Ethnologue: Areas: Pacific

Vanuatu

191,000 (1995); including 175,700 Melanesian (92%). Republic of Vanuatu, Ripablik Blong Vanuatu. Formerly New Hebrides. Literacy rate 61% to 90%. Y-shaped chain of 80 islands. Land area 13,000 square kilometers. 85% to 90% of school age children attend school (1977 WA). Also includes Fijian 350 (1982 Barrett), Kiribati 370 (1982 Barrett), Tongan, Vietnamese 770, Wallisian 500 (1982 Barrett), Chinese 300. Information mainly from Tryon 1976, 1978, 1991; Wurm and Hattori 1981; SIL 1991. Data accuracy estimate: A2, B. Christian, cargo cult, traditional religion. The number of languages listed for Vanuatu is 110. Of those, 109 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

AKEI (TASIRIKI) [TSR] 650 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southwestern Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Fortsenal. Complex dialect chaining. Bible portions 1909-1924. Work in progress.

AMBAE, EAST (OMBA, OBA, AOBA, WALURIGI, NORTHEAST AOBA, NORTHEAST AMBAE) [OMB] 5,000 (1991 UBS). Ambae (Leper's) Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: LOMBAHA (LOBAHA), LONGANA, LOLOKARO (LOLOKARA, LOLSIWOI). About 15 dialects. Typology: SVO. Christian. Bible portions 1971-1986. Work in progress.

AMBAE, WEST (OPA) [NND] 4,500 (1983 SIL). West Ambae (Aoba, Leper's) Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: WALAHA, NDUINDUI (DUINDUI). Many dialects. NT 1984. Bible portions 1916.

AMBLONG [ALM] 150 (1983 SIL). South Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Narango and Morouas. Survey needed.

AMBRYM, NORTH [MMG] 2,850 (1983 SIL). North Ambrym Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: MAGAM, OLAL. Traditional religion.

AMBRYM, SOUTHEAST [TVK] 1,800 (1983 SIL). Southeast Ambrym Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: TAVEAK (TAVIAK), ENDU, TOAK, PENAPO. Links with Paama linguistically. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1949. Survey needed.

ANEITYUM (ANEITEUM, ANEITEUMESE, ANEJOM~) [ATY] 600 (1983 SIL). Aneityum Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Aneityum. Some simplification of the subject marking system has occurred. 50% to 75% literate. Bible 1879. NT 1863. Bible portions 1853-1865.

AORE [AOR] 1 (1982 SIL). Mafea Island, East Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Malo and Tutuba. Nearly extinct.

APMA (CENTRAL RAGA) [APP] 4,500 (1983 SIL). Central Pentecost (Raga). Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: BWATNAPNI, LOLTONG, MELSISI, SURU-BO, SURU-MARANI. NT in press (1996). Bible portions 1977.

ARAKI [AKR] 105 (1983 SIL). Araki Island, south Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Survey needed.

AULUA (AULUA BAY) [AUL] 300 (1983 SIL). East Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialects: ONESSO, BOINELANG. Bible portions 1894-1925. Survey needed.

AXAMB (AHAMB) [AHB] 525 (1983 SIL). South Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Bible portions 1935. Survey needed.

BAETORA [BTR] 540 (1983 SIL). Maewo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: NASAWA, TALISE, NAROVOROVO. Considerable dialect variation. Selections 1978. Survey needed.

BAKI (BURUMBA, PAKI) [BKI] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). West Epi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo. Slight dialect variation. 5% to 15% literate. Bible portions 1886-1987. Work in progress.

BIEREBO (BONKOVIA-YEVALI) [BNK] 450 (1983 SIL). West Epi, south of the Lamenu, north of the Baki. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo. Many speakers are bilingual in Baki. Survey needed.

BIERIA (BIERI, VOVO, WOWO) [BRJ] 170 including 100 in Vovo, 70 in Bieria (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South Epi, between the Maii and the Lewo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii. Dialects: BIERIA, VOVO (WOWO). Speakers may be bilingual in Baki. Wurm and Hattori treat Bieria and Vovo as separate languages. 5% to 15% literate. Bible portions 1898. Survey needed.

