Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Tanzania

32,892,000 (1995). United Republic of Tanzania. Jamhuri ya Mwungano wa Tanzania. Formerly German East Africa, Tanganyika. Literacy rate 80% to 85%; 18.4% (1977 C. M. Brann). Also includes Konkani, Panjabi, Urdu, Chinese, Europeans 70,000, refugees from Rwanda 25,000, Mozambique. Information mainly from Polomé and Hill 1980, J. Nkola AIC 1989. Population figures updated from 1957 census. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion. Blind population 40,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 7. The number of languages listed for Tanzania is 132. Of those, 131 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

AASÁX (ASAX, ASÁ, ASAK) [AAS] Northern Tanzania near the Maasai. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. Became linguistically extinct in 1976. They were dependent on the Maasai and became absorbed into it and nearby Bantu groups. Hunter-gatherers.

ARABIC, OMANI SPOKEN [ACX] 195,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone); 1,010,000 in all countries. Also in Oman, UAE, Kenya. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Second and third generation in Tanzania, originally from Yemen and Oman. Some or all may actually be Swahili speakers now. Literacy is in Arabic. Typology: SVO. Muslim. Survey needed.

ARABIC, STANDARD [ABV] Middle East, north Africa. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1984-1991. NT 1980-1982. Bible portions 1984.

ARAMANIK (LARAMANIK, "NDOROBO", "DOROBO") [AAM] Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi. Speakers have limited comprehension of other languages. Kisankasa, Mediak, and Mosiro are also called "Ndorobo".

ASU (CHIASU, CHASU, ATHU, CASU, PARE) [ASA] 400,000 (1993 Johnstone). Northeastern, Pare Mountains around Same. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20). Welmers says this is the same as Pare. 5% monolingual, 63% bilingual in Swahili, 32% trilingual in Swahili and English. Asu used in home and worship. Fairly isolated. Mountain slope. NT 1922-1967. Bible portions 1910-1960.

BEMBA (CHIBEMBA, ICHIBEMBA, WEMBA, CHIWEMBA) [BEM] 28,600 in Tanzania (1987); 2,000,000 in Zambia (1993); 120,000 in Zaïre; 2,150,000 or more in all countries. Also in Malawi, possibly Zimbabwe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40). Traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1956-1983. NT 1916-1934. Bible portions 1904-1948.

BENA (EKIBENA) [BEZ] 568,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southwest central. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). 71% lexical similarity with Pangwa, 65% with Hehe, 55% with Sangu, 53% with Kinga, 51% with Wanji, 47% with Kisi. NT 1914-1920.

BENDE [BDP] 20,000 (1987). Southwest and west of Konongo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Survey needed.

BONDEI (KIBONDEI, BONDE) [BOU] 80,000 (1987). Usambara Mountains, northeastern, inland from Tanga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20). 75% lexical similarity with Shambala and Zigula, 73% with Ngulu. It has been influenced linguistically by Doe and Kwere, and it has influenced them. Some bilingualism in Swahili. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1887-1895.

BUNGU (WUNGU) [WUN] 36,000 (1987). Southeast of Lake Rukwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). Closely related to Kimbu and Sumbwa. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Semi-arid. Plateau. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

BURUNGE (BULUNGE, MBULUGWE) [BDS] 31,000 (1987). Central Province, Kondoa District, southeast of the Rangi. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. Arid, deciduous bush. Altitude: 4,000 feet. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

CHAGGA (KICHAGA, CHAGA, DSCHAGGA, KISHAKA, DJAGA) [KAF] 1,000,000 (1995 WA), including 300,000 Vunjo (1992 UBS), 300,000 Machame (1992 UBS). Northeastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Mt. Meru, and Moshi area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). Dialects: KIHAI (MERU), KIMASHAMI (MACHAME), KIBOMBO, SHIRA, MKUU, KIWUNJO (VUNJO, WUNJO, MARANGU), KENI, KIBOSHO, KILEMA, MAMBA, MASHATI, URU, USSERI (ROMBO), SIHA. A dialect continuum from Siha to Usseri. Speakers say most of the Vunjo (central) dialects are intelligible with the Kibosho and Machame dialects of Hai (west). Hai and Rombo (east) are not inherently intelligible (Polomé 1980). 54% to 56% lexical similarity with Gweno, 41% to 44% with Taita. Value placed on children learning Chagga (Whiteley). Roman script used for writing the language. Typology: SVO. NT 1964. Bible portions 1932.

CHASI (ALAGWASE, ALAGWA, ALAWA, WASI, UWASSI, ASI) [WBJ] 10,000 (1989 Martin Mous). Kondoa District, Central Province, in the Rangi chiefdom. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. All members of the ethnic group have a fairly good command of the language. Nearly all are bilingual in Rangi. Children tend to speak Rangi among themselves. Related to Iraqw, but not inherently intelligible.

DATOOGA (DATOGA, DATOG, TATOGA, TATOG, TATURU, "MANGATI") [TCC] 150,000 to 200,000 (1993 SIL); including 28,000 Taturu (1987), 76,000 Barabaig (1987), a few thousand Gisamjanga (1982 F. Rottland); 370 Tsimajeega (1967 census); 740 Rootigaanga (1967 census); Bianjiida 4099 (1948 census). Singida and Mbulu regions. The Barabaig are mainly in the northern volcanic highlands near Mt. Hanang. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga. Dialects: BAJUTA, GISAMJANGA (KISAMAJENG, GISAMJANG), BARABAYIIGA (BARABAIG, BARABAIK, BARBAIG), TSIMAJEEGA (ISIMIJEEGA), ROOTIGAANGA (ROTIGENGA), BURAADIIGA (BURADIGA), BIANJIIDA (UTATU). 50% lexical similarity with Kalenjin and Omotik of Kenya. Sabaot is probably the closest language linguistically. Barabaik and Kisamajeng are very close and are completely inherently intelligible. There are several other dialects or ethnic groups: Darorajega, Gidang'odiga, Bisiyeda, Daragwajega, Salawajega, Ghumbiega, Mangatiga. 'Mangati' or 'Ole-Mangati' is the Maasai name meaning 'enemies'. 'Taturu' is the Sukuma name. Those who have been to school may speak Swahili at FSI level 2 or 3. A few use Iraqw, Iramba, or Nyaturu as second language for commerce. There is intermarriage with the Iraqw. Few are literate. Datooga orthography is different from Swahili. Typology: VSO; prepositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals after noun heads; question word final; 4 prefixes, 5 suffixes on verb; case marked by tone; verb affixes mark person, number; (C)(C)V(:), VC; tonal. Levels of bilingualism in Swahili are 0:90%, 1:6%, 2:2%, 3:1%, 4:1%, 5:0%. Plains, mountain slope. Pastoralists: cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys; agriculturalists: maize, beans, millet; hunters. Altitude: 3,800 to 6,000 feet. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

