similarity, but there is little interaction between the speakers. No closely related languages. Literacy varies from 20% to 80% in different areas. Coastal, swamps.

MAIWA [MTI] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on the northern slopes and foothills of the Meneao Range eastward from the Mt. Tantam Valley of the Ruaba River; it reaches the coast of Moi Bin Bay, extending into Oro Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. Dialects: BINIGUNI, WAPON, PUMANI, BAIAWA. Closest lexical similarity is with Mapena at 41%. Wedau is used as church language. Swamp and lowlands. Work in progress.

MAIWALA (TAUPOTA) [TPA] 2,700 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, area from the head of Milne Bay north to Taupota village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Dialects: MAIWALA (MAIVARA), LAVIAM, WAIEMA. Maiwala is the major dialect. 72% lexical similarity with Tawala (closest). Speakers know English, Motu, Wedau, Tawala. Many schools.

MAKOLKOL [ZMH] 7 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. Nearly extinct.

MALA (MALALA, PAY, PAI, ALAM, BANARA, DAGOI, HATZFELDHAFEN, DAGUI) [PED] 769 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Bogia District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran. Distinct from Maiani (Banara), and from Pei (Pai) in Walio group. Typology: SOV. Savannah, scrub, tropical forest. Coastal, mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists, fishermen. Altitude: sea level. Bible portions 1982-1988. Work in progress.

MALALAMAI (BONGA) [MMT] 341 (1977 Lincoln). Madang Province, Rai coast east and west of Saidor; Malalamai and Bonga villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Bariai. Survey needed.

MALAS [MKR] 220 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province near Tokain. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Mabuan. Survey needed.

MALASANGA [MQZ] 435 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, north coast, two villages: Malasanga and Singorakai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Korap. Dialects: MALASANGA, SINGORAKAI. Separate from Barim. Survey needed.

MALE (KOLIKU) [MDC] 393 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast south of Bom. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Related to Bongu and Anjam. Survey needed.

MALEU-KILENGE (IDNE) [MGL] 5,000 (1991 SIL), including 440 Kilenge (M. Ross 1988). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, western tip. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Kilenge-Maleu. Dialects: MALEU, KILENGE (KAITAROLEA). Wurm and Hattori (1981), and M. Ross (1988) treat Maleu and Kilenge as separate languages. Typology: SVO. Savannah, tropical forest. Coastal, mountain slope, volcanic. Swidden agriculturalists. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

MALI (GAKTAI) [GCC] 2,200 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, eastern Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. A distinct language within the Baining ethnic group. Two dialects. Several primary schools. Mountains sloping to coastline.

MALOL (MALON, MALOLO) [MBK] 3,330. Sandaun Province, around Malol village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Distinct enough from Sissano, Arop-Sissano, and Sera that it will probably need separate literature. Survey needed.

MAMAA (MAMA) [MHF] 198 in one village (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Survey needed.

MAMUSI (KAKUNA) [KDF] 6,000 (1985 SIL). East New Britain Province, southeast coast, inland on the Melkoi and Torlu rivers. Inland villages are up to 40 km. from the coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen. Dialects: MAMUSI, MELKOI (KAKUNA). Mamusi is used for home and village life. Scattered village schools. Only young people are literate. Bushy area. Altitude: 3,000 feet. Work in progress.

MANAGALASI (MANAGULASI) [MCQ] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Oro Province, Popondetta District, southeast of the Omie. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic. Dialects: MUATURAINA, CHIMONA, DEA, AKABAFA, NAMI, MESARI, AVERI, AFORE, MINJORI, OKO, WAKUE, NUMBA, JIMUNI, KARIRA. Dictionary. Mountains. Agriculturalists: taro, bananas, pineapple. Traditional religion. NT 1975. Bible portions 1966-1968.

MANAM (MANUM) [MVA] 6,500 (1991 SIL). Manam and Boesa islands, Madang Province, Bogia District, and in Sepa and Wanami on the adjacent mainland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Dialect: WANAMI. Related to Wogeo, Biem, Sepa, Medebur. Different from Manem. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1988.

MANAMBU [MLE] 2,058 in 3 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti Subprovince, villages along the Sepik River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Different from Manumbo in Madang Province. Riverine. Fishermen; sago. Altitude: 50 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1979. Bible portions 1972.

MANDARA (MADARA, TABAR) [TBF] 2,500 (1985 SIL). New Ireland Province, Simberi, Tatau, Tabar and one other island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Dialects: SIMBERI, TATAU, TABAR. SelectionsWork in progress.

MANDI (IMANDI) [TUA] 162 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, coast about 15 miles southeast of Wewak. Torricelli, Marienberg. Survey needed.

MANDOBO ("KAETI", KWEM) [KZH] 10,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Western Province, east of Fly River around Maporoan and Kwem. Also in Irian Jaya. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Work in progress.

MANEM (YETI, JETI, WEMBI, SKOFRO) [JET] 500 in Papua New Guinea (1993 SIL); 400 in Irian Jaya (1978); 900 in both countries. Sandaun Province, 1 village; Skotiau. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. 50% lexical similarity with Waris (closest). Significant literacy in Tok Pisin and Bahasa Indonesia. Different from Manam.

MANGSING (MASEGI, MASEKI, MANGSENG) [MBH] 2,000 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, and East New Britain Province, Pomio District, northwest coast inland to southwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe. Dialects: SAMPANTABIL, ROKO (RUGO, ROGO), MIRAPU, KUKULA. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

MAPE [MLH] 5,117 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province along the Mape River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Dialects: NAGA, MAPE, NIGAC, FUKAC. Close to Kâte, which is the lingua franca. Naga and Nigac dialects may be extinct. Survey needed.

MAPENA [MNM] 274 (1973 SIL). Milne Bay Province, around Mt. Gwoira. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. 51% lexical similarity with Daga (closest). Survey needed.

MARAMBA [MYD] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Maramba. Survey needed.

MARI (HOP) [HOB] 806 (1988 Holzknecht). Madang Province, upper Ramu River. 4 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain. Different from Mari of East Sepik Province and Mari of Western Province. Survey needed.

MARI [MBX] 120 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, near Mari Lake and on Salumei River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Different from Mari of Madang Province and Mari of Western Province. Speakers are highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Survey needed.

MARI (DORRO) [MXW] 84 (1980 census). Western Province, south coast near Tais, and inland about 10 miles. 1 village. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Nambu. Closely related to Tais. Related to Kanum, Aramba, Bothar, Nambu, Peremka, Rouku. Different from Mari of East Sepik Province, and Mari of Madang Province. Survey needed.

MARIA (MANUBARA) [MDS] 870 (1980 census). Central Province, Marshall Lagoon to Mt. Brown; a remote area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Manubaran. Dialects: DIDIGARU, MARIA, GEBI, OIBU, AMOTA, IMILA, UDERI. 63% lexical similarity with Doromu (closest).

MARING (MARENG, YOADABE-WATOARE) [MBW] 8,000 (1987 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. A small number are over the Bismarck Range in Madang Province. 18 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi. Dialects: CENTRAL MARING, EASTERN MARING, TIMBUNKI, TSUWENKI, KARAMBA, KAMBEGL. Speakers of all dialects understand the central one. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 400 to 2,734 meters. Bible portions 1974-1979. Work in progress.

MATEPI [MQE] 238 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Mosimo, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

MATO (NENAYA, NENGAYA, NINEIA) [NIU] 315 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula. 2 villages west of Singorokai. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya. Survey needed.

MATUKAR [MJK] 219 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 40 miles north of Madang town around Matukar. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern. Related to Gedaged. Coastal. Survey needed.

MAUWAKE (ULINGAN, MAWAKE) [MHL] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, west of Tokain. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan. Related to Moere. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

MAWAK [MJJ] 31 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, southwest of Mauwake. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran. Related to Hinahon. Survey needed.

MAWAN [MCZ] 269 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Gogol River area. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

MBO-UNG (TEMBALO, BO-UNG, MBOUNG) [MUX] 23,000 (1985 SIL); 5,000 Miyemu (1990 UBS). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel. Dialects: MIYEMU (MIYEM), MARA-GOMU, TEMBALO (TEMBAGLO). Some people are bilingual in Medlpa. Typology: SOV. Bible portions 1989-1990. Work in progress.

MBULA (MANGAP-MBULA, MANGAABA, MANGAAWA, MANGAAVA, MANGAP) [MNA] 2,500 (1991 Bugenhagen SIL). Morobe Province, Siassi District, 6 villages on eastern Umboi Island, 1 village on Sakar Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mangap-Mbula. Dialects: MBULA (CENTRAL MBULA), KAIMANGA (NORTHERN MBULA), GAURU. Grammar. Coastal. Altitude: sea level. Bible portions 1989-1990. Work in progress.

MEBU [MJN] 319 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 10 to 20 miles southwest of Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. Related to Yupna, Gabutamon. Survey needed.

MEDEBUR [MJM] 429 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast just north of Sikor at Medebur. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Related to Wogeo, Biem, Sepa, and Manam. Survey needed.

MEDLPA (MELPA, HAGEN) [MED] 130,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen. Dialect: TEMBAGLA. Only slight dialect differences. Swidden agriculturalists: sweet potatoes, yams, taro, maize, coffee. Traditional religion, some Christians. NT 1965-1996. Bible portions 1956-1991.

MEGIAR [MFP] 859 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, on the coast midway between Karim and Matuka. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern. Related to Gedaged. Survey needed.

MEHEK (NUKU, ME'EK, DRIAFLEISUMA, INDINOGOSIMA) [NUX] 6,300 or more (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, Makru-Klaplei area, lower foothills of Torricelli Mts., southeast of Siliput. 9 large villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama. 50% or more of the children are in primary school. Mehek is used in home and village life. Positive language attitude. 51% lexical similarity with Pahi (closest). Mountain slope.

MEKEO (MEKEO-KOVIO) [MEK] 12,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Kaiyuku District, inland, bounded on the west by the Waima, on the east by the Kuni and Kunimaipa. Extends into Gulf Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. Dialects: EAST MEKEO (MEKEO, CENTRAL MEKEO), WEST MEKEO (BUSH MEKEO, TATA), NORTH MEKEO (AMOAMAO, BUSH MEKEO), NORTHWEST MEKEO ("KOVIO"). Kovio is a peripheral or aberrant 'dialect'. It has 81% lexical similarity with West Mekeo and North Mekeo, and 79% with East Mekeo. West and East Mekeo have 87% lexical similarity. North Mekeo has 99% lexical similarity with West Mekeo and 87% with East Mekeo. The four 'dialects' are mutually unintelligible except for North and West Mekeo, but most Mekeo are reported to have familiarity with neighboring 'dialects'. Kovio, however, is not contiguous to the other 'dialects'. Mekeo has 41% lexical similarity with Waima. "Kovio" is perjorative in some contexts. The educational standard is above average. Prestigious language. Patrilineal descent groups. Grammar. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

MEKMEK [MVK] 1,036 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Yuat-Maramba, Yuat. Related languages: Changriwa, Miyak, Biwat, Bun. Survey needed.

MENDE (SEIM, TAU, KUBIWAT) [SIM] 7,600 (1996 SIL). Sandaun Province, Nuku District, east of Mehek. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. 49% lexical similarity to nearest Kwanga village. Related to Yubanakor,. Work in progress.

MENGEN (POENG) [MEE] 8,400 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Pomio District, Jacquinot Bay and inland. 20 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Mengen. Dialects: NORTH COAST MENGEN (MAENG), SOUTH COAST MENGEN (POENG). Some linguists separate Poeng (Mengen 1, Bush Mengen) and Maeng (Mengen 2, Orford, Maenge) into two languages. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 70 meters. Work in progress.

MENYA (MENYE, MENYAMA) [MCR] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District, from the Papua border north along the Tauri River and its tributaries. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest, savannah. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,100 to 2,300 meters. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

MERAMERA (UBILI, MELAMELA) [MXM] 2,000 (1995 SIL). West New Britain Province, Bialla District, northwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Dialect: LOLOBAO. Typology: SVO. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists: cocoa; fishermen; copra; oil palm. Altitude: sea level. Work in progress.

MERIAM (MIRIAM-MIR, MER, MIR) [ULK] 700 in all countries (1975 Wurm); 450 or more in Australia (1971 SIL). Torres Strait. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Eastern Trans-Fly. Most speakers are bilingual in Tok Pisin. Bible portions 1879-1902. Survey needed.

