Ethnologue: Areas: Africa

Togo

4,038,000 (1995). Republic of Togo. République Togolaise. Literacy rate 39%, 40% males; 30% all (1977 C. M. Brann). Also includes Yoruba, Lebanese 3,500. Information mainly from SIL 1995, Vanderaa 1991, Manessy 1981, Stewart 1971, Heine 1968. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Also includes Yoruba, 3,500 Lebanese. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Blind population 12,052 (1981 census). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of languages listed for Togo is 43.

ADELE (BIDIRE, BEDERE, GIDIRE, GADRE) [ADE] 12,000 in Togo (1995 SIL); 9,000 in Ghana (1995 SIL); 20,000 in all countries (1995 SIL). West central. There is difficult access to the area. The main centers are Koué, Mpoti, Yégué. Upper Adele is in Togo, Lower Adele in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Dialects: UPPER ADELE, LOWER ADELE. Ghana and Togo dialects are different. Ethnic group: Lolo. Different from Adere of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian. NT in press (1995). Bible portions 1992-1993.

AJA-GBE (AJA, ADJA, HWÈ) [AJG] 110,600 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa CRC); 302,500 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa); 413,100 in all countries. The main centers are Tado, Tohoun, Asrama. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Dialects: TÀGÓBÉ, HWÈGBÈ. Three dialects: Tàgóbé is only in Togo, Dògóbè is in Benin, Hwègbè is in both countries. Their ancestral place of origin is Tado. Traditional religion.

AKASELEM (TCHAMBA, AKASELE, KASELE, KAMBA, CHAMBA, CEMBA) [AKS] 34,300 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Tchamba is the main center. Central, near Kotokoli. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. The men are more bilingual in Tem than the women. Ethnic identity is strong. People desire the language to be written. Muslim, syncretism. Survey needed.

AKEBOU (AKEBU, KEBU, KABU, KEGBERIKE, EKBEBE) [KEU] 40,700 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). South, Canton Akebou of Préfecture de Wawa and into Ghana. Main centers Kougnohou, Veh-Nkougna, Kamina. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere. Somewhat bilingual in Ewe; needs testing. Speakers have a keen interest in their language. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

AKPE [AQP] 3,400 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). The main centers are Afem and Boussou (Gisème dialect), and Balanka (Ananjubi dialect). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Unclassified. Dialects: GISÈME, ANANJUBI (ANANDJOOBI). It is closely related to Anii of Benin and Togo. Muslim. Survey needed.

AKPOSO (KPOSO, IKPOSO, AKPOSSO) [KPO] 94,900 in Togo (1991); 5,400 in Ghana (1991); 100,300 in all countries. West of Atakpame in southern Togo. The main centers are Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, Atakpamé. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Dialects: AMOU OBLOU, IKPONU, IWI (UWI), LITIME (BADOU), LOGBO, UMA. Two dialects. Speakers have a keen interest in their language. Community sponsored vernacular literacy materials are available in Ghana. Somewhat bilingual in Ewe. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

ANII (GISIDA, BASILA, BASSILA, BASECA, WINJI-WINJI, OUINJI-OUINJI) [BLO] 700 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa CRC); 7,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa); 7,700 in all countries. Around Bassila. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Dialects: GIKOLODJYA, GILEMPLA, GISEDA. Closely related to Akpe. Muslim.

ANLO (AHONLAN) [AOL] 2,019 (1981 census). Unknown region. Unclassified. Survey needed.

ANUFO (CHOKOSI, CHAKOSI, TCHOKOSSI, TIOKOSSI, CHOKOSSI) [CKO] 41,800 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa); 53,000 in Ghana (1995); 10,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa); 105,000 in all countries. Northwest around Mango (Nzara). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. 'Tchokossi' is the official name in Togo. 'Anufo' is their name for their language and people. About 18,000 Ngangam speak it as a second language. Some can read some French or Arabic. Motivation for literacy is high. Regular radio broadcasts in Togo. Trade language. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1993. Work in progress.

ANYANGA (AGNAGAN) [AYG] 7,200 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Central, west and south of Blitta. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Somewhat bilingual in Ewe. Needs intelligibility and bilingualism testing. 75% lexical similarity with Gichode. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

BAGO (KOUSSOUNTOU) [BQG] 6,100 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). The main centers are Bagou, Koussountou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Muslim, some traditional religion.