DHAISO (KIDHAISO, DAISO, SEGEJU, SAGEJU, SENGEJU) [SEG] 29,000 (1987). Northeast coast, Tanga region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20). Some bilingualism in Swahili. Related to Kamba of Kenya. 32% lexical similarity with Digo. Muslim.

DIGO (KIDIGO, CHIDIGO) [DIG] 88,000 in Tanzania (1987); 217,000 in Kenya (1994); 305,000 in all countries. Northeastern coast area around Tanga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.40), Mijikenda. Muslim. Bible portions 1982-1993. Work in progress.

DOE (DOHE) [DOE] 24,000 (1987). North coast, north of the Kwere, south of the Nghwele. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 74% lexical similarity with Kwere, 64% with Kami, 61% with Kutu and Zalamo, 70% with Zigula, 54% with Ruguru. Doe has influenced Zigula and Bondei linguistically, and it has been influenced by them. Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Survey needed.

ENGLISH [ENG] Second language speakers in Tanzania: 1,500,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Taught in secondary school and university. Used by some Asian residents as mother tongue. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

FIPA (ICHIFIPA, CIFIPA, FIBA) [FIP] 200,000 (1992 UBS). West central near southern Lake Tanganyika. Also in Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). Dialects: KANDASI, SIWA, KWAFI, YANTILI (PEMBA), KWA, CILE. Swahili is the speakers' second language. Savannah, scrub. Plateau, hills, coast, valleys. Agriculturalists: millet, maize, lima beans, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, spinach, cucurbits, tomatoes, onions, potatoes, chiles, sorghum, bananas, papayas, oranges, limes, mangos, tobacco, coconuts, wheat, coffee; animal husbandry: cattle, sheep, goats, fowl, pidgeons; fishermen. Altitude: 2,530 to 7,000 feet. Traditional religion. NT 1988.

GANDA (LUGANDA) [LAP] 9,459 in Tanzania (1957 census); 3,015,980 in Uganda (1993). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10). Typology: SVO. Bible 1896-1968. NT 1893-1993. Bible portions 1887-1953.

GOGO (CHIGOGO) [GOG] 1,300,000 (1992 UBS). Southwest of Dodoma, east of Kimbu, Rift Valley. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10). 50% lexical similarity with Hehe and Sangu, 48% with Kimbu, 45% with Nilamba. Semi-nomadic. Gogo is used in meetings by Anglicans. Dry valley. Agriculturalists. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1962. NT 1899-1993. Bible portions 1886-1990.

GOROWA (GOROA, FIOME) [GOW] 30,000 (1987). Mbulu and Kondoa districts, Central Province, around Mt. Ufiome. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. May be a dialect of Iraqw. Forests. Hills. Altitude: 4,500 feet. Survey needed.

GUJARATI [GJR] 250,000 in Tanzania from India, predominantly Gujarati (1993 Johnstone); 44,000,000 in all countries. Small communities. Mainly in India, also in Bangladesh, Pakistan, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Singapore, United Kingdom, Fiji. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati. Vigorous language use. They have their own religious institutions and evening schools. Bible 1823-1994. NT 1820-1985. Bible portions 1809-1965.

GWENO (KIGWENO) [GWE] Around Mt. Kilimanjaro. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). 54% to 56% lexical similarity with Chagga dialects (closest), 46% with Taita. Survey needed.

HA (GIHA, KIHA, IKIHA) [HAQ] 800,000 (1993 Johnstone). Northwestern, Kigoma Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). 78% lexical similarity with Rundi, 77% with Hangaza and Shubi, 72% with Rwanda. Dialects in border area near Burundi are reported to be intelligible with Rundi (Polomé 1980). Speakers upcountry do not know Swahili and are traditionally oriented. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1960-1962.

HANGAZA (KIHANGAZA) [HAN] 150,000 (1987). Northwestern, southwest of Bukoba. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). 85% lexical similarity with Shubi, 83% with Rundi, 77% with Ha, 72% with Rwanda. Speakers have strong ethnic pride. Bible portions 1938.

HATSA (HADZA, HADZAPI, HADZABI, KINDIGA, TINDIGA, WAKINDIGA, KANGEJU) [HTS] 200 (1987). Some distance northwest of the Sandawe, southeast of Lake Victoria, Singida, Arusha, and Shinyanga regions, near Lake Eyasi. Khoisan, Hatsa. Nomadic. Pressures from outside are resulting in less land, food, and more disease. Bali may be a dialect. Swamps, wilderness. Hunter-gatherers. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

HAYA (EKIHAYA, RUHAYA, ZIBA) [HAY] 1,200,000 (1991 UBS). Northwestern, west of Lake Victoria, Bukoba District of West Lake Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). Dialects: BUMBIRA, EDANGABO, HAMBA, HANGIRO, MWANI, NYAKISISA, EKIZIBA, YOZA. Agriculturalists: plantain, coffee, beans, maize; miners: tin, wolfram; animal husbandry: cattle, goats. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. NT 1930-1968. Bible portions 1920-1986.

HEHE (KIHEHE) [HEH] 750,000 (1994 UBS)). Southeast central, north of Pogolo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). 65% lexical similarity with Bena (closest), 59% with Pangwa, 56% with Sangu, 50% with Kinga, 48% with Wanji. Work in progress.

HOLOHOLO (HOROHORO, KALANGA, KIKALANGA) [HOO] 12,500 in all countries (1987). East central shore of Lake Tanganyika. Also in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20). KiKaranga may be separate. Different from Kiholo of Zaïre and Angola. Bible portions 1948.