MESEM (MOMOLILI, MOMALILI) [MCI] 1,800 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, Boana Subdistrict, interior east of Lae. 11 villages: Samanzing, Biliman, Tusulu, Hobu, Zezegi, Momolili, Zitare, Malapipi, Kwamu, Busu, Nomenga. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Community schools at Hobu and Samanzing. Persons below 40 speak Tok Pisin, men 35 to 60 use Yabem or Kâte in church. Airstrip. Typology: SOV, adjectives, numerals after noun heads, verb affixes mark number, CV, CVC, CVV, CCV, VC, V, non-tonal. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists: coffee. Altitude: 2,000 to 5,600 feet. Christian, traditional religion. Work in progress.

MIAN (MIANMIN) [MPT] 2,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, north part of the Fak (Hak) and Aki River valleys, headwaters of the August River and upper May River. Villages: Nenebil, Suganga, Blimo, and Wagarabai. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Dialects: UPPER AUGUST RIVER, USAGE, MIANMIN. Dialects have 75% to 83% lexical similarity. 'Mian' is the language, 'Mianmin' the people. NT 1986. Bible portions 1975-1977.

MIANI (PILA, BONAPUTA-MOPU, SUARU, TANI, MIANI NORTH) [PLA] 1,500 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District, inland. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kaukombaran. Bible portions 1982. Survey needed.

MIGABAC (MIGABA') [MPP] 1,300 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Masaweng River area. 5 villages divided among 3 dialects: Hudewa and Waringai; Ago; Butengka and Kapawa. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Dialects: NORTH MIGABAC, SOUTH MIGABAC, CENTRAL MIGABAC. Kâte is the lingua franca. Survey needed.

MINANIBAI (PEPEHA, EME-EME, HEI) [MCV] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ikobi Kairi and Goaribari Census Districts, near the mouth of the Omati River, Gulf Province. Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai. Related to Tao-Suamato. Might be extinct.

MINAVEHA (MINAVEGA, KUKUYA) [MVN] 1,600 (1994 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Bolubolu District, southwest tip of Fergusson Island near Mapamoiwa station. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Accessible by plane to Salamo, boat to Minaveha for 3 hours. 60% lexical similarity with Iamelele (closest), Koluawa, and Bwaidoka. Some bilingualism in Dobu, which is the lingua franca. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Coastal. Bible portions 1993-1995. Work in progress.

MINDIRI [MPN] 93 in one village (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, along the Rai Coast west of Saidor. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe. Close to Biliau and Wab, but a distinct language. Survey needed.

MINIGIR (LUNGALUNGA) [VMG] 373 (1979 census). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula, Lungalunga village on Ataliklikun Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava. Survey needed.

MISIMA-PANEATI (PANAIETI, PANAEATI, PANEYATE, PANEATE, PANAYETI) [MPX] 14,000 (1994 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Misima Island, Panaieti and all the islands of the Calavos Chain to (not including) Panawina, Alcester, Ole, and Tewatewan Islands, and Bowagis on Woodlark Island. 22 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Misima. Dialects: NASIKWABW (TOKUNU), TEWATEWA. 33% lexical similarity with Nimowa and Dobu (closest). Many schools. Many go to high school. Trade language in the Calvados Islands. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 1,000 meters. NT 1947. Bible portions 1894-1993. Work in progress.

MIU (MYU) [MPO] 394 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest interior. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Wurm and Hattori treat it as a dialect of Kaulong. The people live in hamlets of 1 or 2 families. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists: taro, sweet potato, cassava, cucumber, papaya, banana, pineapple, coconut; animal husbandry: pigs. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

MOERE [MVQ] 56 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Kumilan. Related languages: Mauwake, Bepour. Survey needed.

MOIKODI (DORIRI) [DOI] 571 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, north slopes of Owen Stanley Range around Mt. Brown down to Komi west of Foasi Creek. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban. Several dialects. People are bilingual in Hiri Motu. Partially literate. 65% to 73% lexical similarity with Aneme Wake (closest). Work in progress.

MOKERANG (MOKARENG, MOKORENG) [MFT] 200 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Manus Province, north Los Negros Island and Ndrilo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, Mokoreng-Loniu. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

MOLIMA (EBADIDI, SALAKAHADI, MORIMA) [MOX] 3,186 (1972 census) including 416 in Fagululu, 600 in Salakahadi. Milne Bay Province, Esa'ala District, south central Fergusson Island, inland villages of the Salakahadi area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Bwaidoga. Dialects: TALA'AI, AI'ALU (FAGULULU), TOSILA'AI, TAVATAVANA. 'Molima' refers to the whole area, 'Salakahadi' to part of it. One dialect is on the coast, two dialects are remote in the mountains. Speakers are bilingual in Dobu. 56% lexical similarity with Dobu and Bosilewa (closest). Mountain slope, coastal plain. Swidden agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers, fishermen. Altitude: sea level to 1,500 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

MOMARE (MOMALE, MOMOLE) [MSZ] 500 to 800 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, north of Masaweng River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Elderly and middle aged people speak Momare. Others use Kâte. Survey needed.

MONDROPOLON [MLY] 300 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Manus Province, north central coast, Manus Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Most speakers are bilingual in Kurti. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

MONGOL [MGT] 338 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Mongol-Langam. Related languages: Langam, Yaul. Survey needed.

MONUMBO [MXK] 459 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Bogia District. Torricelli, Monumbo. Survey needed.

MORAWA [MZE] 755 (1973 SIL). Central Province, south coast around Cloudy Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Mailuan. 70% lexical similarity with Binahari (closest). 85% to 100% of the people are bilingual in Magi, Suau, Hiri Motu, or English.

MORESADA (MURISAPA, MURUSAPA-SAREWA) [MSX] 197 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Pomoikan. Survey needed.

MORIGI (MORIGI ISLAND, WARIADAI, TURAMA RIVER KIWAI, DABURA) [MDB] 700 (1975 Wurm). Gulf Province, Lower Turama Census Division. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Kiwaian.

MOSIMO [MQV] 58 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Murupi, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

MOTU (TRUE MOTU, PURE MOTU) [MEU] 14,000 (1981 Wurm & Hattori). Central Province, in and around Port Moresby, villages along the coast from Manumanu, Galley Reach, to Kapakapa. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara. Dialects: WESTERN MOTU, EASTERN MOTU. Government schools in all villages. Official language. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1973. NT 1891-1964. Bible portions 1882-1964.

MOTU, HIRI (POLICE MOTU, PIDGIN MOTU, HIRI) [POM] Interethnic second language speakers: 120,000 (1989 J. Holm). Very few mother tongue speakers (T. Dutton 1992). Central Province, in and around Port Moresby area, also throughout Oro, Central, Gulf, and part of Milne Bay provinces, some in Western Province. Pidgin, Motu based. Dialects: AUSTRONESIAN HIRI MOTU, PAPUAN HIRI MOTU. Papuan Hiri Motu is more widespread and considered as the standard. Linguistically a pidginization of True Motu. 90% lexical similarity with Motu. Also influenced by English, Tok Pisin, and Polynesian languages. Speakers of Hiri Motu cannot understand Motu; there are phonological and grammatical differences. Dictionary. National language. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1994. NT 1982. Bible portions 1964.

MOUK-ARIA (ARIA-MOUK) [MWH] 626 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southeast coast to northwest coast, Kandrian District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Bibling, Mok. Dialects: MOUK (MOK), TOURAI. Work in progress.

MUFIAN (SOUTHERN ARAPESH, MUHIANG, MUHIAN) [AOJ] 11,000 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Torricelli Mountains, west of Maprik. 50 to 60 villages. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Arapesh. Dialects: SUPARI, BALIF, FILIFITA (ILAHITA), IWAM-NAGALEMB. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 300 meters. NT 1988. Bible portions 1978-1981.

MULAHA [MFW] Central Province, just southeast of Gaile on the coast. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Kwalean. Dialects: MULAHA, IAIBU. Coastal. Extinct.

MUM (KATIATI) [KQA] 3,286 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Sikan. Related language: Sileibi. Work in progress.

MUMENG [MZI] 4,584 including 2,210 Mumeng, 2,154 Yanta (1980 census), 220 Latep (1978 McElhanon). 9,186 in entire dialect chain (1995 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. Dialects: MUMENG, YANTA, LATEP. The language chain includes Mumeng, Gorakor, Patep, Zenag, Kumalu, and Dambi. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters.

MUNIT [MTC] 345 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Kokon. Related languages: Girawa, Bemal. Survey needed.

MUNIWARA (MAMBE, TUMARA, TUMARU) [MWB] 826 (1975). East Sepik Province, about 20 miles south southeast of Wewak. Torricelli, Marienberg. Survey needed.

MUNKIP [MPV] 137 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Survey needed.

MURIK (NOR, NOR-MURIK LAKES) [MTF] 1,476 (1977 SIL). East Sepik Province, Angoram District, on the coast west of the mouth of the Sepik River. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Nor. Related language: Kopar. Survey needed.

MURUPI [MQW] 301 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Rapting, Wamas, Samosa, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

MUSAK [MMQ] 355 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Astrolabe Bay on the Ramu River. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Emuan. Survey needed.

MUSAN (MUSIAN, MUSA) [MMP] 75 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, village east of Amto. Amto-Musan. Frequent interaction with Amto. 29% lexical similarity with Amto. Amto and Musan 3% lexical similarity with Busa, 18 miles north. Both average 7% lexical similarity with Left May languages. Survey needed.

MUSAR (AREGEREK) [MMI] 684 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, inland, west of Tokain. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran. Related languages: Kowaki, Mawak, Hinihon, Wanambre.

MUSOM (MISATIK) [MSU] 264 (1989 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, tributary of the Busu River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. In the Azera dialect chain. Survey needed.

MUSSAU-EMIRA (EMIRA-MUSSAU) [EMI] 4,200 to 5,000 (1992 SIL). Mussau or St. Matthias Islands, 150 km. northwest of New Ireland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, St. Matthias. Dialects: EMIRA, MUSSAU (MUSAU). Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, fishermen. Altitude: 0 to 200 meters. Christian. Work in progress.

MUTUM (PASWAM, DUDI) [MCC] 400 (1975 Wurm). Western Province, southern bank and hinterland of Fly River. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. Distinct from Tirio (Dudi). Survey needed.

MUYUW (MUYU, MUYUA, MURUA, MURUWA) [MYW] 3,000 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, Losuia District, Woodlark Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Kilivila. Dialects: YANABA, LOUGAW (GAWA), WAMWAN, NAWYEM. 68% lexical similarity with Kilivila. Bilingualism is in Dobu, Kilivila, or Misima. 30% of the children are in government schools. Dictionary. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Islands, coral, volcanic. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 100 meters. NT 1976, in press (1996). Bible portions 1970.

MWATEBU [MWA] 166 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, Normanby Island, north central coast, one village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. 49% lexical similarity with Dobu (closest). People know Duau and Dobu. Literacy rate low.

NAASIOI (NASIOI, KIETA, KIETA TALK, AUNGE) [NAS] 10,000 (1990 SIL). North Solomons Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. Dialects: NAASIOI, KONGARA, ORAMI (GUAVA), PAKIA-SIDERONSI. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Swidden agriculturalists: cash crops. Altitude: 0 to 1,000 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1994. Bible portions 1970-1980.

NABAK (NABA, WAIN) [NAF] 16,000 (1994 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, eastern headwaters of the Busa River. 38 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal, interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists. Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions 1977-1987. Work in progress.

NABI (MITANG, METAN, NAMBI) [MTY] 564 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province. 3 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Speakers in 2 villages prefer 'Nabi', in 1 they prefer 'Metan'.

NAFI (SIRAK) [SRF] 157 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Busu River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Busu. Survey needed.

NAGOVISI (SIBBE, NAGOVIS) [NCO] 5,000 (1975 SIL). North Solomons Province, Buin District. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. Moderate acculturation. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress.

NAHU (NAHO, NABU) [NCA] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Nahu and Rawa districts, bordering the east of the Rawa area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. 54% lexical similarity with Rawa. Work in progress.

NAI (BIAKA, AMINI) [BIO] 600 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, adjacent to and southeast of the Angor language. 3 large villages. Kwomtari-Baibai, Baibai. No schools, but speakers desire education. Hills, plain. Work in progress.

NAKAMA [NIB] 983 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 6 villages in rugged terrain west and northwest of Boana of the south side of Saruwaged Range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Dialects: NORTH NAKAMA, SOUTH NAKAMA. Access by road. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 1,300 meters.

NAKANAI (NAKONAI) [NAK] 13,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West New Britain Province, Hoskins District, northwest coast. 42 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Willaumez. Dialects: LOSA (LOSO, AUKA), BILEKI (LAKALAI, MUKU, MAMUGA), VERE (VELE, TAROBI), UBAE (BABATA), MAUTUTU. Major language of the Nakanai family. Grammar. Agriculturalists: cocoa, bananas, sweet potatoes, copra, palm oil; pigs. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1983. Bible portions 1974.