BISLAMA (BICHELAMAR) [BCY] The majority of the population of 128,000 understands and uses it as a lingua franca. There are some first language speakers. 1,200 in New Caledonia, all immigrants from Vanuatu. Creole, English based, Pacific. Unlike Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea) and Pijin (Solomon Islands) there are some French loan words. Partially intelligible with Pijin and Tok Pisin. Widely used in commerce, government, internal dealings, newspapers. Dictionary, grammar. 25% to 50% literate. National language. Bible in press (1996). NT 1980. Bible portions 1968-1988.

BURMBAR (VARTAVO, BANAN BAY) [VRT] 525 (1983 SIL). Southeast Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Some dialect differences. Survey needed.

BUTMAS-TUR (ATI) [BNR] 525 (1983 SIL). East central Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South. Survey needed.

DAKAKA (BAIAP, SOUTH AMBRYM) [BPA] 600 (1983 SIL). South Ambrym. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialect: SESIVI. Several dialects. Survey needed.

DIXON REEF [DIX] 50 (1982 SIL). Southwest Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas. Survey needed.

EFATE, NORTH [LLP] 3,000 (1983 SIL). Northern Efate Island, Nguna, Tongoa, and several smaller islands, southeast Epi. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu. Dialects: NGUNA (GUNA, TONGOA, NGUNESE), BUNINGA, SESAKE, EMAU, PAUNANGIS, LIVARA. 50% to 75% literate. Typology: SVO (for Nguna). Bible 1972. NT 1912. Bible portions 1875-1892.

EFATE, SOUTH (FATE, ERAKOR, SOUTHERN EFATE) [ERK] 3,750 (1983 SIL). Efate Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu. 50% to 75% literate. NT 1889-1930. Bible portions 1866-1880. Work in progress.

EMAE (EMWAE, MAE, MWAE, EMAI, MAI) [MMW] 200 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Emae; Three Hills Island, Sesake Island, two villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Bilingual in North Efate (Tongoan). No dialect variation. 50% to 75% literate. Typology: SVO. Survey needed.

ENGLISH [ENG] 1,900 in Vanuatu (1995), 1.1% of the population; 322,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Germanic, West, North Sea, English. Speakers are from the United Kingdom. National language. Bible 1535-1989. NT 1525-1985. Bible portions 1530-1987.

ETON (EPWAU, EASTERN EFATE) [ETN] 500 (1989 census). Southeastern Efate Island at Eton, Pang Pang, and surrounding villages. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu. Dialects: ETON, PANG PANG. Spoken by all ages. Formerly thought to be a dialect of South Efate. 88% inherent intelligibility with Lelepa, 64% with South Efate. Pang Pang dialect is nearly extinct. Some bilingualism in Bislama, English, French, South Efate, Lelepa, North Efate. Survey needed.

FORTSENAL [FRT] 150 (1983 SIL). Central Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Akei. Survey needed.

FRENCH [FRN] 6,300 in Vanuatu (1995), 3.8% of the population; 72,000,000 in all countries (1995 WA). Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Romance. National language. Bible 1530-1986. NT 1474-1980. Bible portions 1483-1987.

FUTUNA-ANIWA (WEST FUTUNA-ANIWA, ERRONAN) [FUT] 600 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). (West) Futuna and Aniwa Islands, east of Tanna. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Dialects: WEST FUTUNA (FOTUNA), ANIWA (ANEWA). There are significant differences between the West Futunan and Aniwan dialects. Distinct from (East) Futuna on Futuna Island in French Territory of Wallis and Futuna. 50% to 75% literate. Typology: SVO, VS. Fishermen; agriculturalists: taro, yam, sweet potato, coconut, fig, breadfruit, banana, native cabbage, sugar cane, chestnut, arrowroot; livestock: pigs, poultry. NT 1898. Bible portions 1869-1923.