IKIZU [IKZ] 28,000 (1987). East of Zanaki and Kerebe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Limited bilingualism in Swahili.

IKOMA (NATA, IKINATA) [NTK] 15,000 (1987). East of Ikizu, Zanaki, and Kerebe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Dialect: ISSENYI (ISENYI, IKISENYI). 81% lexical similarity with Zanaki, 73% with Ngurimi, 68% with Kuria, 44% with Gusii. Limited bilingualism in Swahili.

IRAQW (MBULU, MBULUNGE, EROKH, IRAKU) [IRK] 365,000 (1993 Johnstone). Mbulu District, highlands southwest of Arusha in north. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. Dialect: ASA. Asa may be a separate language. Agriculturalists: maize, beans, red and white sorghum, sweet potatoes, millet; animal husbandry: cattle sheep. Altitude: 6,000 feet. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1977. Bible portions 1957.

ISANZU [ISN] 32,400 (1987). East and southeast of Sukuma. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified. Limited bilingualism in Swahili.

JIJI [JIJ] 12,000 (1987). In Kogoma, Ujiji. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified. Limited bilingualism in Swahili. May be related to Ha. Muslim.

JITA (ECHIJITA, ECIJITA) [JIT] 217,000 (1987). Southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerebe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). 83% lexical similarity with Kwaya, 81% with Kara, 62% with Kerewe. NT 1943-1960. Bible portions 1934-1941.

KABWA [CWA] North central. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Close to Kiroba (Kuria), but separate. Survey needed.

KACHCHI (CUTCHI, KACCHI, KACHI, KATCHI) [KFR] 778,000 or more in all countries; 768,000 in India (1994 IMA); 10,000 in Kenya (1995). Cities. Also in Malawi. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi. Speakers use Kachchi 52% of the time, Gujarati 14%, English 26%. Hindu, Muslim. Bible portions 1834. Work in progress.

KAGULU (CHIKAGULU, KAGURU, NORTHERN SAGARA, KININGO, WETUMBA, SOLWA, MANGAHERI) [KKI] 217,000 (1987). East central, east of Dodoma. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10). Dialect: MEGI. 63% lexical similarity with Sagala, 56% with Gogo. Speakers are reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Savannah, scrub, deciduous forest. Lowland, plateau, rolling hills, mountain slope. Agriculturalists: maize, beans, peanuts, banana, cassava, mango, papaya, limes, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes, plantains, tobacco, coffee, citrus, pumpkins, castor, sunflowers; animal husbandry: chickens, ducks, sheep, goats, cattle. Altitude: 2,000 to 7,000 feet. Christian, traditional religion, Muslim. Bible portions 1885-1894. Survey needed.

KAHE [HKA] 2,700 (1987). Northeastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

KAMI (KIKAMI) [KCU] 315,000 (1987). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 69% lexical similarity with Kutu and Kwere, 65% with Zalamo, 64% with Doe, 54% with Ruguru. Muslim.

KARA (REGI) [REG] 86,000 (1987). Southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerebe, on the Ukerewe, and islands. A few in Mwanza. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). 81% lexical similarity with Jita, 80% with Kwaya. 'Regi' is a tribal name. Younger speakers are bilingual in Swahili, but those over 35 are not; the majority do not know Swahili. They do not travel much. Fishermen.

KEREBE (EKIKEREBE, KEREWE) [KED] 100,000 (1987). Northwestern Ukerewe Island, southern Lake Victoria, Kibara. North of Sukuma, across Speke Gulf. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). 76% lexical similarity with Zinza, 75% with Haya, 69% with Nyambo, 68% with Nyankole, 63% with Chiga and Toro, 62% with Nyoro. NT 1936-1946.

KIMBU (KIKIMBU, IKIBUNGU, YANZI) [KIV] 78,000 (1987). Southwest and west of the Konongo, south and southeast of the Nyamwezi; Chunya District, southern Highlands Province, Manyoni District, Central Province; 23% in traditional area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). 61% lexical similarity with Nilamba, 57% with Sukuma, 53% with Nyaturu, 48% with Sumbwa, 47% with Langi. Limited bilingualism in Swahili. Moravians use Nyamwezi in church, a related but separate language; RC use Swahili. Semi-nomadic. Forest. Hunter-gatherers, bee keepers, agriculturalists: sorghum, millet, maize, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, beans, chick peas, gourds, sunflowers. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

KINGA (KIKINGA, EKIKINGA) [KIX] 65,000 (1987). Livingston Mountains, northeastern shore of Lake Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). NT 1961.

KISANKASA ("NDOROBO", "DOROBO") [KQH] 4,670 (1987). Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi. A distinct language from others called "Dorobo": Aramanik, Mediak, Mosiro. Speakers have limited comprehension of other languages.

KISI [KIZ] 13,000 (1987). Southwest, north shore of Lake Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). Different from Kisii (Gusii) of Kenya. May be the same as Kichi. Survey needed.

KONONGO [KCZ] 51,000 (1987). South of the Nyamwezi, across the Ugalla River, in the northwest corner of Mpanda District, Western Province; 25% live in the tribal area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). Agriculturalists: sorghum, millet, maize, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, beans, chick peas, gourds, sunflowers.

KURIA (IKIKURIA, IGIKURIA, TENDE, KURYA, KURYE) [KUJ] 213,000 in Tanzania (1987); 135,000 in Kenya (1994); 348,000 in all countries. North central near the Kenya border, east of Lake Victoria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Dialects: KIROBA, SIMBITI, SWETA. Koria is not a good spelling. The dialects listed are in Tanzania; four others are in Kenya. Kiroba and Simbiti may be distinct languages. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1969-1975. Work in progress.

KUTU (KIKUTU, KHUTU, ZIRAHA) [KDC] 45,000 (1987). South Morogodo and southeast Kilosa districts, Eastern Region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 69% lexical similarity with Kami, 68% with Zalamo, 64% with Kwere, 61% with Doe. They are reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Matrilineal. Low plains. Agriculturalists: tobacco, cotton, kapok, sorghum, maize; animal husbandry: sheep, goats, poultry; hunters; fishermen. Altitude: less than 500 feet. Survey needed.