NAKE (ALE) [NBK] 173 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, northwest of Madang. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

NAKWI [NAX] East Sepik Province, southeast of Ama language. Villages; Nakwi-Amasu, Augot (Mumupra, Sari). Left May. Village locations change frequently. Acculturation is slight. 71% lexical similarity between Nakwi and Nimo. Survey needed.

NALI (YIRU) [NSS] 1,800 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, southeast Manus Island, and southwest coast, northwest of Titan. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Dialect: OKRO. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Lele. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal and inland hills. Subsistence agriculturalists; hunters; fishermen. Altitude: 0 to 200 meters. Bible portions 1991. Work in progress.

NALIK (LUGAGON, FESOA, FESSOA) [NAL] 5,138 (1990 census). New Ireland Province, north central, 14 villages from 70 to 115 km. from Kavieng on the east coast, and 3 villages on the west coast. Some in urban areas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, cocoa plantations; fishermen; oil palm. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. SelectionsSurvey needed.

NAMBU (NAMBO, ARUFE) [NCM] 2,000 (1987 UBS), including 25 in Iauga. Western Province, Morehead River. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Nambu. Dialects: IAUGA (PARB), TAIS. Bible portions 1974. Work in progress.

NAMIA (NAMIE, YELLOW RIVER, NEMIA, WATALU) [NNM] 3,500 (1991 SIL); 16 villages in Sandaun Province, plus 1 village in East Sepik Province. Sandaun Province (19 villages), Yellow River District, Panewai village, East Sepik Province (1 village). Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Yellow River. Dialects: AILUAKI, AMANI, WIARI, LAWO. Closest to Ak and Awun. 13% lexical similarity with Abau, 12% with May River Iwam. Typology: SOV. Swamp, savannah. Hunter-gatherers: sago (primarily); subsistence agriculturalists (some). Selections 1988-1993. Work in progress.

NANKINA [NNK] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District, in the upper Nankina River valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,000 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1990.

NARA (LALA, NALA, 'ALA'ALA, POKAU) [NRZ] 7,627 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Central Province, between Kuni and Roro, just inland from the coast and south of Yule Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. 61% lexical similarity with Doura (closest). Many know Motu and Hiri Motu. Grammar.

NARAK [NAC] 5,000 (1990 UBS). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District, middle Jimi near Tabibuga. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Jimi. Close to Maring, North Wahgi, and Kandawo. No significant dialect differences. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 550 to 2,750 meters. NT 1981. Bible portions 1975-1994.

NAUNA (NAUNE) [NCN] 130 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Nauna Island. 1 village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. Bilingual in Titan. Typology: SVO.

NAWARU (SIRIO) [NWR] 190 (1990 SIL). Oro Province, around upper Musa River valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban. Bilingual in Hiri Motu and Yareba. Very close to Yareba.

NEHAN (NISSAN, NIHAN) [NSN] 7,000 (1995 SIL). North Solomons Province, Nissan Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Nehan. Dialects: NEHAN, PINIPEL (PINIPIN). Little acculturation. Not closely related to other languages. Work in progress.

NEK [NIF] 1,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Lae District, 5 villages in rugged terrain north of Boana on the south side of the Saruwaged Range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Dialects: EAST NEK, WEST NEK. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,330 to 2,000 meters. Work in progress.

NEKGINI [NKG] 430 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, west of Mot River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Nekgini used in home and village life. One community school. Coastal and foothills. Survey needed.

NEKO [NEJ] 315 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast near Biliau. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Neko used in home and village life. One community school. Coastal and foothills.

NEMBI [NMX] 20,000 (1987 UBS). Western Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi. Bible portions 1979. Work in progress.

NEND (NENT, ANGAUA) [ANH] 2,000 (1991 UBS). Madang Province, between the Ramu and Sogeram rivers, around Pasinkap village. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Atan. 'Nend' is the language name, 'Angaua' the people's name. Grammar. Mountain ridge, swamp. Swidden agriculturalists, sago, hunters. Altitude: 50 to 300 meters. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

NETE (INIAI, MALAMAUDA) [NET] 1,000 possibly (1982 SIL). Enga Province, East Sepik Province, adjoining the Hewa area. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Enga. 70% lexical similarity with Bisorio of East Sepik. Work in progress.

NGAING (SOR, MAILANG) [NNF] 3,000 (1994 SIL). Madang Province, 15 villages, foothills from coast to Finisterre Range, southwest of Saidor. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Language use is vigorous. 3 community schools. Tropical forest. Low foothills. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 1,000 meters. Christian, traditional religion, cargo cult.

NGALA (KARA, SOGAP, SWAGUP) [NUD] 136 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, one village in Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Survey needed.

NGALUM [SZB] 18,000 in all countries (1981 Wurm and Hattori); 10,000 in Irian Jaya (1978 SIL). Sandaun Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Dialects: NGALUM, APMISIBIL, SIBIL. NT 1992. Bible portions 1974-1991.

NII (EK NII) [NII] 12,000 (1991 SIL). Western Highlands Province, Hagen District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi. Typology: SOV. Pine forest, bamboo. Mountain slope, valley. Intensive agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,500 meters. NT 1980. Bible portions 1971.

NIKSEK (MEIYARI, SUMWARI) [GBE] 300 (1988 Conrad and Dye). East Sepik Province, at the headwaters of the eastern branch of the Leonhard Schultze and upper Niksek (April) rivers. 200 are at a new settlement at Niksek airport. Also at Sumwari, and a few in 2 other villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Dialects: GABIANO (KABIANO), MEIYARI ("PAKA"), SETIALI. Patrolled from Oksapmin. 50 new literates in Tok Pisin (1983). The people have limited comprehension of oral or written Tok Pisin. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 900 to 1,500 meters.

NIMI [NIS] 1,381 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Erap River, south of the Saruwaged Range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,330 to 1,830 meters.

NIMO (NIMO-WASNAI) [NIW] 317 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, southeast of Ama language. Villages; Nimo (Boyemo), Wasuai, Didipas (including Uburu site), Unani, Yuwaitri (moved from Aimi site to Wanawo site). Left May. Village locations change frequently. Acculturation is slight. 71% lexical similarity between Nakwi and Nimo. Work in progress.

NIMOA (NIMOWA) [NMW] 1,100 (census). Milne Bay Province, Misima District, group of islands just west of Sud-Est. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest. Dialects: PANAWINA, SABARI, PANATINANI, WESTERN POINT. 44% lexical similarity with Tagula (closest). Half of the children are in school. Speakers have good knowledge of Misima. Bible portions 1979-1984. Work in progress.

NINGERA (NAGIRA, NEGIRA, NINGGERA) [NBY] 400 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, east of Vanimo, north of Bewani and Ossima. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani.

NINGGERUM (NINGGRUM, NINGGIRUM, NINGERUM, KATIVA, KASIWA, OBGWO, TEDI, TIDI) [NXR] 3,000 in Papua New Guinea; 1,000 in Irian Jaya, Indonesia; 4,000 in all countries (1975 Wurm). Western Province between the Ok Birim and Ok Tedi rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Dialects: KASUWA, DAUPKA. Forest. Agriculturalists. Altitude: below 300 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

NINGIL [NIZ] 523 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Related languages: Olo, Yau, Yis, Valman. Altitude: 2000 feet. Survey needed.

NOBANOB (BUTELKUD-GUNTABAK, GARUH, NOBONOB, NOBNOB) [GAW] 2,400 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. NT 1992. Bible portions 1923-1984.

NOMANE [NOF] 4,645 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Dialects: NOMANE, KIARI. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists.

NOMU [NOH] 807 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, northern coast, Huon Peninsula. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Speakers are bilingual in Ono. Survey needed.

NOTSI [NCF] 1,600 (1991 SIL). New Ireland Province, Central New Ireland District, east coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tabar. Bible portions 1995.

NUGURIA (NUKURIA, NAHOA, FEAD) [NUR] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North Solomons Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville Island, Nukuria Atoll. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Distinct from Takuu and Nukumanu in PNG and Sikiana and Luanguia (Ontong Java) in Solomon Islands. Survey needed.

NUK [NOC] 1,009 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 8 villages in rugged terrain northeast of Boana on the south side of Saruwaged Range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Dialects: NORTH NUK, SOUTH NUK. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 to 1,500 meters.

NUKUMANU (TASMAN) [NUQ] 200 (1981 D. Tryon). North Solomons Province, Atolls District, Nukumanu Atoll. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Tryon says it is distinct from Takuu (Nuguria) in PNG and Luanguia (Ontong Java) in Solomon Islands. Speakers have contact with Luanguia.

NUMANGGANG (MANGGANG, NUMANGANG, NUMANGAN, BOANA, KAI, NGAIN, SUGU) [NOP] 2,274 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District. 10 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Dialects: EAST NUMANGGANG, WEST NUMANGGANG. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Bible portions 1984. Work in progress.

NUMBAMI (SIBOMA, SIPOMA) [SIJ] 270 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District, one village on the coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Numbami. Survey needed.

NYINDROU (LINDROU, LINDAU, SALIEN, NYADA) [LID] 3,300 (1994 SIL). Manus Province, Manus Island. 10 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Dialect: BABON. The Babon dialect is in 3 southern villages. Speakers are bilingual in Kurti. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Fishermen, hunters, agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 30 meters. Bible portions 1984-1994. Work in progress.

OGEA (ERIMA, NURU) [ERI] 700 (1995 SIL). Madang Province, Astrolabe Bay. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Uya, Duduela, Kwato, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: sea level. Bible portions 1981. Work in progress.

OKSAPMIN [OPM] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, bordering on the southwest of the Sepik Hill languages. Trans-New Guinea, Oksapmin. Not closely related to any other language. Several dialects. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,300 to 2,300 meters. NT 1992. Bible portions 1977.

OLO (ORLEI) [ONG] 12,000 (1987 SIL). Sandaun Province, Lumi District. 55 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Dialects: PAYI (PAY, NORTH OLO), WAPI (WAPE, SOUTH OLO). Distinct from Wapi in Enga Province. Related languages: Yis, Yau, Ningil, Valman. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 20 to 1,600 meters. Bible portions 1969-1989. Work in progress.

OMATI (MINI) [MGX] 800 or more (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, villages on Omati River: Gihiteri, Iba, Gibidai, Kiberi, Kamairo. Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Turama-Omatian. 53% lexical similarity with Ikobi-Mena. Each village also has Joso and Juko language speakers. One school. Isolated villages. Lowland limestone pinnacle region.

ÖMIE (AOMIE, UPPER MANAGALASI) [AOM] 800 (1993 SIL). Oro Province, Kokoda, Upper Kumusi, and Afore districts, northwest of Managalasi, Mamama River and Upper Kumusi Valley. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Koiarian, Baraic. Dialects: ASAPA, ZUWADZA, GORA-BOMAHOUJI. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, riverine, interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists, pigs. Altitude: 545 to 1,500 meters. NT 1991. Bible portions 1975-1987.

OMWUNRA-TOGURA [OMW] 2,000 in Omwunra-Toqura (1990 UBS). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora. About 5 dialects. Tairora, Binumarien, Kambaira, and Waffa are closely related. Typology: SOV. Savannah, forest. Hills, mountains. Hunters, agriculturalists. Altitude: 4,000 to 5,200 feet. NT 1994. Bible portions 1967-1982.

ONABASULU (ONOBASULU) [ONN] 500 (1986 Shaw). Southern Highlands Province midway between Mt. Sisa and Mt. Bosavi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Work in progress.

ONJAB (ONJOB) [ONJ] 160 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Koreat and Naukwate villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. 30% lexical similarity with Maiwa (closest). Speakers are literate in English and Ubir.

ONO [ONS] 5,500 (1993 SIL). Morobe Province, Finschhafen District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Dialects: ZIWE, AMUGEN. Spoken as a second language by 1,000 Nomu and Sialum (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Typology: SOV. Savannah, tropical forest, gallery forest. Coral steps to the foot of limestone mountains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 2,000 meters. NT 1991. Bible portions 1980.

ONTENU (ONTENA) [ONT] 3,000 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Related to Gadsup, but a separate language. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,538 meters.

OPAO [OPO] 1,116 (1973 H. A. Brown). Gulf Province, near Orokolo and Keuru. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western. Survey needed.

OROKAIVA (ORAKAIVA) [ORK] 33,300 (1989 SIL) including 4,300 Hunjara (1973 SIL), 2,000 Aeka (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Popondetta District between the Hunjara, Notu, Binandere and Managalasi. 200 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: KOKODA, HUNJARA, AJEKA, ETIJA (SOSE, SOHE), EHIJA (IHANE, IFANE), HARAVA, AEKA. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Interfluvial. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 800 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1988. Bible portions 1956.

