Ethnologue: Areas: Pacific

Tonga

98,000 (1995). Kingdom of Tonga, Pulèanga Tonga. Constitutional monarchy. Literacy rate: 93% to 100%. 169 islands, 36 inhabited. 270 square miles. Also includes Samoan 17 (1987), Chinese 200. Christian, Mormon, Baha'i. The number of languages listed for Tonga is 4. Of those, 3 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

ENGLISH [ENG] 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

NIUAFO'OU [NUM] 690 (1981 Schooling SIL) or more (1992 Besnier). Niuafo'ou and 'Eua islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo'ou. Probably a dialect of East Uvean (Wallisian). Survey needed.

NIUATOPUTAPU [NKP] Ethnic group: 1,630 (1981). Niuatoputapu Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier. Known from a few words collected by Westerners in the 17th century. Became extinct before the 19th century. The ethnic group speaks Tongan.

TONGAN (TONGA) [TOV] 103,200 in Tonga (1987), 98.3% of the population; possibly 300 to 1,000 in Fiji; 3,965 in New Zealand (1976 census); 576 in American Samoa; 15,000 in Hawaii (1993 Honolulu Advertiser); also in California, and Utah (1992 Besnier OIEL); 123,000 in all countries (1993) or more. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Tongic. Closely related to Niue. 86% lexical similarity with Wallisian, 66% with Samoan. There are slight dialect differences from north to south. It is used in newspapers and radio. Typology: VSO. Agriculturalists. Bible 1862-1966. NT 1849, in press (1992). Bible portions 1844.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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