BISSA (BISA) [BIB] 3,000 in Togo (1991 SIL); 400,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL); 119,100 in Ghana (1991 Vanderaa); 63,000 emigrants in Côte d'Ivoire (1993); 585,000 in all countries. Border with Burkina Faso. Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Eastern, Bissa. Many speak Moore with Mossi who do not speak Bissa; on common topics. There are no dialect differences in Togo. Speakers are called 'Busansi'. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

DELO (NTRUBO, NTRIBU, NTRIBOU) [NTR] 5,000 in Togo (1991); 10,000 in Ghana (1995 SIL); 15,000 in all countries. West central border with Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

ÉWÉ (EIBE, EHWE, EVE, VHE, KREPE, KREPI, POPO) [EWE] 861,900 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa CRC), 20% of the population; 1,615,700 in Ghana (1991); 2,477,600 in all countries; 3,000,000 including second language users (1991 WA). South of Atakpamé, coastal areas. Main centers in Kpalimé, Notsé, Tsévié. Closely related languages or dialects in Benin. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Dialects: ANGLO, AWUNA, HUDU, KOTAFON. Predominant language in southern Togo. National language. Christian, traditional religion. Bible 1913-1931. NT 1877-1991. Bible portions 1858-1988.

FON-GBE (FO, FON, FONNU, FOGBE, DAHOMEEN, DJEDJI) [FOA] 35,500 in Togo (1991); 1,270,000 in Benin (1991); 1,336,000 in all countries. They are widely scattered and form small minorities in most southern districts. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Traditional religion, Christian. NT 1993. Bible portions 1967.

FRENCH [FRN] 3,000 in Togo (1993); 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987.

FRENCH SIGN LANGUAGE (LANGUE DES SIGNES FRANÇAISE, LSF, FSL) [FSL] (50,000 to 100,000 primary users in France; 1986 Gallaudet Univ.). Also in France. Deaf sign language. Taught in 1 school for the deaf in Togo.

FULFULDE, BENIN-TOGO (PEULH, PEUL) [FUE] 48,200 in Togo (1993 Johnstone); 280,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone); 328,000 in all countries. North. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fulani, West Central. Dialect: FULBE ATAKORA. Dialects of northern Togo and Benin may actually be closer to the Fula spoken in Nigeria's Sokoto State. Muslim. Work in progress.

GA-ADANGME-KROBO (AMINA, GAIN, ACCRA, ACRA) [GAC] (1,016,000 in Ghana, 1986; including 300,000 Adangme, 300,000 Ga; 1991 UBS). Zio, Yoto, and Amou prefectures. Also in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme. Dialect: ADANGME (ADANGBE, DANGME, DANGBE). Bible 1866-1909. NT 1859-1978. Bible portions 1843-1966.

GEN-GBE (GE~, MINA-GEN, MINA, POPO, GUIN, GE~GBE) [GEJ] 200,900 in Togo (1991); 126,000 in Benin (1993); 327,000 in all countries. 500,000 to 1,000,000 second language speakers (1987 SIL). Southeast. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina. The people are called 'Mina' by neighboring groups. Used as a trade language in southern Togo. Trade language. NT 1962. Bible portions 1920-1994. Work in progress.

GOURMANCHÉMA (GOURMANTCHE, GOURMA, GURMA, MIGULIMANCEMA, GULIMANCEMA) [GUX] 120,500 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa); 359,000 in Burkina Faso (1991); 50,000 in Benin (1993); 45,000 in Niger (1991); 574,000 in all countries. Northern, main centers in Bidjanga, Dapaon, Korbongou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Numerous dialects, mainly east of Dapaong. Traditional religion. NT 1958-1990. Bible portions 1947-1988.

HAUSA (HAUSSA, HAOUSSA) [HUA] 9,600 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 22,000,000 in all countries (1991); 38,000,000 first and second language speakers (1995 WA). Also in Nigeria, Niger, Benin, Cameroon, Ghana, Chad, Sudan. Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Widely spoken in Togo. Trade language. Muslim. Bible 1932-1980. NT 1880-1965. Bible portions 1857-1988.

HWÉ (ÉHOUÉ, HWEDA) [HWE] 4,200 (1991 L Vanderaa CRC). Southeast Togo, north of Tabligbo, Togo-Benin border. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Close to Éwé; closer to Aja. Hwla may not be a separate language. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

HWLA [HWL] 31,719 (1983 Togo Linguistic Atlas). Unknown region. Unclassified. May be the same as Hwe in Togo or Xwla-Gbe in Benin. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

IFÈ (BAATE, ANA, ANA-IFÉ) [IFE] 74,000 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 80,000 in Benin (1990 SIL); 155,000 in all countries. Southeast central, Ogou Province. The main centers are Atakpamé, Kamina, and Dadja. Also in the town of Ese-Ana in southern Togo. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Dialects: TSCHETTI, DJAMA, DADJA. 'Ana' is the government name. Some bilingualism in Ewe in the south and Yoruba in the north. 15% literate. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible portions. Work in progress.