OROKOLO (WEST ELEMA, KAIRU-KAURA, HAIRA, KAIPI, VAILALA, BAILALA, MURU, MURO) [ORO] 13,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, from mouth of Purari River east to Bairu River. Kerema is a main town. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Western. Dictionary. NT 1963. Bible portions 1926-1951.

OUMA [OUM] Central Province, south coast around Labu. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic. M. Ross says it is extinct.

OUNE (OUNGE, DAPERA) [OUE] 1,900 (1990 C. Hurd SIL). North Solomons Province, Kieta District, central mountains and southeast coast. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. Most dialects are not functionally intelligible with Nasioi.

OWENIA (OWENA, OWENDA, WAIJARA, WAISARA) [WSR] 349 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Eastern Highlands Province, Obura District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Owenia. Work in progress.

OWINIGA (SAMO, BERO, TAINA) [OWI] 272 (1990 census). East Sepik Province, southeast of Nimo language. Villages: Yei, Amu, Inagri, Samo. Left May. Traditional culture. Work in progress.

PAGI (PAGEI, BEMBI) [PGI] 2,000 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, Bewani Subdistrict, 5 villages, east and southeast of the Kilmeri. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani. Dialects: WESTERN PAGI (BEWANI), EASTERN PAGI (IMBINIS). Related to Kilmeri and Ningera.

PAHI (LUGITAMA, WANSUM, RIAHOMA) [LGT] 578 including 566 in area and 12 elsewhere (1978 census). Sandaun Province, extending north in Maimai Namblo Division. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama. Related to Pasi, Kalou, Mehek, Yessan-Mayo.

PAK-TONG (TONG-PAK) [PKG] 970 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Pak and Tong Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Pak-Tong. Dialects: PAK, TONG. Two nearly identical dialects; Pak is larger. Typology: SVO.

PANIM [PNR] 152 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province just west of Madang city. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Related languages: Gumalu, Sihan, Isebe, Bau, Amele. Survey needed.

PAPAPANA [PAA] 150 (1977 Lincoln). North Solomons Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Papapana. Survey needed.

PAPI (PAUPE) [PPE] 75 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, one village on the Frieda River. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Papi. 29% lexical similarity with Suarmin, closest. 2% to 3% literate. Nearly all speakers have some knowledge of Tok Pisin.

PAPITALAI [PAT] 520 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Naringel and Papitalai, Los Negros Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Three dialects. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Loniu. Close to Koro. Typology: SVO. Shore dwellers. Fishermen, hunters, pig raisers. Survey needed.

PARAWEN (PARA) [PRW] 429 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Survey needed.

PARE (PA, AKIUM-PARE) [PPT] 2,000 (1990 UBS). Western Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Awin-Pare. Bible portions 1978-1980. Work in progress.

PASI (BESI) [PSI] 600 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division, 6 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama. Close to Yessan-Mayo. Survey needed.

PATEP (PTEP) [PTP] 1,700 (1987 SIL); 9,186 in Mumeng dialect chain. Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In the Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility with Gorakor and Zenag. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters. NT 1986. Bible portions 1975-1981.

PATPATAR (GELIK, PATPARI) [GFK] 6,000 (1991 SIL). New Ireland Province, Namatanai District, south central. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Dialects: PALA, SOKIRIK, PATPATAR. Bible portions 1921-1992. Work in progress.

PAWAIA (PAVAIA, SIRA, AURAMA, TUDAHWE, YASA) [PWA] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Simbu Province, Kundiawa District, and Gulf Province, Purari River near Oroi. Trans-New Guinea, Teberan-Pawaian, Pawaian. Dialects: AURAMA (TUROHA, URI), HAURUHA. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

PAYNAMAR [PMR] 150 (1975 Z'Graggen). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Wanang, Paynamar. Survey needed.

PEI (PAI) [PPQ] 208 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, Hauna and Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio. Closely related to Walio. Speakers are learning Walio. Very limited comprehension of Tok Pisin. Distinct from Mala (Pai) in Madang Province. Nearly all Christian.

PELE-ATA (WASI, UASE, UASI, UASILAU, PELEATA) [ATA] 1,900 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Nakanai District, inland from Bongula Bay. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Wasi. Dialects: PELE, ATA. Bible portions 1992. Work in progress.

PENCHAL [PEK] 550 (1982 SIL). Manus Province, Rambutyo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Southeast Islands. 3 nearly identical dialects. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Titan languages. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

PETATS [PEX] 2,000 (1975 SIL); 10,000 including second language speakers (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). North Solomons Province, Buka Passage District, Petats, Pororan, and Hitau islands off the west coast of Buka Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Buka. Dialects: HITAU-PORORAN, MATSUNGAN, SUMOUN. Sumoun may be a dialect. Trade language. Bible portions 1934-1978.

PIAME (BIAMI) [PIN] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, headwaters of the Niksek (April) and Walio (Leonhard Schultz) rivers. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. First contact with outsiders in 1982. About 3 speakers of Tok Pisin.

PINAI (PINAYE, PINAI-HAGAHAI, HAGAHAI, WAPI, ARAMO, MIAMIA) [PNN] 600 (1993 M. Melliger SIL). Mainly in Enga Province, northwest corner, Aramo River area, East Sepik Province, west of the Haruai. Some in Madang Province, on either side of the Yuat River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Piawi. Dialects: MENGAU, BULUBAU (NANGENUWETAN), PINAI 1, PINAI 2, HAGAHAI (ARAMO, ARAMAUE), MENGAMANAO, LUYA, GINAM. Speakers in Enga Province use 'Pinai' or 'Miamia' to refer to the entire language group. Those in Madang Province use 'Hagahai' to refer to themselves, suggested to them by a medical anthropologist. 'Wapi' is sometimes used by the Enga, 'Aramo' by Haruai speakers. Dialects have 65% to 94% lexical similarity with each other. Hagahai has 63% to 70% lexical similarity with the 3. Haruai has 29% to 37% lexical similarity with the 4; Wapi has 8%. Hagahai has 19% lexical similarity with Kobon. Some speak Haruai, some Tok Pisin (especially boys). Medical workers report widespread health problems. Mountain slope. Hunter-gatherers. Altitude: 100 to 1300 meters. Work in progress.

PIU (SANBIAU, LANZOG, KURUKO) [PIX] 130 (1970 SIL). Morobe Province, upper Watut River, one village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. Distinct from Pyu in Sandaun Province. Survey needed.

PIVA (NAGARIGE) [TGI] 550 (1977 Lincoln). North Solomons Province, Piva River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Piva-Banoni. Dialect: AMUN. Survey needed.

PONAM [NCC] 420 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Ponam Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. Moderately bilingual in Kurti. Close to Andra-Hus. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

POUYE (BOUYE) [BYE] 800 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Ram. Related to Awtuw and Karawa. 67% lexical similarity to Karawa. Work in progress.

PSOHOH [BCL] 1,105 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest coast to northwest. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Dialects: BAO, AIGON, SOKHOK (PSOKHOK, PSOKOK, PSOHOH). In the Kaulong dialect chain. Different from Bau in Madang Province. Survey needed.

PUARI [PUX] 371 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, coast around Puari. Sko, Krisa. Related languages: Rawo, Krisa, Warapu. Survey needed.

PULABU [PUP] 116 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Related languages: Siroi, Arawum, Kolom, Lemio. Survey needed.

PURARI (KORIKI, EVORRA, NAMAU, IAI, MAIPUA) [IAR] 7,000 (1991 UBS). Gulf Province, between Kapaina Inlet and Orokolo language, Purari River. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Purari. Dialect: IAI (NAMAU). Apparently unrelated to other languages of Gulf Province. NT 1920. Bible portions 1910-1967. Work in progress.

PYU [PBY] 100 (1978 SIL). Village of Biake No. 2 on the October River just east of Irian Jaya border. Not in Irian Jaya. Kwomtari-Baibai, Pyu. Different from Austronesian Piu in Morobe Province. Survey needed.

QAQET (MAQAQET, KAKAT, MAKAKAT, BAINING) [BYX] 6,350 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. 2 dialects. Several primary schools. Mountains sloping to coastline. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1976-1987.

RAMOAAINA (DUKE OF YORK, MALU, RAMUAINA) [RAI] 8,600 (1987 SIL). East New Britain Province, Kokopo District, Duke of York Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Dialects: MAKADAM (MAKADA), MOLOT, ULU, MIOKO, KERAWARA, MANDAN, KABOTIRAI, UTAM. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal, coral islands. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 40 meters. Bible portions 1882-1992. Work in progress.

RAO (ANNABERG, RAO BRERI) [RAO] 6,000 (1992 UBS). Madang Province, Keram River area, lower Ramu Valley, 80 miles west of Madang city. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Annaberg, Rao. Dialects: LI'O, NDRAMINI'O. Swampy plain. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1991-1995. Work in progress.

RAPTING [RAP] 332 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Murupi, Wamas, Samosa, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

RAWA (RAUA, ERAWA, EREWA, KARO) [RWO] 7,138 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Ramu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. 6% literate in Rawa. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists, cash crops, sweet potatoes, coffee. Altitude: 1,000 to 2,300 meters. NT 1992. Bible portions 1978.

RAWO [RWA] 506 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province coast around Rawo and Leitre. Sko, Krisa. Related languages: Krisa, Puari, Warapu. Survey needed.

REMA (BOTHAR) [BOW] 68 (1980 census. Western Province, Morehead District. Not in Irian Jaya. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Tonda. 4 primary schools. Related to Aramba, Kanum. Swamp, savannah. Altitude: below 300 meters. Survey needed.

REMPI (REMPIN, A'E, EREMPI) [RMP] 592 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

RERAU [REA] 235 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Duduela, Jilim, Yangulam. Survey needed.

ROCKY PEAK (LARO, IYO, YINIBU) [ROK] 275 or more (1975 Conrad and Dye). Estimate may be too high (1995). Sandaun Province, Rocky Peak Mountains, Iwau, Agrame, Uwau, and at least two other villages (possibly Benato). Left May. 80% to 90% lexical similarity with Iteri. Speakers in Iwau and Agrame vilages are partly bilingual in Ama. Traditional culture. Survey needed.

ROINJI (GALI) [ROE] 227 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North coast, Huon Peninsula, two villages, one in Madang Province and one in Morobe Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Roinji-Nenaya. Survey needed.

ROMKUN (ROMKUIN) [RMK] 389 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Tamolan. Survey needed.

RORO (WAIMA) [RRO] 8,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Bereina District, near Kairuku, shores of Hall Sound, between Yule Island and mainland, 65 miles northwest of Port Moresby. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, West Central Papuan, Nuclear. Dialects: WAIMA (WEST RORO), BEREINA, RORO (EAST RORO), YULE-DELENA. 45% lexical similarity with Kuni (closest). Two main dialects. Many schools. Bible portions 1947-1995. Work in progress.

ROTOKAS [ROO] 4,320 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). North Solomons Province, Central Bougainville District, central mountains. 28 villages. East Papuan, Bougainville, West, Rotokas. Dialects: PIPIPAIA, AITA, ATSILIMA. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, intensive agriculturalists: cocoa, cash crops. Altitude: 0 to 700 meters. NT 1982. Bible portions 1969.

RUMU (KAIRI, RUMUWA, DUMU, TUMU, KIBIRI, KAI-IRI) [KLQ] 1,000 (1985 UBS). Gulf Province, Kikori District, north of Kikori on the Kikori, Sirebi, and Tiviri rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Turama-Kikorian, Kairi. A distinct language from Kibiri (Porome). Bible portions 1965-93.

SAEP [SPD] 584 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Gowar River area, Rai coast, 75 miles east of Madang. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon. Related language: Dumun. Coconuts. Work in progress.

SAKAM [SKM] 510 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa. The most divergent Uruwa language. Survey needed.

SALT-YUI (SALT, SALT-IUI, YUI, IUI) [SLL] 6,500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province, Gumine District. 10 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Close to Nondiri. NT 1978. Bible portions 1967.

SAMBERIGI (SAU, SANABERIGI) [SSX] 3,125 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, Lake Kutubu District, east of Erave. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, West-Central, Angal-Kewa. NT 1993. Bible portions 1978-1993.

SAMO-KUBO (DABA, NOMAD, SUPAI, SUPEI-KUBOR) [SMQ] 2,900 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, Lake Murray District, east of the Strickland River, north and south of Nomad. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, East Strickland. Dialects: KUBO, SAMO, HONIBO, BIBO, OIBA. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions 1980. Work in progress.