KW'ADZA (QWADZA) [WKA] Mbulu District. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. Related to Iraqw, but a separate language. May be extinct. Survey needed.

KWAVI [CKG] 7,378 (1957 census). Unclassified. Limited understanding of other languages.

KWAYA [KYA] 102,000 (1987). Southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerebe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). Dialect: RURI. 83% lexical similarity with Jita, 80% with Kara. Survey needed.

KWERE (KAKWERE, KWELE, NG'WERE) [CWE] 98,000 (1987). Western Bagamoyo District, northwest Kisarawe District, eastern Morogoro District, Eastern Region. Many live among the Zalamo and Ruguru. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 74% lexical similarity with Doe, 69% with Kami, 64% with Kutu, 61% with Zalamo, 62% with Zigula, 54% with Ruguru. Kwere has influenced Zigula linguistically, and has been influenced by Zigula and Bondei. Matrilineal. Rolling open bush, coastal. Agriculturalists: dry rice, maize, sorghum, peas, sesame, cotton, coconuts, fruit; fishermen; animal husbandry: small livestock; wood carvers. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

LAMBYA (ICHILAMBYA, LAMBIA, LAMBWA, RAMBIA, IRAMBA) [LAI] 40,000 in Tanzania (1987); 41,000 in Malawi (1993 Johnstone); 81,000 in all countries. Southwest border with Malawi, south of Nyiha. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.20). Survey needed.

LANGI (KILANGI, IRANGI, RANGI) [LAG] 310,000 (1993 Johnstone). West of the Maasai, northeast of the Sandawe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30). 49% lexical similarity with Nyaturu and Sukuma, 48% with Nyamwezi, 47% with Kimbu and Nilamba, 40% with Sumbwa. Close to Mbugwe. Influenced by Cushitic languages. Limited comprehension of any other language. Agriculturalists. Muslim.

LUO (DHOLUO, KAVIRONDO) [LUO] 223,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone); 3,185,000 in Kenya (1994); 3,408,000 in all countries. North central near Kenya border, east of Lake Victoria. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo. Different from Lwo (Lango) of Uganda or Lwo (Luo, Jur Luwo) of Sudan. Bible 1953-1977. NT 1926. Bible portions 1911-1964.

MAASAI (MASAI, MAA, LUMBWA) [MET] 430,000 in Tanzania (1993) including 170,000 Arusa, 30,000 Baraguyu (1987); 453,000 in Kenya (1979 census); 883,000 in all countries. North central, on Kenya border, east of Serengeti National Park. The Baraguyu are spread from the Indian Ocean nearly to Malawi. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa. Dialects: ENGUTUK-ELOIKOB, ARUSA (ARUSHA, IL-ARUSA, L-ARUSA), BARAGUYU, KISONKO. The last 3 dialects listed are in Tanzania, and have 82% to 86% lexical similarity with Kenya dialects. The second language is Swahili. Nomadic. Patrilineal. Some men marry women from other language groups. The Baraguyu speak Maasai, but they consider themselves to be a separate ethnic group from the Maasai. Arusa is distinct from the Bantu Chagga-related variety. One source reports that Arusa who are pastoralists dress like the Maasai and speak a Maasai-related variety, whereas those who are agriculturalists intermarry with the Chagga. Other sources say the Arusa originally spoke a Bantu language. Pastoralists: cattle, sheep, goats; agriculturalists (Baraguyu, Il-Arusa, Il-Lumpua (Lumbwa), Il-Oikop, Wakuavi). Traditional religion, Christian; Arusha: traditional religion, Christian. Bible 1991. NT 1923-1967. Bible portions 1905-1961.

MACHINGA [MVW] 36,000 (1987). Along the coast, above the 10th parallel south, close to the Mwera and the Ngindo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). May be intelligible with Mwera. Survey needed.

MAKHUWA-METTO (MAKUA, MAKHUA, IMAKUA, MAKOA, MAKOANE, MATO, MAQUOUA, KIMAKUA) [MAK] 360,000 in Tanzania (1993); 1,500,000 in Mozambique (1996); 1,867,000 in all countries. Extreme southern Tanzania. Possibly in Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30). Dialect: MEDO (METO, EMETO).

MAKONDE (CHIMAKONDE, CHINIMAKONDE, KONDE, MATAMBWE) [KDE] 900,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone); 360,0 in Mozambique (1993 Johnstone); 1,260,000 in all countries. Extreme southern section of Tanzania. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). Closely related to Maviha. Between Yao and Swahili. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion. Bible portions. Work in progress.

MALILA (MALILIA, ISHIMALILIA) [MGQ] 52,000 (1987). Southwest near Malawi, south of Safwa, north of Lambya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Survey needed.

MAMBWE-LUNGU [MGR] 97,000 in Tanzania, including 63,000 Mambwe and 34,000 Rungu (1987); 262,800 in Zambia (1993 Johnstone); 359,000 in all countries. Mambwe is southwest of Lake Rukwa; Lungu is on the southeast shore. Some in Bemba region. Lungu covers 6,393 square miles. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). Dialects: MAMBWE (ICHIMAMBWE), RUNGU (LUNGU, CILUNGU). Forest, savannah. Agriculturalists: millet, sorghum, maize, peanuts, beans; animal husbandry: cattle, sheep, goats, fowl; fishermen. Traditional religion. NT 1901-1991. Bible portions 1893-1924. Work in progress.

MANDA (KIMANDA, KINYASA, NYASA) [MGS] 18,000 (1987). Northeast shore of Lake Malawi, western Ruvuma Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10). NT 1937. Bible portions 1913-1928.

MATENGO (CHIMATENGO, KIMATENGO) [MGV] 150,000 (1987). Southwest just northeast of Nyasa. Also possibly in Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10). Speakers have little comprehension of other languages.

MATUMBI (KIMATUMBI) [MGW] 72,000 (1978 MARC). On the banks of the Ruvuma, next to the Makonde and Makhuwa (Polomé and Hill 1980). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10). Dialect: KUCHI. Speakers have little comprehension of other languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

MAVIHA (CHIMAVIHA, MAVIA, CHIMABIHA, KIMAWIHA, MAWIA, MABIHA) [MHP] 70,000 (1971 Welmers). Mozambique border, between the Makhuwa and the Makonde. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). Closely related to Makonde. Survey needed.