IGO (AHLON, ACHLO, ANLO, AGO, AHLÕ, AHONLAN, AHLON-BOGO) [AHL] 6,300 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). South, border between Ghana and Togo around Dénou, Sassanou, Canton Bogo-Ahlon of Préfecture de Kloto. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Speakers may use Ewe as second language. 'Ahlon' is the official name. They call themselves 'Igo'. Anlo may be a separate language. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

KABIYÉ (KABRE, CABRAI, KABURE, KABYE, CABRAIS) [KBP] 489,200 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa), 14% of population (1976 WA); 30,000 in Benin (1991 Vanderaa); 520,000 in all countries (1991); 1,200,000 including second language speakers (1991 UBS). Kara region. Main centers in prefectures of Kozah and Binah. Many have settled in prefectures of Sotouboua, Kloto, Ogou, and Haho. Also in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Dialect: LAMA. Second largest group in Togo. The Lama dialect is different from the Lama (Lamba) language of Togo. National language. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Braille Bible portions. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1955-1987.

KAMBOLÉ (SOUTHWEST EDE) [XKB] 20,000 (1991 SIL). East central in the town of Kambolé and a few surrounding villages. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Closely related to Ifé. Degree of inherent intelligibility needs investigation. Mainly Muslim, some Christians. Survey needed.

KONKOMBA [KOS] 50,100 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC); 400,000 in Ghana (1995 SIL); 450,000 in all countries. Central. Main centers in Guérin-Kouka, Nawaré, Kidjaloum. Primarily in northeast Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Traditional religion. Bible in press (1996). NT 1977-1984. Bible portions 1969.

KPESSI (KPESI, KPÉTSI) [KEF] 3,100 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). South. Main centers around Kpétsi, Langanbou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. May be intelligible with Ewe. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

LAMA (LAMBA, LOSSO) [LAS] 117,400 in Togo (1991 Vanderaa); 60,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone); 177,000 in all countries. Region of Kande, Lama. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Dialects: KANTE, KADJALLA, DEFALE. It is related to Tem and Kabiye. 'Lama' is their name for the language and people. 'Lamba' is the French name. 'Losso' refers to people on the Losso Plain, including the Nawdeba (Nawdm). Leon and Yaka, and two to four other villages south of Kande, between Lama and Kabiye, and west of Niamtougou (Nawdm) may need separate literature. 20% literate. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. NT 1993.

LUKPA (LOKPA, LOGBA, LEGBA, LUGBA, DOMPAGO) [DOP] 125,000 in all countries (1992 UBS); 42,000 in Benin (1993 Johnstone). Primarily in Benin. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Different from Logba of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1977. Bible portions 1956-1991.

MAXI-GBE (MAHI) [MXL] 25,300 in Togo (1991); 66,000 in Benin (1993); 91,000 in all countries (1993 Johnstone). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. 'Mahi' is the name of the people. Similar to Fon-gbe of Benin and Togo. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

MOBA (MOAB, MOARE, MOA, BEN) [MFQ] 189,400 in Togo (1991); 1,800 in Burkina Faso (1991); 191,200 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Northwest. The main centers are Dapaong and Bombouaka. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba. Dialect: NATCHABA. Related to Bimoba in Ghana, but with only limited intelligibility. Diverse dialect situation, varying almost from family to family. Possible dialect continuum. Women almost exclusively monolingual. Men and women with more education can speak limited French. French is used to talk to those from another language group, or for a few, when discussing abstract concepts. More interest in learning to read French than Moba. Highly educated Moba use Moba among themselves. Traditional religion, Christian. Braille code available. Bible portions 1941-1984. Work in progress.

MOORE (MOOSE, MOSSI, MORE, MOLE, MOSHI) [MHM] 19,700 in Togo (1991), including 7,155 in Moore, 7,908 in Yanga dialect (1981 census); 4,600,000 or more in all countries. Several villages in northwestern corner of Togo bordering Burkina Faso, Senkanssé, Timbou, Tabi. Mainly in Burkina Faso. Also in Benin, Ghana, Mali, and Côte d'Ivoire. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Dialect: YANGA (YANA, YAN, YAM, YAAN, JAAN, TIMBOU). Yanga dialect is in Togo. Completely intelligible with Central Moore. Many monolinguals. Many in the younger generation can read French. Bible 1983. NT 1939-1960. Bible portions 1930-1960.