SAMOSA [SMO] 94 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Murupi, Wamas, Rapting, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Silopi, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

SANIYO-HIYOWE (SANIO-HIOWE, SANIO, SANIYO, HIOWE, HIYOWE) [SNY] 644 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, foothills of the Wogamus River basin. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Sanio. Dialects: MAKABUKY, NAKIAI. Related dialect or language: Paka. Semi-nomadic. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Interfluvial. Hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists. Altitude: 100 meters. Bible portions 1983-1984. Work in progress.

SAPOSA [SPS] 1,200 (1991 SIL). North Solomons Province, Buka District, Saposa Island south of Buka Island off northwest coast of Bougainville. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Dialects: TAIOF, SAPOSA (FA SAPOSA). Two dialects. Bible portions 1985-1987. Work in progress.

SARUGA [SRP] 129 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

SAUK [SKC] 605 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Survey needed.

SAUSI (UYA) [SSJ] 495 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia. Related languages: Sinsauru, Asas, Kesawai, Dumpu. Survey needed.

SAWOS (TSHWOSH, TSHUOSH, KWARUWIKWUNDI, SEPIK PLAINS) [SIC] 9,000 (1986 PBT). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, Sepik Plains south of Maprik. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Dialects: KOIWAT, BURUI, CHIMBIAN, CENTRAL SAWOS, EASTERN SAWOS. Close to Gaikundi.

SEIMAT (NINIGO) [SSG] 1,000 (1992 SIL). Western Manus Province, on the Ninigo Islands and Anchorite Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western. Typology: SVO.

SELEPET (SELEPE) [SEL] 7,000 (1988 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, valleys of the Pumune and Kiari rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Dialects: NORTH SELEPET, SOUTH SELEPET. Dictionary. Grammar. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1986. Bible portions 1975.

SENE [SEJ] 10 or fewer (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Eastern. Nearly extinct.

SENGO [SPK] 300 (1975 SIL). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Most adults are fluent in Iatmul. Survey needed.

SENGSENG (ASENGSENG) [SSZ] 453 (1982 SIL). West New Britain Province, southwest interior. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Pasismanua. Wurm and Hattori treat it as a dialect of Kaulong. Work in progress.

SEPA [SPE] 268 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, coast south of Manam Island around Bogia. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Related to Wogeo, Biem, Manam, and Medebur. Survey needed.

SEPEN [SPM] 428 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Misegian. Survey needed.

SERA (SSIA, SERRA) [SRY] 432 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, around Serai, one village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Coastal. Survey needed.

SETA [STF] 155 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, West Wapei. Survey needed.

SETAMAN [STM] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Survey needed.

SETI [SBI] 113 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, West Wapei. Survey needed.

SEWA BAY (DUAU PWATA) [SEW] 1,516 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, center of Normanby Island around Sewa Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Dobu-Duau. Dialects: MIADEBA, BWAKERA, MAIABARE, DARUBIA, SEWATAITAI, SIBONAI, CENTRAL SEWA BAY. 45% lexical similarity with Dobu (closest). The dialects are very diverse. The people are bilingual in Dobu. Readily accessible. Christian, traditional religion.

SIALUM [SLW] 642 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Speakers are bilingual in Ono. Survey needed.

SIANE (SIANI) [SNP] 27,000 (1994 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Watalung and Unggai census divisions (16,000), Goroka District. Simbu Province, Nambaiyufa Census Division (11,000). Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Siane. Dialects: KOLEPA, YAMOFOWE, KOMONGU, KOMOIGALEKA, KEMANIMOWE, ONA, KETO, LAIYA, FOWE, OLUMBA, LAMBAU, ALANGO, YANDIME, WANDO. Separate literature in Komonggu and Lambau dialects. Typology: SOV. Forest. Mountain slope. Agriculturalists, some cash crops: coffee, vegetables. Altitude: 1,700 to 2,500 meters. NT 1991. Bible portions 1964-1977.

SIAR (LAMBON, LAMSSA) [SJR] 1,800 (1991 SIL). Southern New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. English used in schools. Coastal. Work in progress.

SIHAN [SNR] 314 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Gum. Related languages: Gumalu, Amele, Isebe, Bau, Panim. Survey needed.

SILEIBI [SBQ] 259 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Sikan. Related language: Katiati. Survey needed.

SILIPUT (MAI, MAIMAI, SOKOROK) [MKC] 263 including 242 in Makru-Klaplei plus 21 elsewhere (1978 census). Sandaun Province, Seleput village, Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District, north of Mehek. Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. 30% lexical similarity with Yahang. Different from Selepet.

SILOPI [SOT] 140 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Related languages: Murupi, Wamas, Rapting, Mosimo, Saruga, Nake, Matepi, Garus, Yoidik, Rempi, Samosa, Utu, Mawan, Baimak, Bagupi, Gal, Garuh, Kamba. Survey needed.

SIMBALI [SMG] 350 (1988 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. Many people are passively bilingual in Mali. Mountains and foothills. Survey needed.

SIMBARI (CHIMBARI) [SMB] 3,036 (1990 census). Eastern Highlands Province, Marawaka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. A government school built recently teaches children English, Hiri Motu, and Tok Pisin. Swidden agriculturalists: sweet potatoes, cassava, coffee; hunter-gatherers; animal husbandry: pigs, chickens. Traditional religion, Christian. Bible portions. Work in progress.

SIMEKU [SMZ] 1,898 including 1,183 Koopei and 715 Mainoki (1980 SIL). North Solomons Province, Kieta District, central mountains. Mainoki is on the west slope and Koopei on the east slope. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Nasioi. Dialects: MAINOKI (MAINOKE), KOOPEI (KOPEI). The people are culturally conservative. Not functionally intelligible with Nasioi.

SIMOG [SMF] 400 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Survey needed.

SINAGEN (GALU, METRU) [SIU] 208 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Survey needed.

SINASINA [SST] 50,079 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Simbu Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Chimbu. Dialects: TABARE, GUNA. Close to Dom and Golin. NT 1975. Bible portions 1967-1980.

SINAUGORO (SINAGORO) [SNC] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Rigo District, south of Kwikila. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Sinagoro-Keapara. Dialects: IKOLU, BALAWAIA, SAROA, BABAGARUPU, KWAIBIDA, TABORO, KWAIBO, ALEPA, OMENE, TUBULAMO, IKEGA, BOKU, BUAGA, WIGA, VORA, KUBULI, ORUONE. 65% to 70% lexical similarity with Hula (closest). Many dialects; Boku may be most central. Motu and Hiri Motu fairly well known. Dictionary. NT 1995.

SINSAURU (KOW) [SNZ] 476 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, near Dumpu. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Evapia. Dialect: SAIPA. Related languages: Asas, Sausi, Kesawai, Dumpu.

SIO (SIGAWA) [SIO] 3,500 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Wasu District, mainland near Sio Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Sio. Swidden agriculturalists. NT 1996. Bible portions 1988.

SIROI (SUROI, PASA) [SSD] 700 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Saidor District. Komisanga is one village; not a separate language. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Kabenau. Related languages: Arawum, Pulabu, Kolom, Lemio. Grammar. NT 1975. Bible portions 1971-1986.

SISSANO (SISANO, SINANO, SINAMA) [SSW] 4,776 (1990 census). Sandaun Province, Aitape District, around Sissano. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Related languages: Arop-Sissano, Malol, Sera, Tumleo, Yakamul, Suain. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Fishermen. Altitude: sea level. Survey needed.

SIWAI (MOTUNA) [SIW] 6,600 including 600 in Baitsi. North Solomons Province, southeastern. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin. Dialect: BAITSI (SIGISIGERO). NT 1977. Bible portions 1952-1968.

SOLONG (AROVE, ARAWE, PILILO) [AAW] 2,200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West New Britain Province, southwestern coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Southwest New Britain, Arawe-Pasismanua, Arawe, West Arawe. Dialect chain. The language is called 'Solong', the people 'Arove'. Understood by all along the coast. 3 primary schools. Tropical forest. Raised coral coast. Work in progress.

SOLOS [SOL] 3,200 (1977 Lincoln). North Solomons Province, central and southwest Buka Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Solos. One dialect.

SOM [SMC] 88 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa. Survey needed.

SONGUM [SNX] 326 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, just inland and south of Bongu. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Mindjim. Survey needed.

SONIA [SIQ] 300 (1988 Shaw). Western Province and Southern Highlands Province, 10 to 20 miles west and southwest of Bosavi. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Bosavi. Survey needed.

SORI-HARENGAN [SBH] 570 (1977 Lincoln). Manus Province, Sori is on the northwest coast of Manus Island and on the Sori and Harengan islands off the coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, West. Dialects: SORI, HARENGAN. Two nearly identical dialects. Speakers are moderately bilingual in Nyindrou. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

SOWANDA (WAINA, WINA, WANYA, WANJA) [SOW] 1,000 in Papua New Guinea (1982 SIL); 1,100 in all countries (1978 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Also a few in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Dialects: PUNDA-UMEDA (UMADA), WAINA. Little use of Tok Pisin. May be 2 languages.

SUARMIN (DURANMIN, AKIAPMIN) [SEO] 188 (1979 census). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District, a few hamlets on the Kenu River, a tributary of the Om River. Near Duranmin airstrip. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Papi. 29% lexical similarity with Papi. Young people are quite bilingual in Telefol. Speakers middle-aged and older are not bilingual.

SUAU [SWP] 6,795 (1981 Wurm and Hattori); lingua franca of 14,000 along part of the south coast. Milne Bay Province, southeastern extremity of the Papua mainland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Dialects: SARIBA, DAUI (FIFE BAY), SINAKI (GAIDASU, GADAISU), LEILEIAFA, BONA BONA, DAHUNI, SUAU, BONARUA, LOGEA. Many literates. NT 1956-1962. Bible portions 1885-1926. Work in progress.

SUDEST (TAGULA, SUD-EST, VANGA, VANATINA) [TGO] 2,000 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Yama-Yele District, Tagula Island, west of Rossel Island, at the end of the Calvados chain. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Kilivila-Louisiades, Nimoa-Sudest. Dialects: RAMBUSO (REWA), EASTERN POINT, PAMELA, GRIFFIN POINT (NINE HILLS, NANHIL), JELEWAGA. 44% lexical similarity with Nimowa (closest). Some speakers are bilingual in Misima. Half of the children are in school. The literacy rate is low among adults. Accessibility is difficult. Dictionary. Work in progress.

SUENA (YEMA, YARAWE, YARAWI) [SUE] 2,272 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District, north of Yekora. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Grammar. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1978. Bible portions 1972.

SUGANGA (WAGARABAI, NORTH MIANMIN) [SUG] 700 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Amanab District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Closely related to Mianmin. Survey needed.

SUKI (WIRAM) [SUI] 2,000 (1990 UBS). Western Province, Lake Suki. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Suki. English used in schools, which go through 6th grade. NT 1982. Bible portions 1952-1956.

SULKA [SLK] 2,500 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, East Pomio District, Wide Bay coast. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Sulka. A dialect chain. Several primary schools. Swamps, flood plain. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

SUMARIUP (SOGOBA, LATOMA) [SIV] 80 (1993 SIL). East Sepik Province, Upper Wagupmeri River. 1 village. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. Bilingual in Tok Pisin and Alamblak.

SUMAU (KARI, GARIA, SUMAU-GARIA) [SIX] 2,509 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, low mountain ranges between the Ramu and Naru rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka. Possibly 2 dialects. Related languages: Usino, Urigina, Danaru. Typology: SOV. Lowlands forest. Mountain ridge, river valley. Agriculturalists: taro. Altitude: 500 to 3,000 feet. Work in progress.

SURSURUNGA [SGZ] 3,000 (1991 SIL). South central New Ireland Province, Namatanai District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Bible portions 1979-1987. Work in progress.

SUSUAMI [SSU] 15 (1990 Geoff Smith). Morobe Province, Upper Watut Valley outside Bulolo. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan. Most closely related to Kamasa. They use Angaatiha as second language. Nearly extinct.

TABO (WAIA, KENEDIBI, KAWAKARUBI, TAKALUBI, TAKARUBI, HIWI, HIBARADAI) [KNV] 2,000 (1994 T. Schlatter ECP). Western Province, lower Aramia River villages of Waia, Saiwase, Gauu, Alagi, Alikinapi; and Fly River villages of Kenedibi, Ulio, and Waguni-Salau. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Waia. Dialects: ARAMIA RIVER, FLY RIVER. The dialects have about 60% lexical similarity, but nearly identical syntax and grammar. There appear to be cultural links to Australian Aborigines. Bible portions 1992-1995. Work in progress.