MBUGU (MA'A, MBOUGOU, VAMA'A, WA MAATHI, KIBWYO) [MHD] 32,000 (1987). Eastern Province in Usambara. Language Isolate. People call themselves 'Va-Ma'a'. A hybrid language; Bantu inflectional (prefix and concord) system with Cushitic vocabulary. Derivational morphemes are Bantu and Cushitic (or non-Bantu). The Bantu influence is from Pare (Shambaa). Survey needed.

MBUGWE [MGZ] 16,000 (1987). Northeast, east of the Iraqw, west of the Maasai. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30). Reported to be bilingual in Swahili.

MBUNGA [MGY] 29,000 (1987). South central, southeast of the Hehe, north of the Pogolo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10). 69% lexical similarity with Ndamba, 57% with Pogolu. There may be two varieties called 'Mbunga', one Bantu P.10, and one Bantu G.50. Survey needed.

MEDIAK (NDOROBO, DOROBO) [MWX] Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi. A distinct language from others called "Dorobo": Aramanik, Kisankasa, Mosiro. Limited comprehension of other languages.

MOSI (MOSHI, KIMOSHI, MOCI) [OLD] 240,000 (1972 Bendor-Samuel). Northeast corner, Chaga area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). Closely related to Chaga. NT 1939. Bible portions 1892.

MOSIRO (NDOROBO, DOROBO) [MWY] Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi. A distinct language from others called "Dorobo": Aramanik, Mediak, Kisankasa. Speakers have limited comprehension of other languages.

MPOTO (CHIMPOTO, KINYASA, NYASA) [MPA] 80,000 in all countries (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin); 40,000 in Malawi (1993 Johnstone). Southwestern, along northeast shore of Lake Malawi, western Ruvuma Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10). Both Mpoto and Manda have alternate names of 'Kinyasa'. Bible portions 1913-1924. Survey needed.

MWANGA (ICHIINAMWANGA, NYAMWANGA, NAMWANGA, KINAMWANGA) [MWN] 87,000 in Tanzania (1987); 169,000 in Zambia (1993 Johnstone); 256,000 in all countries. Southwest of Lake Rukwa. Saisi Valley in the northwest to forested plateau in the southeast. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). Dialect: TAMBO. Agriculturalists: millet, peanuts, beans, maize; animal husbandry: cattle, sheep, goats, fowl, pidgeons. Traditional religion. Bible 1982. NT 1930-1941. Bible portions 1903-1953.

MWERA (CHIMWERA, CIMWERA, MWELA) [MWE] 400,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southeast, north of Makonde. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). Muslim. Survey needed.

NDALI [NDH] 150,000 (1987). South border with Malawi, between Lambya and Nyakyusa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). Different from Ndali which is a dialect of Zanaki.

NDAMBA [NDJ] 55,000 (1987). South central, northeast of Bena, southeast of Hehe, west of Pogolo, southwest of Mbunga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50). 69% lexical similarity with Mbunga, 56% with Pogolo. Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Survey needed.

NDENDEULE (NDENDEULI) [DNE] 79,000 (1987). Inland, east of the main Ngoni territory south of the 10th parallel. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified. Speakers have little understanding of other languages.

NDENGEREKO (KINGENGEREKO, NDENGELEKO) [NDE] 110,000 (1987). Central coast, south of the Zalamo, north of the Rufiji. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10). Limited bilingualism in Swahili.

NDONDE (KIMAWANDA, MAWANDA, NDOMDE) [NDS] 33,000 (1987). From the Tanzania border through Mueda in Mozambique, down to Macomia. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). Survey needed.

NGASA (SHAKA, ONGAMO) [NSG] 200 to 300 speakers out of an ethnic group of 2,500 (1983). Eastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa. 60% lexical similarity with Maasai, 59% with Samburu, 58% with Chamus. It began to diminish in the 1950's. Only elderly speakers left. The young people speak Chaga.

NGHWELE (KINGHWELE, NGWELE) [NHE] Coast north of the Doe, east and south of the Zigula. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). Survey needed.

NGINDO (KINGINDO, NJINDO) [NNQ] 220,000 (1987). East central, south of the Rufiji, west of the Mwera. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10). Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Survey needed.

NGONI (CHINGONI, KINGONI, ANGONI, KISUTU, SUTU) [NGU] 170,000 in Tanzania (1987); 35,000 in Mozambique (1989); 758,000 in Malawi (1993); 963,000 in all countries. South central, Ruvuma Province, south of Songea. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10). The people formerly spoke Zulu. Distinct from 'Ngoni', an alternate name for Zulu, Ngoni dialect of Nsenga, Ngoni dialect of Nyanja, Ngoni dialect of Tumbuka. Bible portions 1891-1898.

NGULU (KINGULU, NGURU, NGUU, WAYOMBA, GEJA) [NGP] 132,000 (1987). Northwest Morogodo District, Eastern Region, western Handeni District, Northern Region, northeast Kilosa District, Eastern Region, Mpwapwa District, Central Region, Ngulu Mts. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 83% lexical similarity with Zigula, 73% with Bondei, 68% with Shambala. Somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Different from Ngulu of Mozambique and Malawi. Matrilineal. Mountain slope, foothills, plains. Traders; agriculturalists: maize, millet, sorghum, beans, peas, bananas, sugarcane, cassava, castor, peanuts, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, fruit, mountain rice, tobacco, cotton, coffee; animal husbandry: poultry, sheep, goats, cattle. Altitude: 1,000 feet and higher. Traditional religion.

NGURIMI (IKINGURIMI, NGOREME, NGRUIMI, NGURUIMI, DENGURUME) [NGQ] 32,000 (1987). North central border with Kenya, between the Maasai and the Kuria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). 84% lexical similarity with Kuria, 80% with Zanaki, 73% with Ikoma, 49% with Gusii. Limited comprehension of other languages.