NAWDM (NAUDM, NAWDAM, NAOUDEM, LOSSO, LOSU) [NMZ] 145,600 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Around Niamtougou, Préfecture of Doufelgou. Many have settled in the préfectures of Sotouboua, Ogou, and Haho. There are also important minorities in Lomé and in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Linguistically close to Yom. 'Losso' is the name they use for themselves when talking to outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

NGANGAM (DYE, GANGAM, GANGUM, NGANGAN, NBANGAM, MIGANGAM, MIJIEM) [GNG] 33,500 in Togo (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Around Gando-Namoni, Mogou, Koumongou, and Kountouri. Some also in Benin. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Dialects: MOTIEM (MOGOU), KOUMONGOU. Closely related to Konkomba, Ntcham, Moba, and Gurma, but they are not inherently intelligible. The dialect around Gando is the largest. Gando is considered the center of economic and religious life. Subdialects of Motiem are Mituom (Tiemanga) and Tontondi. Subdialects near the Benin border are Midokm and Mifelm. Two subdialects have low intelligibility with each other. 'Migangam' is the correct language name, with 'Ngangam' as another pronunciation. There are Anufo villages in the area, and tensions between the two groups exist. Some people speak Anufo well enough to discuss abstract concepts. A small percentage of speakers, mainly men, have been educated in French. Due to expansion of a game reserve, they have lost large tracts of land, and some have moved to other areas. In 1991 some of this land was given back to the Gangam people. Traditional religion. Work in progress.

NTCHAM (BASSAR, BASARE, BASSARI, BASARI, BASAR, NCHAM, NATCHAMBA, TOBOTE) [BUD] 100,000 in Togo (1993 SIL); 120,000 in Ghana (1995 SIL); 220,000 in all countries. West central, Bassar, Kabou, Kalanga, and adjacent areas. Many in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Dialects: NCANM, NTAAPUM, CEEMBA, LINANGMANLI. Dialects listed are in Togo. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Braille Bible portions. Braille Scripture in progress. NT 1986-1990. Bible portions 1969.

SOLA (SORUBA, SOROUBA, BIJOBE, BIYOBE, UYOBE, MIYOBE, KAYOBE, KUYOBE, SOLAMBA, SOLLA) [SOY] 1,700 in Togo (1991); 7,000 in Benin (1991); 8,700 in all countries (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). Northeast of Kpagouda in Togo, bordering Benin. Main centers in Kouyoria, Sola. There are isolated groups in Kounacire (Massédéna) and Sola (Koutougou). Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. 'Sola' is the official name, 'Bijobe' the ethnic name, 'Solla' the popular name. Moba has 27% lexical similarity, Tamberma 25%, Ngangam 47%. A single dialect situation. Most people speak Kabiye with the ability to discuss common topics. Some speakers in isolated groups can speak Lama as well as Sola.

TAMBERMA (TAMARI, SOMA, SOME, "SOMBA") [SOF] 19,800 (1991 L. Vanderaa CRC). East of Kanté. The main centers are Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, Koutougou. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Dialect: NIENDE. "Somba" is a derogatory name. 'Tamberma', 'Bataba', 'Batammaraba' are names for the people. 65% intelligibility with Ditammari of Benin. Little multilingualism, no literacy. Traditional religion, Muslim.

TEM (KOTOKOLI, COTOCOLI, TIM, TIMU, TEMBA) [KDH] 204,100 in Togo (1991); 43,000 in Benin (1993); 300,000 in all countries (1987 SIL). Most are around Bafilo and Sokode. The main centers are in Tchaoudjo, Nyala, Sotouboua. Also in Ghana. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian. Braille code available. Work in progress.

WACI-GBE (WATYI, WACI, WACHI, OUATCHI) [WCI] 365,500 in Togo (1991); 110,000 in Benin (1993); 475,000 in all countries. The main centers are in Vogan, Tabligbo, Attitigon. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. It may be intelligible with Éwé. Traditional religion, Christian. Survey needed.

WUDU [WUD] The main centers are Gbékon and Glitho. Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. It may be intelligible with Éwé. Traditional religion. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
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