TABRIAK (KARAWARI) [TZX] 1,500 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, lower Karawari River. 9 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo. Closest to Kopar (Watam). Speakers are highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Distinct from Karawari dialect of Alamblak. Survey needed.

TAI (TAY) [TAW] Fewer than 1,000 (1990 UBS). Madang Province, southwest, Dundrom village. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Kalam, Unclassified. Altitude: 4000 feet. Bible portions 1995. Work in progress.

TAIAP (GAPUN) [GPN] 89 (1987 Kulick). East Sepik Province, Gapun village. Sepik-Ramu, Gapun. 'Taiap' is the language, 'Gapun' the village. Not closely related to any other language. No speakers younger than 10 years old. Survey needed.

TAINAE (IVORI) [AGO] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Gulf Province, Ivori-Swanson District. The main villages are Pio, Famba, and Paiguna. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Close to Angoya. Survey needed.

TAIRORA [TBG] 11,500 (1996 SIL) including 4,000 in Northern Tairora (1990 UBS). Eastern Highlands Province, Kainantu and Obura districts, south of Kainantu. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora. Dialects: NORTHERN TAIRORA (NANTA, UKAU), VAIRA, VINAATA, VEQAURAA, HAAVIQINRA. Binumarien and Kambaira are closely related. Waffa is related to Haaviqinra. Savannah, forest. Hills, mountains. Hunters, agriculturalists. Altitude: 4,000 to 5,200 feet. NT 1979. Bible portions 1967-1982.

TAIS (DORRO) [TST] 66 (1980 census). Western Province, south coast near Mari. 1 village. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Nambu. Closely related to Mari. Related to Kanum, Aramba, Bothar, Nambu, Peremka, Ara. Survey needed.

TAKIA [TBC] 12,000 (1987 SIL). Southern half of Karkar Island, Bagabag Island, and coastal villages Megiar and Serang, Madang Province, Madang District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Nuclear Bel, Northern. Bible portions 1979-1987. Work in progress.

TAKUU (TAUU, TAKU, TAU, MORTLOCK) [NHO] 250 (1981 D. Tryon). North Solomons Province, Atolls District, northeast of Bougainville, Takuu Atoll, Mortlock village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Ellicean. Distinct from Nukumanu and Nuguria in Papua New Guinea and Ontong Java and Sikaiana in Solomon Islands, although very closely related. Survey needed.

TAMI [TMY] 1,800 (1995 SIL). Morobe Province, Tami Islands and mainland villages south of Finschhafen. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Tami. Dialects: WANAM, TAEMI. Older speakers are bilingual in Yabem, the church language. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal, island. Swidden agriculturalists; fishermen; wood carving. Altitude: sea level. Selections 1993. Work in progress.

TANGGA (TANGA) [TGG] 5,800 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Tanga Islands, Anir (Feni) Island, three villages on New Ireland. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Patpatar-Tolai. Dialects: TANGA, ANIR (FENI), MAKET. Dictionary. Selections 1927.

TANGGU (TANGGUM, TANGU) [TGU] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Bogia District. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan. Forests. Agriculturalists, hunter-gatherers. Work in progress.

TANGUAT [TBS] 506 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Goam, Ataitan. Survey needed.

TAO-SUAMATO (TAO-SUAME, MAHIGI, DAUSAME) [TSX] 500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, northeastern corner, upper Bamu and middle and lower Wawoi Rivers and Guavi River, villages of Pariame, Siboi, Diwami, Kubeai, Wareho, Bibesa, Gagoro, Iowa, Kuria, Watakaia, Paueme. Trans-New Guinea, Inland Gulf, Minanibai. 42% lexical similarity with Minanibai (closest). Accessible only by boat. Forests. Lowland swamp.

TAUADE (TAUATA) [TTD] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Central Province, Goilala District toward the northeast. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan. 44% lexical similarity with Kunimaipa (closest). RC schools teach in Tauade. Altitude: 3,000 feet or higher. Survey needed.

TAULIL-BUTAM [TUH] 826 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. Dialects: TAULIL, BUTAM. Bilingual in Tolai. Butam is extinct (1981). Survey needed.

TAUYA (INAFOSA) [TYA] 347 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Brahman. Grammar. Related languages: Biyom, Isabi, Faita. Survey needed.

TAWALA (TAWARA, TAVARA, TAVORA, TAVALA) [TBO] 10,000 (1988 B. Ezard SIL). Milne Bay Province, Alotau District, from Awaiama to East Cape, north and south shores of Milne Bay, Sideia and Basilaki islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Dialects: AWAYAMA (AWAIAMA, AWALAMA), HUHUNA, KEHELALA (KEHERARA, EAST CAPE), LELEHUDI, TAWALA (TAVARA, DIWINAI, DIVINAI), LABE (RABE), YALEBA (WAGAWAGA, GWAWILI, GWAVILI, EALEBA), BOHILAI (BOHIRA'I, BASILAKI), SIDEYA (SIDEIA). Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Dobu, Suau, Motu, Wedau. Many speakers know a little English. Grammar. Trade language for Milne Bay area. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Fishermen, peasant agriculturalists. Altitude: sea level. NT 1985. Bible portions 1898-1980.

TELEFOL (TELEFOMIN, TELEFOLMIN, TELEEFOOL) [TLF] 5,400 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Dialects: TELEFOL, FERAMIN. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 800 to 2,600 meters. NT 1988. Bible portions 1966-1969.

TENIS (TENCH) [TNS] 49 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, Tench Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, St. Matthias. Speakers are highly bilingual in Emira-Mussau. Survey needed.

TEOP [TIO] 5,000 (1991 SIL). North Solomons Province, Tinputz District, northeastern. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Dialects: WAINANANA, LOSIARA (RAOSIARA), TAUNITA, MELILUP, PETSPETS. Raosiara may be a dialect. Bible portions 1958-1966. Work in progress.

TEREBU (TEREPU, TURUPU, TURUBU) [TRB] 150 (?) (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, coast southeast of Taul. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Kairiru. May be intelligible with Kaiep. Coastal. Survey needed.

TIANG (DJAUL) [TBJ] 791 (1972 Beaumont). New Ireland Province, northern; also eastern Djaul Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. Survey needed.

TIFAL (TIFALMIN) [TIF] 3,200 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Dialects: TIFAL, BUSILMIN (WOPKEIMIN ?), ATBALMIN (ASBALMIN). Typology: SOV. Scrub forest, tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,600 to 2,300 meters. Bible portions 1979. Work in progress.

TIGAK (OMO) [TGC] 6,000 (1991 SIL). Northern New Ireland Province, Kavieng District, and western Djaul Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Dialects: ISLAND TIGAK, WEST TIGAK, CENTRAL TIGAK, SOUTH TIGAK. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. Bible portions 1912-1972. Work in progress.

TIMBE [TIM] 11,000 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District, Timbe River valley and tributaries. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Dialects: CENTRAL TIMBE, NORTH TIMBE, SOUTH TIMBE. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,000 meters. NT 1987. Bible portions 1978-1986.

TIRIO (DUDI) [TCR] 950 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Western Province, southern bank and hinterland of Fly Estuary. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. Closest to, but distinct from, Mutum (Dudi). Bible portions 1975. Work in progress.

TITAN (MANUS, MOANUS, TITO, M'BUNAI) [TTV] 3,850 (1992 SIL), 2,674 in the area. Manus Province, M'buke, Mouk, and Rambutyo islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Eastern, Manus, East. 2 dialects. The trading ring was described by Margaret Mead. Typology: SVO. Coconut trees. Coastal. Copra. Altitude: sea level.

TOARIPI (MOTUMOTU, EAST ELEMA) [TPI] 23,000 (1977 SIL). Gulf Province, Cape Possession to Cape Cupola. Kerema is a main town. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Eastern. Dialects: KAIPI (MELARIPI), TOARIPI (MORIPI-IOKEA, MOVEAVE), SEPOE. Bible 1983. NT 1914-1960. Bible portions 1902-1968.

TOBO [TBV] 2,230 (1980 census). Morobe Province, upper Kuat River valley, south of Cromwell Range. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Huon, Western. Two community schools. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,665 to 1,900 meters.

TOK PISIN (PISIN, PIDGIN, NEOMELANESIAN, NEW GUINEA PIDGIN ENGLISH, MELANESIAN ENGLISH) [PDG] 50,000 first language; 2,000,000 second language speakers (1982 SIL). Mainly in the northern half of the country. Creole, English based, Pacific. The native language of some people in mixed urban areas. The main means of communication between speakers of different languages. The most frequently used language in Parliament and commerce. Some second language users speak a 'broken' Pidgin. There are dialect differences between lowlands, highlands, and the islands. The highlands lexicon has more English influence (J. Holm). National language. Christian, traditional religion. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1989. NT 1969-1978. Bible portions 1956-1992.

TOKANO (TOKAMA, GAMUSO, ZUHUZUHO, ZUHOZUHO, YUFIYUFA, ZAKA) [ZUH] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Gahuku-Benabena. Dialects: LOWER ASARO, ZUHUZUHO. Speakers are bilingual in Dano or Alekano. Bible portions 1979. Work in progress.

TOMOIP (TUMUIP, TUMIE, TOMOYP, TOMOIVE) [TUM] 700 (1982 SIL). East New Britain Province, Wide Bay to Waterfall Bay and interior. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Tomoip.

TORAU (ROROVANA) [TTU] 605 (1963 SIL). North Solomons Province, southeast coast, north of Kieta. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava. Fairly acculturated. Speakers have declined in number during the last 150 years. Swampy coast. Agriculturalists: sweet potatoes. Survey needed.

TORRICELLI (LOU, ANAMAGI) [TEI] 953 in 5 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Maprik District and partially in Sandaun Province, west of Kombio. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Dialects: WEST TORRICELLI, EAST TORRICELLI. Two dialects. Distinct from Lou in Manus Province or Tate (Lou) in Gulf Province. Survey needed.

TUAM-MUTU (MUTU, TUAM, TUOM) [TUC] 1,624 (1980 census). Morobe Province, 6 villages on the 6 Siassi Islands south of Umboi Island: Mandok, Malai, Aronai, Tuam, Mutu Malau, and Aramot, and a village on Umboi Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Ngero, Tuam. Dialects: MUTU, TUAM, MALAI.

TUMLEO [TMQ] 675 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Tumleo Island, and coast around Aitape. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Survey needed.

TUNGAG (TUNGAK, LAVONGAI, LAVANGAI, DANG) [LCM] 12,000 (1990 SIL). New Ireland Province, Lamet District, New Hanover Island, Tingwon and Umbukul Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, Lavongai-Nalik. Center of Johnson cargo cult. Primary education in English. Tok Pisin and some Tungag used in church. Grammar. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 300 meters. Christian, cargo cult. Bible portions 1989. Work in progress.

TURAKA [TRH] 35 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Milne Bay Province, 5 miles southwest of Radarada and Ruaba. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. Related languages: Daga, Bagoi, Galeva, Gwoiden, Kanamara, Makiara, Maneao, Moibiri, Pue, Tevi. Survey needed.

TUWARI [TWW] 122 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, middle Sepik region, upper Walio (Leonhard Schultze) River. A few also near Akiapmin south of the Central Range. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio. No literates.

UARIPI (TAIRUMA) [UAR] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Gulf Province, Uaripi town near Toaripi. Trans-New Guinea, Eleman, Eleman Proper, Eastern. Survey needed.

UBIR (UBIRI, KUBIRI) [UBR] 2,000 (1993 UBS). Oro Province, Tufi District, coast of Collingwood Bay on the Kwagila River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 27% lexical similarity with Miniafia (closest). Also spoken by Maisin and Miniafia speakers. Bible portions 1950. Work in progress.

UFIM [UFI] 550 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Gusap-Mot. Survey needed.

UISAI [UIS] 2,500 (1991 SIL). North Solomons Province, southern, Buin District. East Papuan, Bougainville, East, Buin. Bible portions 1986. Work in progress.

UKURIGUMA [UKG] 134 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Related languages: Wanuma, Yaben, Yarawata, Parawen, Bilakura. Survey needed.

ULAU-SUAIN (SUAIN) [SVB] 1,369 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, coast around Ulau 1, Ulau 2, and Suain. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau.

UMANAKAINA (GWEDENA, GWEDA, GWEDE, GVEDE, UMANIKAINA) [GDN] 2,400 (1987 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Rabaraba District, on the coast of Goodenough Bay, inland between Mt. Gwoira and Mt. Simpson. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Dagan. Dialects: UPPER UGU RIVER, EAST UMANAKAINA. At least two dialects. 23% lexical similarity with Ginuman (closest). Some speak some English. 'Umanakaina' is the name used by the people. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 500 to 1,200 meters. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1987.