NILAMBA (NYILAMBA, IKINILAMBA, IRAMBA, NILYAMBA, IKINIRAMBA, ILAMBA, NIRAMBA, KINIRAMBA) [NIM] 440,000 including 50,000 Iambi (1987). Northwest of Singida, north of the Nyaturu. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30). Dialect: IAMBI. 56% lexical similarity with Nyamwezi, 55% with Sukuma, 45% with Sumbwa. NT 1967. Bible portions 1940-1963.

NYAKYUSA-NGONDE (IKINYAKYUSA, MOMBE, NGONDE, IKINGONDE, KONDE, NKONDE, NYAKUSA, NYIKYUSA, SOCHILE, SOKILE, SOKILI, KUKWE, NYEKYOSA) [NYY] 750,000 Nyakyusa in Tanzania (1992 UBS); 300,000 Ngonde in Malawi (1993 Johnstone); 1,050,000 in all countries. North end, Lake Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.30). Dialects: NYAKYUSA, KUKWE, MWAMBA (LUNGULU), NGONDE, SELYA (SALYA, SERIA). Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1993, in press (1996). NT 1908-1966. Bible portions 1895-1961.

NYAMBO (EKINYAMBO, KARAGWE, RUKARAGWE, URURAGWE, RAGWE, URURAGWE, RUNYAMBO, KINYAMBO) [NYM] 7,000 (1987). Northwest corner, Uganda border, west of Lake Victoria, Karagwe District. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). Dialect: YAKAHANGA. 84% lexical similarity with Haya, 81% with Zinza, 75% with Kerewe, 78% with Nyankole, 72% with Chiga, 69% with Kerewe, 68% with Toro, 67% with Nyoro. People may be bilingual in Haya.

NYAMWEZI (KINYAMWEZI, KINYAMWESI, NYAMWESI, NAMWEZI) [NYZ] 926,000 (1993 Johnstone) or 4.2% of population (1971 Whiteley). 73% are in the traditional area. Northwest central, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). Dialects: NYANYEMBE, TAKAMA (GARAGANZA), MWERI (SUMBWA, KONONGO, KIYA). 84% lexical similarity with Sukuma, 61% with Sumbwa, 56% with Nilamba. Agriculturalists: sorghum, millet, maize, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, beans, check peas, gourds, sunflowers. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1909-1951. Bible portions 1897-1940.

NYANJA (CHINYANJA) [NYJ] 4,863,000 in all countries; 989,000 in Zambia (1993 Johnstone); 251,800 in Zimbabwe (1969 census); 3,200,000 in Malawi (1993 Johnstone); 423,000 in Mozambique (1993 Johnstone). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Nyanja (N.30). Dialects: CHICHEWA (CHEWA, CEWA), PETA (CIPETA, CHIPETA, MALAWI, MARAVI, MARAVE), CHINGONI (NGONI), MANGANJA (WAGANGA), NYASA, CHIKUNDA. The Kuulwe (3,000 or fewer; Willis 1966.65-66) may be the same as Peta. Bible 1905-1973. NT 1886-1960. Bible portions 1884-1964.

NYATURU (TURU, KINYATURU, RIMI, LIMI, KIRIMI, REMI, KIREMI, KEREMI, WANYATURU, WALIMI) [RIM] 556,000 (1993 Johnstone). North central, south of Singida, west of the Wembere River. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30). Dialects: GIRWANA (RIMI), CHAHI, GINYAMUNYINGANYI. 63% lexical similarity with Nilamba, 59% with Sukuma, 58% with Nyamwezi, 53% with Kimbu, 49% with Nyaturu, 44% with Sumbwa. Government name is 'Kinyaturu'. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1956-1964. Work in progress.

NYIHA (ISHINYIHA, SHINYIHA, NYIKA, NYIXA) [NIH] 306,000 in Tanzania (1987); 320,000 in Zambia (1993 Johnstone); 626,000 in all countries. South and west of Lake Rukwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). Close to Lambya. Different from Nyika (Giryama) of Kenya. Traditionally weavers, iron workers, hunters; swidden agriculturalists: millet; animal husbandry: cattle, goats, fowl. NT 1913-1966. Bible portions 1904-1963.

PANGWA (EKIPANGWA) [PBR] 177,000 (1987). Northeast shore of Lake Malawi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). 71% lexical similarity with Bena, 62% with Kisi, 61% with Kinga, 59% with Hehe, 58% with Sangu, 55% with Wanji. Somewhat bilingual in Swahili.

PIMBWE (ICHIPIMBWE, CIPIMBWE) [PIW] 29,000 (1987). Rift Valley to the northwest of Lake Rukwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). A separate language. Somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Agriculturalists: millet, maize, sorghum, cassava, beans, peanuts; animal husbandry: goats, fowl. Traditional religion.

POGOLO (CHIPOGOLO, POGORO, POGORA, CHIPOGORO, POGOLU) [POY] 185,000 (1987). South central, south of the Mbunga, east of the Ndamba. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50). 57% lexical similarity with Mbunga, 56% with Ndamba.

RUFIJI (RUIHI, KIRUIHI, FIJI) [RUI] 200,000 (1987). Central coast, south of the Ndengereko, north of the Matumbi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10). Muslim.

RUGURU (LUGURU, LUGULU, IKIRUGURU, GURU) [RUF] 520,000 (1993 Johnstone). Morogodo, Bagamoyo, and Kilosa districts, Eastern Region, Luguru Mts., and Dar-es-Salaam. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 54% lexical similarity with Kami, Kutu, Doe, Kwere (closest). People have little understanding of other languages. Matrilineal. Rolling coastal plains, rough hills, mountain slope. Agriculturalists: hill rice, maize, sorghum, beans, peas, cassava, bananas, sweet potatoes, vegetables, coffee, fruit; animal husbandry: sheep, goats, chickens; fishermen, some wage earners. Altitude: 1,000 to 3,000 feet. Traditional religion.

RUNDI [RUD] 150,000 refugees in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone); 100,903 in Uganda (1991); 4,600,000 in Burundi (1986); 6,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Burundi border, north of the Shubi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). Bible 1967. NT 1951. Bible portions 1920-1986.

RUNGI (IRUNGI) [RUR] 166,000 (1987). Southeast shore of Lake Tanganyika. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified.