HANO (RAGA, LAMALANGA, NORTH RAGA, VUNMARAMA, QATVENUA, BWATVENUA) [LML] 7,000 (1991 UBS). North Pentecost (Raga, Whitsuntide Island) and southern Maewo (Aurora) Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Slight dialect differences. Hano is the name preferred locally. Trade language. Bible portions 1908-1989. Work in progress.

HIW (TORRES, TORRES ISLAND) [HIW] 120 (1983 SIL). Torres Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Bible portions 1894-1900. Survey needed.

IFO (UTAHA) [IFF] Erromanga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga. Extinct.

KATBOL (TEMBIMBE-KATBOL, TAREMP, TISVEL) [TMB] 450 (1983 SIL). Central Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Survey needed.

KORO [KRF] 105 (1983 SIL). Gaua Island of the Banks Islands, villages of Koro and Mekeon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Survey needed.

KWAMERA [TNK] 2,500 (1989 SIL). Southeast Tanna. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. 2 main dialects. NT 1890. Bible portions 1878-1883.

LABO (MEWUN, MEAUN, NIDE) [MWI] 350 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southwest Bay, Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Labo. Hunters; fishermen; agriculturalists: yam. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1905. Survey needed.

LAKONA (LAKON, GAUA, GOG) [LKN] 300 (1983 SIL). Gaua Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Remote area not close to English or Bislama speaking areas. Two primary schools. English is used by the teachers and in classes only. Outside communications and business are in Bislama. Church services are in Lakona or Bislama, not English. Some monolinguals. Survey needed.

LAMENU (LEWO, VARMALI) [LMU] 750 (1986 SIL). Lamenu Island and the northern tip of Epi Island, Varmali region. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo. 15% to 25% literate. Bible portions 1987. Work in progress.

LAMETIN [LMB] 150 (1983 SIL). Central Santo, north of Morouas. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Dialect: WINIV. Survey needed.

LAREVAT (LARAVAT) [LRV] 150 (1983 SIL). Central Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Survey needed.

LEHALI (TEQEL, TEKEL) [TQL] 150 (1983 SIL). Ureparapara Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Close to Lehalurup. Survey needed.

LEHALURUP (UREPARAPARA, EAST UREPARAPARA) [URR] 90 (1983 SIL). Ureparapara Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Close to Lehali. Survey needed.

LELEPA (HAVANNAH HARBOUR) [LPA] 400 or more (1989 census). Lelepa Island, and Mangaliliu and Napkoa on western Efate Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu. Spoken by all ages. Formerly thought to be a dialect of North Efate. Also related to South Efate. 84% inherent intelligibility with Eton, 88% with South Efate. Some bilingualism in Bislama, South Efate, North Efate, English, or French. Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1877-1883. Survey needed.

LENAKEL [TNL] 6,500 (1988 SIL). West central Tanna. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Dialects: LOANATIT, NERAUYA, ITONGA, IKYOO. Complex dialect chain; up to 10 dialects (Wurm and Hattori). Typology: SVO. Bible portions 1900-1902. Survey needed.

LETEMBOI (SMALL NAMBAS) [NMS] 305 (1983 SIL). South Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas. Survey needed.

LEWO (VARSU) [LWW] 750 (1986 SIL). East Epi Island, Varsu and Varmali regions. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo. Dialects: TASIKO, MATE-NUL-FILAKARA. 5% to 15% literate. Bible portions 1892-1990. Work in progress.

LINGARAK (BUSHMAN'S BAY) [LGK] 210 (1983 SIL). Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Survey needed.

LITZLITZ (LITZLITZ-VISELE) [LTZ] 330 (1983 SIL). Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Survey needed.

LONWOLWOL (CRAIG COVE, FALI, FANTING) [CRC] 600 (1983 SIL). West Ambrym Island and several hundred in Maat village on Efate Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. 2 main dialects. Bible portions 1899-1949. Survey needed.