UMBU-UNGU (UBU UGU, KAUGEL, KAUIL, GAWIGL, GAWIL, KAKOLI) [UMB] 25,000 (1994 SIL); 5,000 Andelale (1990 UBS); 5,000 Kala (1990 UBS); 5,000 No Penge (1990 UBS). Western Highlands Province, Tambul (No Penge dialect) and Lower Kaugul (Kala dialect) districts, extending into Southern Highlands Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Hagen, Kaugel. Dialects: KALA (MENDO-KALA), NO-PENGE, ANDELALE. Some speakers understand Medlpa. Typology: SOV. Scrub forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 900 to 2,500 meters. NT 1995. Bible portions 1967-1990.

UMEDA [UPI] 300 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanda District, south of Imonda. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Bewani.

UNSERDEUTSCH (RABAUL CREOLE GERMAN) [ULN] 100 or fewer fluent speakers including 15 in New Britain, a few in other parts of Papua New Guinea and the rest in southeastern Queensland, Australia (1981 C. Volker). West New Britain. Creole, German based. The descendent of a pidginized form of Standard German which originated in the Gazelle Peninsula of New Britain during German colonial times among the Catholic mixed-race ('Vunapope') community. With increased mobility and intermarriage, it has been disappearing in the last few decades. Most speakers are middle-aged or older, although many younger members of the community can understand it. All speakers are fluent in at least two of the following: Standard German, English, or Tok Pisin. Some can also speak Kuanua. Nearly extinct.

URA (URAMÄT, URAMIT, URAMET, URAMOT, AURAMOT) [URO] 1,900 (1991 SIL). East New Britain Province, Rabaul District, Gazelle Peninsula. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, New Britain, Baining-Taulil. 'Ura' is the language name, 'Uramät' the name for the people. There is a primary school. Mountains, foothills. Work in progress.

URAPMIN [URM] 394 (1979 census). Sandaun Province, Telefomin District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Mountain. Geographically and linguistically between Tifal and Telefol. Survey needed.

URAT (URAKIN, WASEPNAU) [URT] 6,000 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Dreikikir District, southwest of Wom, south of Kombio. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Urat. Dialects: CENTRAL URAT, EAST URAT, SOUTH URAT. Many villages. Work in progress.

URI (URII, URI VEHEES, ERAP) [UVH] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Boana District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Erap. Dialects: EAST URII, WEST URII. Typology: SOV. Savannah, tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 200 to 1,000 meters. NT 1984. Bible portions 1974.

URIGINA (URIGINAU, ORIGANAU) [URG] 1,404 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, 30 miles downstream. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka. One to two hours' walk from Usino air strip. Related languages: Usino, Danaru, Sumau. Cargo cult.

URIM (KALP) [URI] 3,200 (1991 SIL) in 13 villages (1971 Wurm). East Sepik Province, Maprik Subdistrict, extending into Sandaun Province, Nuku Subdistrict, southwest of Kombio. 16 villages. Torricelli, Urim. Dialects: KUKWO, YANGKOLEN. Typology: SOV. Bible portions 1981-1992. Work in progress.

URIMO (YAUGIBA) [URX] 835 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Torricelli, Marienberg. Related language: Elepi.

URUAVA [URV] North Solomons Province, southeastern coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Mono-Uruava. Extinct.

USAN (WANUMA) [WNU] 1,400 (1991 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Related languages: Yarawata, Bilakura, Ukuriguma. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 600 to 1,200 meters. Work in progress.

USARUFA (USURUFA, UTURUPA) [USA] 1,300 (1996 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Okapa District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Gadsup-Auyana-Awa. Grammar. NT 1980. Bible portions 1969.

USINO (KARI, SOP) [URW] 1,630 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Peka. Related languages: Sumau, Urigina, Danaru. Survey needed.

UTARMBUNG (OSUM) [OMO] 480 (1990 census). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Osum.

UTU [UTU] 583 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

UYA (USU) [USU] 93 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Trans-Gogol District. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Kwato, Ogea, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim, Yangulam. Survey needed.

VALMAN (KOROKO) [VAN] 800 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Related languages: Olo, Yau, Ningil, Yis. Survey needed.

VANIMO (MANIMO, WANIMO, DUSO) [VAM] (1990 SIL). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District. 3 villages. Not in Irian Jaya. Sko, Vanimo. Many highly educated speakers. 2 dialects. Related language: Wutung. Coastal. Altitude: 0 to 150 meters.

VASUI (VASUII, WASOI, TINPUTZ, TIMPUTS) [TPZ] 3,900 (1991 SIL). North Solomons Province, Teop-Tinputz District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, New Ireland, South New Ireland-Northwest Solomonic, Nehan-North Bougainville, Saposa-Tinputz. Dialects: VASUI, VAOEHPOA', VAENE', VAENE'-VADO, VADO, VAPOPEO', VAPOPEO'RAUSAURA, POKPAPA, ORIG, DIOS (TSIBATABAI), CHUNDAWAN, VAADOO. Moderate acculturation. Their name for themselves is 'Vasuii'. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 1,000 meters. Bible portions 1975. Work in progress.

VEHES (BUASI, VEHEES) [VAL] 100 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, one village near the coast between Salamaua and Lae. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang. 60% lexical similarity with Buang (closest). Survey needed.

VITU (WITU) [WIV] 8,800 (1991 SIL). West New Britain Province, Talasea District, Witu Islands off the northwest coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Meso Melanesian, Bali-Vitu. 2 or 3 dialects. A separate language from Bali. Work in progress.

WAB (SOM) [WAB] 142 (1977 Lincoln). Madang Province, north coast of Huon Peninsula. 2 villages next to Saidor: Wab and Saui. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Ngero-Vitiaz, Vitiaz, Bel, Astrolabe. Related to Mindiri and Biliau. Survey needed.

WADAGINAM (WADAGINAMB) [WDG] 546 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Josephstaal-Wanang, Josephstaal, Wadaginam. Survey needed.

WAFFA [WAJ] 1,000 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, headwaters of Waffa River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Eastern, Tairora. Dictionary. NT 1975-1988. Bible portions 1969.

WAGAWAGA [WGW] 1,165 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, south shore of Milne Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, Suauic. Dialect: DAIO (DAIAMUNI, DEAMUNI, DAIOMUNI, KILAKILANA). Speakers are fairly bilingual in Suau, Hiri Motu, and Tawala. There are many schools. Survey needed.

WAGI (FORAN, FURAN, KAMBA, MIS-KEMBA) [FAD] 1,500 (1986 M. Leaders SIL). Madang Province, 7 miles northwest of Madang. 5 villages: Mis, Kamba, Foran, Kauris, and Silibob. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. 30% lexical similarity with Ari. May be closest to Nobanob. Speakers call their language 'Wagi'. Typology: SOV, adjectives, numerals follow noun head, verb affixes mark person, number, CV, CVC, VC, V, non-tonal. Tropical forest. Mountain slope, coastal. Swidden agriculturalists, marginally peasant: cacao, coconuts, coffee. Altitude: 0 to 1,000 feet. Survey needed.

WAHGI [WAK] 60,000 (1990 UBS). Western Highlands Province, Minj District, overlapping into Simbu Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Central, Wahgi. Dialects: BANZ-NONDUGL, KUP-MINJ (KUMAI), PUKAMIGL-ANDEGABU, KUNJIP, KAMBIA, MID-WAHGI. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1989. Bible portions 1966-1979.

WALIO [WLA] 142 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio. 12% lexical similarity with Yabio.

WAMAS [WMC] 135 in ten villages (1977). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

WAMPAR (LAEWOMBA, LAEWAMBA, LAIWOMBA) [LBQ] 5,150 (1990). Morobe Province, lower Markham and Wamped rivers. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Lower, Wampar. 50% lexical similarity with Adzera. NT 1984. Bible portions 1973.

WAMPUR [WAZ] 360 (1990). Morobe Province, Wanton River. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Upper, Mountain. 50% lexical similarity with Adzera. Closest to Mari. Survey needed.

WAMSAK (WOMSAK, SEIM, NIHAMBER, MENDE, SAMBU) [WBD] 5,000 to 7,000 (1993 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Middle Sepik River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma.

WANAMBRE (VANAMBERE) [WLN] 489 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Tiboran.

WANAP (KAYIK) [WNP] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Sandaun Province, north of Mehek, northeast of Siliput. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Palei. Related languages: Agi, Aru, Aruop, Bragat, Nabi.

WANIB (ARINUA, ARINWA, ARIMA, HEYO, LOLOPANI, WAN WAN, RURUHIP) [AUK] 1,711 (1987 SIL). Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division. Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. 'Wanib' is the name preferred by speakers. 60% lexical similarity with Yahang. Older men use Tok Pisin with difficulty; older women are monolingual. One primary school where English is used. Yahang is also called 'Ruruhip'. Hills, plains, sago swamp.

WANTOAT [WNC] 8,201 (1978 McElhanon) including 393 Bam (1978 McElhanon) and 492 Yagawak (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Morobe Province, Kaiapit District, Wantoat, Leron, and Bam rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Wantoat. Dialects: WAPU (LERON), CENTRAL WANTOAT, BAM, YAGAWAK (KANDOMIN). Saseng is a village; not a separate language. NT 1975. Bible portions 1973.

WARAPU [WRA] 1,602 including 442 nonresidents (1983 census). Sandaun Province, coast near Sera and Sissano, northwest peninsula of the Sissano lagoon, around Sumo and Ramu towns. Sko, Krisa. Related languages: Krisa, Rawo, Puari. Survey needed.

WARIS (WALSA) [WRS] 2,500 in Papua New Guinea; 1,500 in Irian Jaya, Indonesia; 4,000 in all countries. Sandaun Province, Amanab District, around Wasengla. Trans-New Guinea, Northern, Border, Waris. Dictionary. Different from Wari or Wares. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1987.

WARUNA [WRV] 600 or more (1991 SIL). Western Province, Aramia River area, Waruna village. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Gogodala-Suki, Gogodala. 50% lexical similarity with Ari. Speakers use Gogodala as second language. Survey needed.

WASAMBU (KWANGA, GAWANGA, WOMSAK) [WSM] 450 (1996 SIL). East Sepik Province, extending beyond the western boundary of Maprik District; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District; Sandaun Province, east of Mehek. 40 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. Typology: OSV. Tropical forest. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 50 to 60 meters. Survey needed.

WASEMBO (GUSAP, YANKOWAN, BIAPIM) [GSP] 586 (1980 census). Morobe Province, west of Ufim. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Wasembo. Survey needed.

WASKIA (WOSKIA, VASKIA) [WSK] 12,000 (1987 SIL). Madang Province, Madang District, Karkar Island. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Isumrud, Kowan. Closest to Korak. Dictionary. Grammar. Volcanic island, mountain slope. NT 1985. Bible portions 1978.

WATAKATAUI (WAXE) [WTK] 160 in one village (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, on a branch of the middle Korosameri River. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Sepik Hill, Bahinemo. The people are highly bilingual in Tok Pisin. Work in progress.

WATALUMA [WAT] 190 (1972 census). Milne Bay Province, two hamlets north of Goodenough Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Are. 51% lexical similarity with Iduna (closest). Speakers are bilingual in Bwaidoka and Iduna.

WATAM (MARANGIS) [WAX] 376 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang and East Sepik provinces, near the mouth of the Ramu River. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Ramu Proper, Ruboni, Ottilien. Survey needed.

WATUT, MIDDLE (SILISILI, MARALIINAN, MARALINAN, WATUT) [MPL] 1,350 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, lower Watut Valley, 7 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut. Yabem is the church language. The language is used for home and village life. Swidden agriculturalists: cash crop betelnut; gold. Altitude: lowlands to 330 meters.

WATUT, NORTH (UNANK, ONANK, UNANGG, WATUT) [UNA] 465 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, Mumeng District, Kaiapit area, Waffa Valley. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut. Survey needed.

WATUT, SOUTH [MCY] 889 (1988 Holzknecht). Morobe Province, southern or lower Watut River. 5 villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, Markham, Watut. Dialects: MARALANGO (MARALANGKO), DANGAL (DANGGAL). Holzknecht says Maralango and Dangal are one language. Survey needed.

WEDAU (WEDAUN, WEDAWAN) [WED] 2,200 (1973 SIL); lingua franca for 5,000 (1985 UBS). Milne Bay Province, on the mainland from Kuvira Bay to Dogura along the north coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Nuclear, North Papuan Mainland-D'Entrecasteaux, Are-Taupota, Taupota. Dialects: TOPURA, YAPOA. Trade language of northeast Papua. It is understood some in Oro Province. NT 1927-1980. Bible portions 1897-1983.