RUNGWA (ICHIRUNGWA, RUNGA, LUNGWA) [RNW] 18,000 (1987). South of the Konongo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). People are somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Agriculturalists: millet, maize, cassava, simsim, peanuts; animal husbandry: goats, sheep, fowl. Traditional religion.

RUSHA (ARUSHA, KUMA, RUSA) [RUH] 95,000 (1987). Near the Chagga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). Distinct from Arusha which is a dialect of Maasai of Tanzania and Kenya, and is Eastern Nilotic (but see comment under Maasai).

RWA (RWO, KIRWO, MERU) [RWK] 90,000 (1987). Northeastern border. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30). Distinct from Meru of Kenya. NT 1964.

RWANDA (RUNYARWANDA, RUANDA) [RUA] 88,000 in Tanzania (1987); 8,000,000 in all countries (1991 WA). Northwest, bordering Rwanda. Also in Rwanda, Uganda, Zaïre, Burundi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). Bible 1954-1993. NT 1931-1989. Bible portions 1914-1986.

SAFWA (ISHISAFWA, CISAFWA, GURUKU, MBILA, SONGWE) [SBK] 158,000 (1987). Southern, near the Zambia border. East of Mbeya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). Traditional religion, Christian.

SAGALA (KISAGALA, SOUTHERN KISAGALA, KISAGARA, SAGARA) [SBM] 79,000 (1987). South Kilosa District, Eastern Region, southwest Mpwapwa District, Central Region, northeast Iringa District, southern Highlands Region, north Ulanga District, Southern Region. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). Dialects: ITUMBA, KONDOA (SOLWE), KWENY, NKWIFIYA (KWIFA, KWIVA). Different from KiSagala which is in Taita group of Kenya. 63% lexical similarity with Kagulu, 60% with Gogo. Somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Matrilineal. Mountain slope. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

SANDAWE (SANDAUI, SANDAWI, SANDWE) [SBR] 70,000 (1987). Between the Bubu and Mponde rivers, Kondoa District. Khoisan, Sandawe. Monogamists. They have intermarried with the Gogo, Turu, and Maasai. People have limited understanding of other languages. Typology: SOV. Hunter-gatherers, fishermen, agriculturalists, pastoralists: cattle. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Work in progress.

SANGU (SANGO, ESHISANGO, RORI) [SBP] 75,000 (1987). Southwestern, southeast of the Kimbu, north of the Safwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). Different from Sango of Zaïre, Central African Republic, and Chad, or from Sanga of Zaïre and from Sangu of Gabon. Somewhat bilingual in Swahili.

SHAMBALA (KISHAMBALA, KISHAMBAA, KISAMBAA, SAMBAA, SHAMBAA, SAMBALA, SAMBARA, SCHAMBALA) [KSB] 550,000 (1993 Johnstone). Northeastern, Usambara Mountains, Tanga Province. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20). 75% lexical similarity with Bondei, 68% with Ngulu and Zigula. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion. NT 1908. Bible portions 1896-1960.

SHUBI (SUBI, URUSHUBI, SINJA) [SUJ] 153,000 (1987). Northwest of Sumbwa, near Lake Victoria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). 85% lexical similarity with Hangaza, 77% with Rundi and Ha, 71% with Rwanda, 49% with Sumbwa. Traditional religion.

SIZAKI (SHASHI, SASI) [SZK] 82,000 (1987). Near Zanaki, northeast of Kerebe, near the southeast shore of Lake Victoria. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). An important dialect or language related to Zanaki.

SUBA [SUH] 30,000 in Tanzania (1987); 129,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL); 159,000 in all countries. North central, south of Luo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Speakers are somewhat bilingual in Swahili. It is a major part of the Kuria subgroup. Work in progress.

SUKUMA (KISUKUMA) [SUA] 5,000,000 (1993 Johnstone) or 12.6% of population (1971 Whiteley). Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti Plain (Kiya); also Mwanza (Gwe). A small percentage in cities; 88% in the traditional area. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). Dialects: KIYA, GWE (KIGWE). 84% lexical similarity with Nyamwezi, 59% with Sumbwa and Nyaturu, 57% with Kimbu, 55% with Nilamba, 49% with Langi. Dialects contiguous with Nyamwezi are intelligible with it. A few young people in cities do not speak Sukuma. In the country the young people borrow more Swahili in their Sukuma. Pastoralists: cattle; agriculturalists: sorghum, millet, maize, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, beans, chick peas, gourds, sunflowers, cotton, tobacco; fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1960. NT 1925-1944. Bible portions 1895-1942.

SUMBWA (KISUMBWA) [SUW] 191,000 (1987); 23% in the tribal area. West Kahama District, east of the Ha. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20). 61% lexical similarity with Nyamwezi, 59% with Sukuma, 45% with Nilamba. People upcountry tend to not know Swahili, and are traditionally oriented. Agriculturalists: sorghum, millet, maize, rice, sweet potatoes, cassava, peanuts, beans, chick peas, gourds, sunflowers, bananas. Traditional religion.

SWAHILI (KISWAHILI, KISUAHELI) [SWA] 313,200 monolinguals or 1.8%, 93.4% bilinguals in Tanzania (1982 Polomé); 3,991 in USA (1970 census); 2,500 in United Arab Emirates (1986); 92,000 in Kenya; 2,744 in Mayotte (1993); 22,000 in Oman; 1,000 in South Africa (1987); 40,000 or more in Somalia (1992); 5,000,000 in all countries, first language speakers (1989 Holm); 30,000,000 or more in all countries, second language speakers (1989 Holm). Zanzibar, coastal areas. Also Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40). Dialects: MRIMA, UNGUJA (KIUNGUJA, ZANZIBAR), PEMBA, MGAO. Used through secondary education and in some university courses, and for mother tongue authored literature. Rural people are second language users; they use the local language for most activities, but Swahili with outsiders. National language. Typology: SVO. Muslim. Braille Scripture in progress. Bible 1891-1996. NT 1879-1989. Bible portions 1868-1968.

TANZANIAN SIGN LANGUAGE [TZA] Deaf sign language. Deaf people go to different schools, each using a different sign language. There have been elementary schools for deaf children since 1963. There is a committee on national sign language. Little research. Survey needed.