WELIKI (WELEKI, KARANGI) [KLH] 200 (1990 SIL). Morobe Province, lower Timbe River valley. 2 villages. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa. People in one village are completely bilingual in Timbe.

WERE [WEI] 291 (1979 census). Western Province, Dewara (Weredai) village. Trans-New Guinea, Trans Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Tirio. Different from Dewara-Lewada, Aturu, Tirio, or Baramu. Survey needed.

WERI (WELI, WELE) [WER] 4,163 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Wau District, headwaters of Biaru, Waria, and Ono rivers. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Goilalan, Kunimaipa. Dialects: SIM, BIARU-WARIA, ONO. NT 1984. Bible portions 1966.

WIAKI (WIAKEI) [WII] 561 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, north of Beli, Laeko-Libuat. Torricelli, Maimai, Wiaki. Survey needed.

WIRU (WITU) [WIU] 15,292 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Highlands Province, Ialibu District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, Wiru. Grammar. NT 1990. Bible portions 1967-1968.

WOGAMUSIN (WONGAMUSIN) [WOG] 368 in 3 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Upper Sepik, Wogamusin. Many Tok Pisin speakers. Some young people learning English.

WOGEO (UAGEO) [WOC] 1,237 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Vokeo and Koil islands, East Sepik Province. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Kairiru-Manam, Manam. Related to Manam, Biem, Sepa, and Medebur. Speakers use Tok Pisin as second language. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal. Swidden agriculturalists. Survey needed.

WOM (WAM) [WMO] 1,885 in 5 areas (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, east of Wara Sikau, Maprik District. 12 villages, foothills of Torricelli Mts., 22 km. west northwest of Maprik in Dreikikir District, Maprik Province. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. 2 slightly different dialects. Language use is vigorous. One school. Cargo cult.

WUTUNG (UDUNG) [WUT] 410 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, Vanimo District, coast bordering Irian Jaya. Sko, Vanimo. Coastal. Survey needed.

WUVULU-AUA (AUA-VIWULU, VIWULU-AUA) [WUV] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Western Manus Province, Aua, Durour, Maty, and Wuvulu islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Admiralty Islands, Western. Dialects: AUA, WUVULU (WUU). Two nearly identical dialects. Typology: SVO. Low atolls. Subsistence agriculturalists; fishermen. Altitude: 0 to 10 meters. Work in progress.

YABEM (LAULABU, JABEM, JABIM, YABIM) [JAE] 2,084 (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Huon Peninsula, coast near Finschhafen. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, North. Used by Lutherans as a religious language throughout the area for 60,000 (1981 UBS). Christian. NT 1924-1974. Bible portions 1908-1980.

YABEN [YBM] 702 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Related languages: Usan, Yarawata, Bilakura, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Survey needed.

YABONG [YBO] 370 (1970 SIL). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Yaganon. Survey needed.

YAGARIA (KAMI) [YGR] 21,116 (1982 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Kamano-Yagaria. Dialects: KAMI-KULAKA, MOVE, GOTOMI, OLOGUTI, DAGENAVA, KAMATE, HIRA, HUA (HUVA). Dictionaries. Grammars. NT 1977. Bible portions 1969-1977.

YAGOMI [YGM] 137 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province, Saidor District, Yagomi village, on the coast southeast of Seure. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Warup. May be the same as Asat. Coastal. Survey needed.

YAGWOIA (KOKWAIYAKWA, YEGHUYE) [YGW] 9,000 (1987 SIL). Morobe Province, Menyamya District, extending into Gulf Province; Eastern Highlands Province, one section west of the Tauri River, the other north of Menye. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Angan, Angan Proper. Typology: SOV. Pine forest, deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 1,200 to 2,000 meters. Survey needed.

YAHANG (YA'UNK, RURUHIP, RURUHI'IP) [RHP] 1,182 including 1,116 in area and 66 outside (1978 census). Sandaun Province, west of Mehek. Torricelli, Maimai, Maimai Proper. 60% lexical similarity with Heyo (Arinua). Arinua also called Ruruhip.

YAKAMUL (ALI) [YKM] 2,118 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province, coast between Paup and Yakamul, and Ali, Seleo, and Angel islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Schouten, Siau. Dialects: ALI, YAKAMUL. Coastal, islands. Survey needed.

YALE (NAGATMAN, NAGATIMAN, YARË, YADE) [NCE] 600 (1991 SIL). Sandaun Province, Amanab District, west of Namia. Kwomtari is north, Abau is south, Busa is southwest, Biaka is west, Anggor and Amanab are northwest. 6 villages. Language Isolate. 2 very similar dialects. Most men up to 35 years old have routine proficiency in Tok Pisin. There is some intermarriage with the Busa. 'Nagatman' is a corrupted name of 1 village. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Sago swamps. Hunter-gatherers, some cultivation: sugarcane, tobacco, sweet potatoes, taro. Altitude: 300 feet. Selections 1994. Work in progress.

YAMAP [YMP] 670 (1980 census). Morobe Province, Francisco River area. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Hote. Close to Hote and Misim. Survey needed.

YAMBES [YMB] 860 in 4 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Maprik District, northwest of Wom, east and southeast of Kombio. Torricelli, Kombio-Arapesh, Kombio. Dialects: WEST YAMBES, EAST YAMBES. Two dialects. Survey needed.

YANGULAM [YNL] 180 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Rai Coast, Nuru. Related languages: Kwato, Ogea, Uya, Duduela, Rerau, Jilim. Survey needed.

YAPUNDA (REIWO) [YEV] 69 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Sandaun Province. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Survey needed.

YARAWATA [YRW] 98 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Adelbert Range, Pihom-Isumrud-Mugil, Pihom, Numugenan. Related languages: Usan, Yaben, Bilakura, Parawen, Ukuriguma. Survey needed.

YAREBA (MIDDLE MUSA) [YRB] 750 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Oro Province, Popondetta District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Central and Southeastern, Yareban. Speakers are highly bilingual in Hiri Motu. Dictionary. Grammar. NT 1973. Bible portions 1966.

YAU (URUWA) [YUW] 1,700 (1991 SIL). Morobe Province, Kabwum District. Villages include Worin, Yawan, Kotet, Mitmit, Mup, Sindamon. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Uruwa. Dialects: NORTHERN YAU, HEADWATERS YAU. The dialects listed are inherently intelligible, and are also names of villages. It is distinct from Yau which is Torricelli. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 930 to 1,500 meters. Bible portions 1991-1994. Work in progress.

YAU [YYU] 165 (1983 census). Sandaun Province. 1 village. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Related languages: Olo, Yis (63% lexical similarity), Ningil, Valman. Distinct from Yau in Uruwa group and the Yau dialect of Yessan-Mayo. Altitude: 4,000 to 5,000 feet.

YAUL [YLA] 814 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province. Sepik-Ramu, Ramu, Yuat-Waibuk, Mongol-Langam. Related languages: Langam, Mongol. Survey needed.

YAWEYUHA (YABIYUFA, YAWIYUHA) [YBY] 2,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern Highlands Province, Goroka District. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, East New Guinea Highlands, East-Central, Siane. NT 1982.

YAWIYO (YABIO) [YBX] 100 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Sandaun Province, 10 miles east of Duranmin. 3 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Leonhard Schultze, Walio. 7% lexical similarity with Papi. Most use Saniyo-Hiyowe as second language. Survey needed.

YEI (YEY, JEI, JE) [JEI] 1,000 in all countries (1975 Wurm). Western Province, south between Fly River and coast, Sirisa village. Also in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Trans-New Guinea, Trans-Fly-Bulaka River, Trans-Fly, Morehead and Upper Maro Rivers, Yey. Dialects: NORTH YEI (BUPUL), SOUTH YEI. Survey needed.

YEKORA [YKR] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Morobe Province, 2 villages near Morobe government station. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper.

YELE (YELEJONG, ROSSEL, YELA, YELETNYE) [YLE] 3,300 (1988 SIL). Milne Bay Province, Misima District, Rossel Island at eastern end of Calvados chain. East Papuan, Yele-Solomons-New Britain, Yele-Solomons, Yele. Dialects: DAMINYU, BOU, WULANGA, JINJO, ABALETTI, JARU. 8% lexical similarity with Daga (closest). Half the children have primary education in English. Dictionary. Grammar. Typology: SOV. Tropical forest. Coastal, island. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 0 to 830 meters. NT 1987. Bible portions 1982-1985.

YELOGU (KAUNGA, BUIAMANAMBU) [YLG] 230 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, one village in Ambunti District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Ndu. Survey needed.

YERAKAI (YEREKAI) [YRA] 390 in 2 villages (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, southeast near government station. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Yerakai. 6% lexical similarity with Middle Sepik languages. Hills. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

YESSAN-MAYO (MAYO-YESAN, MAYO, YASYIN) [YSS] 1,200 (1991 SIL). East Sepik Province, Ambunti District, Sandaun Province, Wan Wan Division, east of Mehek. 10 villages. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Tama. Dialects: YAWU (YAU, YAW, WARASAI), MAIO-YESAN. Yawu is distinct from Yau which is Torricelli or Yau which is Trans-New Guinea. Grammar. Tropical forest. Riverine. Fishermen, swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 50 meters. Christian, traditional religion. NT 1980. Bible portions 1993.

YIL [YLL] 2,476 (1983 census). Sandaun Province, northwest of Au. 16 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. 23% lexical similarity with Au. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Altitude: 4,000 to 6,000 feet.

YIMAS [YEE] 350 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Sepik Province, near Chambri, Arafundi River, middle Karawari River. Sepik-Ramu, Nor-Pondo, Pondo. Related language: Karawari. Survey needed.

YIS [YIS] 492 (1983 census). Sandaun Province. 5 villages. Torricelli, Wapei-Palei, Wapei. Different dialects in each village. Related languages: Olo, Yau, Ningil, Valman. Mountain slope.

YOBA [YOB] Central Province, north of Magori. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, Papuan Tip, Peripheral, Central Papuan, Oumic, Magoric. Related to Magori. 2 non-primary speakers left (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Extinct.

YOIDIK [YDK] 266 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Madang Province. Trans-New Guinea, Madang-Adelbert Range, Madang, Mabuso, Hanseman. Survey needed.

YONGGOM (YONGOM, YONGKOM) [YON] 15,000 in Papua New Guinea (1987 UBS); 2,000 in Irian Jaya, Indonesia (1987 SIL); 17,000 in all countries. Western Province along the Fly and Tedi (Alice) rivers and towards the Murray River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Central and South New Guinea-Kutubuan, Central and South New Guinea, Ok, Lowland. Close to South Kati and Ninggerum. Bible portions 1965-1988. Work in progress.

YOPNO (YUPNA, ISAN) [YUT] 10,000 including 7,000 Yupna (1987 SIL), 820 Kewieng (1981), 1,669 Nokopo (1981), 517 Wandabong (1981). Madang Province and Morobe Province. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Huon-Finisterre, Finisterre, Yupna. Dialects: KEWIENG, NOKOPO, WANDABONG. Related to Mebu, Gabutamon. Bible portions 1979-1993. Work in progress.

YUBANAKOR (DAINA, KWANGA) [YUO] 4,800 (1996 SIL). East Sepik Province, extending beyond the western boundary of Maprik District; Makru-Klaplei Division, Nuku District. Sepik-Ramu, Sepik, Middle Sepik, Nukuma. Tropical forest. Plains. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 50 to 60 meters. NT 1991. Bible portions 1982.

ZENAG (ZENANG) [ZEG] 1,818 (1979 census). Morobe Province, Mumeng District. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Huon Gulf, South, Hote-Buang, Buang, Mumeng. In Mumeng dialect chain. Some intelligibility with Patep. Typology: SVO. Tropical forest. Mountain slope. Swidden agriculturalists. Altitude: 300 to 900 meters. Survey needed.

ZIA (TSIA, LOWER WARIA, ZIYA) [ZIA] 3,943 including 3,000 Zia (1991 SIL), 943 Mawae (1978 McElhanon). Morobe Province, Lae District near the mouth of the Waria River. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Eastern, Binanderean, Binanderean Proper. Dialects: ZIA, MAWAE. 68% lexical similarity with Yekora (closest). NT 1982. Bible portions 1978.

ZIMAKANI (BAEGWA, DEA, BAGWA ZIMAKANI) [ZIK] 1,500 (1990 UBS). Western Province, south end of Lake Murray. Trans-New Guinea, Main Section, Central and Western, Marind, Boazi. Dialects: ZIMAKANI, BAGWA (BEGUA), DEA. Closely related to Kuni (Boazi). NT 1989. Bible portions 1958-1961.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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