TAVETA (KITAVETA, KITUBETA, TUBETA) [TVS] (14,358 in Kenya (1989 census). Northeastern, around Taveta in adjacent areas of Tanzania and Kenya. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20). Highly bilingual in Swahili in Kenya; bilingualism is limited in Tanzania. NT 1906, out of print. Bible portions 1892-1905.

TEMI (SONJO, SONYO, WASONJO, WATEMI) [SOZ] 20,000 (1995 SIL). North central near the Kenya border, Maasai area, 2 to 4 hours by car from the Wasso-Loliondo area, on unimproved roads. 7 villages: Sale, Mdito, Samunge, Digodigo, Kisangiro, Mugholo, Oldonyo Sambu (Kura). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). The name 'Wasonjo' is a misnomer, referring to beans the Batemi plant. They call their language 'KiTemi', and themselves the 'Batemi'. The language is reported to show some similarities to Sukuma. Reported to be bilingual in Swahili. Difficult access in rainy season. Traditional religion, Christian.

TONGWE (KITONGWE) [TNY] 22,000 (1987). East shore of Lake Tanganyika, south of the Vinza. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10). Somewhat bilingual in Swahili.

TUMBUKA (CHITUMBUKA, TUMBOKA) [TUW] 2,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA); 406,000 in Zambia (1993 Johnstone); 622,000 in Malawi (1993 Johnstone). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.20). Dialects: CHITUMBUKA, CHIKAMANGA (HENGA), CHIPOKA, YOMBE, SENGA, FUNGWE, WENYA, FULILWA (FULIRWA), HEWE (HEWA), KANDAWIRE, NENYA, NTHALI. The Senga dialect is distinct from Nsenga (Senga) of Zambia and Zimbabwe. Bible 1957-1980. NT 1911. Bible portions 1904-1994.

VIDUNDA (CHIVIDUNDA, KIVIDUNDA, NDUNDA) [VID] 32,000 (1987). East central, east of the Hehe, west of the Kutu. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). People are somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Matrilineal. Valleys, foothills, mountain slope. Altitude: 1,000 to 6,000 feet. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

VINZA [VIN] 10,000 (1987). West of the Nyamwezi, north of the Tongwe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60). Somewhat bilingual in Swahili.

WANDA (ICHIWANDA, WANDIA) [WBH] 24,000 (1987). Southwest of Kimbu, across Lake Rukwa. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20). People are somewhat bilingual in Swahili. Agriculturalists: millet, sorghum, simsim, peanuts, maize. Traditional religion.

WANJI (KIVWANJI) [WBI] 60,000 (1987). South, west of the Bena, south of the Sangu, north of the Kinga. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60). Bible portions 1979-1985.

WARE [WRE] Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10).

YAO (CHIYAO, ACHAWA, ADSAWA, AJAWA, AYAWA, AYO, DJAO, HAIAO, HIAO, HYAO, JAO, VEIAO, WAJAO) [YAO] 400,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone); 1,003,000 in Malawi (1993 Johnstone); 194,107 in Mozambique (1980 census); 1,597,000 in all countries. South central, east of Lake Malawi, Mozambique border area. Also possibly in Zimbabwe. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20). Yao in Tanzania use a Swahili based orthography different from Malawi and Mozambique. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion. Bible 1920. NT 1898-1994. Bible portions 1880-1935.

ZALAMO (ZARAMO, KIZARAMO, DZALAMO, ZARAMU, SARAMO, MYAGATWA) [ZAJ] Ethnic group had 173,518 (1959 Bryan), but it is now reported that only a few elderly people speak the language (1991 Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer). East central coast, Kisarawe District, between Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). 68% lexical similarity with Kutu, 65% with Kami, 61% with Kwere and Doe. Matrilineal. Forest, scrub. Coastal plain, low hills. Agriculturalists: rice, millet, sorghum, maize, cassava, peas, beans, yams, fruit, peanuts, cashews, sesame seed, tobacco, cotton, coconuts; animal husbandry: goats, sheep, fowl; fishermen. Altitude: 500 to 3,000 feet. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. NT 1975. Bible portions 1967.

ZANAKI (IKIZANAKI) [ZAK] 62,000 (1987). Slightly inland, southeast shore, Lake Victoria above Speke Gulf. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10). Dialects: NDALI, SIORA, GIRANGO. 81% lexical similarity with Ikoma, 80% with Ngurimi, 78% with Kuria, 50% with Gusii. Limited bilingualism in Swahili and some other languages. Bible portions 1948.

ZIGULA (ZIGUA, ZIGWA, KIZIGULA, ZEGUHA, ZIGOUA, ZEGURA, SEGUHA, WAZEGUA, WAYOMBO) [ZIW] 355,000 (1993 Johnstone). Northeastern, Maasai Steppe, Tanga and Coast Provinces. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30). It has been influenced linguistically by Doe and Kwere, and has influenced them. 83% lexical similarity with Ngulu, 75% with Bondei, 68% with Shambala, 70% with Doe, 62% with Kwere. The people are somewhat bilingual in a non-standard, "street" Swahili. May be the same as Mushungulu in Somalia. Coastal plain, rolling hills. Agriculturalists: sorghum, maize, beans, yams, manioc, pumpkins, cucumbers, sesame, peanuts, tobacco, hemp, castor, coconuts; animal husbandry: cattle, goats, sheep, donkeys, fowl; hunters; fishermen; wage laborers; traders. Altitude: 500 to 1,000 feet. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1906.

ZINZA (ECHIJINJA, ECHIDZINDZA, ECIZINZA, DZINDA, JINJA, ZINJA) [JIN] 138,000 (1987). Southwest shore of Lake Victoria and neighboring islands. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20). 81% lexical similarity with Nyambo and Nyankole, 78% with Haya, 76% with Kerewe, 75% with Chiga, 67% with Nyoro and Toro. Limited bilingualism in Swahili. Agriculturalists: millet, beans, plantains; fishermen; animal husbandry: cattle, sheep, goats. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions 1930-1958. Survey needed.

ZYOBA (ZOBA) [ZYO] Most in Tanzania, near Lake Tanganyika. Also in Zaïre. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20). Dialects: VIRA, MASANZE.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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