LOREDIAKARKAR [LNN] 50 (1972). Central east coast, Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South. Closely related to the Shark Bay language. Survey needed.

MAE [MME] 750 including North Small Nambas (1983 SIL). Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialect: NORTH SMALL NAMBAS. Survey needed.

MAEWO, CENTRAL (MAEVO, TANORIKI) [MWO] 350 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Maewo (Aurora) Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: LOTORA, TANORIKI, PETERARA. Dialects or closely related dying languages: Arata, Bangoro. Bible portions 1906. Survey needed.

MAFEA (MAVEA) [MKV] 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East Santo, Mafea Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Survey needed.

MAII (MAE-MORAE, MAFILAU) [MMM] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Mafilau village, southwest Epi, north of the Bieria, south of the Baki. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii. No dialect variation. 5% to 15% literate. Survey needed.

MALFAXAL (MALVAXAL-TOMAN ISLAND, TAMAN, TOMMAN) [MLX] 600 (1983 SIL). South Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialect: ORIERH (NA'AHAI). Bible portions 1919. Work in progress.

MALMARIV [MNL] 150 (1983 SIL). North central Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Navut. Survey needed.

MALO [MLA] 1,500 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Malo Island, three adjacent small islands and south Tangoa. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Dialects: AVUNATARI (NORTH MALO), ATARIPOE (SOUTH MALO). Closely related to Aore and Tutuba. NT 1954. Bible portions 1892-1954.

MALUA BAY (ESPIEGLE BAY, MIDDLE NAMBAS) [MLL] 300 (1983 SIL). Northwest coast of Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Several dialects. Survey needed.

MARAGUS (MARAGAUS) [MRS] 10 (1971 Tryon). Central north Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Nearly extinct.

MARINO (NAONE, NORTH MAEWO) [MRB] 180 (1983 SIL). North Maewo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Survey needed.

MASKELYNES (KULIVIU, MASKELYNE ISLANDS) [KLV] 1,200 (1990 UBS). South Malekula, Maskelyne Islets. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Some dialect differences. Bible portions 1906. Survey needed.

MELE-FILA (FILA-MELE) [MXE] 2,000 (1980 UBS); over 1,000 in Mele village on Efate, 500 on Fila (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Fila Island in Vila Harbor, Mele village on South Efate. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Dialects: FILA (EFIRA, FIRA, IFIRA), MELE. There are significant differences between the Mele and Fila dialects. People bilingual in South Efate. 75% to 100% literate. Typology: SVO. Work in progress.

MERLAV (MERELAVA, MERLAV-MERIG) [MRM] 1,350 including 1,200 Merlav, 150 Merig. Mere Lava Island and Merig Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: MWERIG (MERIG), WEST MWERELAWA, MATLIWAG. Survey needed.

MOROUAS (MORUAS) [MRP] 150 (1983 SIL). Central Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Several dialects. Possibly a dialect chain with Amblong and Narango. Survey needed.

MOSINA (MOSIN) [MSN] 400 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Vanua Lava, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: VETUMBOSO, VURES (VURAS, VUREAS, AVREAS). Mosina and Vures have 88% lexical similarity. Vures is increasing in vitality. Work in progress.

MOTA [MTT] 450 (1983 SIL). Mota (Sugarloaf) Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Formerly a lingua franca. 75% to 100% literate. Bible 1912. NT 1885-1931. Bible portions 1864-1902. Work in progress.

MOTLAV (MOTALAVA) [MLV] 1,275 (1983 SIL). Mota Lava (Saddle) Island, Banks Group. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialect: VOLOW (VALUVA, VALUWA, VALUGA). Survey needed.

MPOTOVORO [MVT] 180 (1983 SIL). North tip of Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Survey needed.

NAMAKURA (MAKURA) [NMK] 2,850 (1983 SIL). North Efate, Tongoa, Tongariki. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu. Dialects: TONGOA ISLAND, TONGARIKI ISLAND, BUNINGA, MAKURA (EMWAE ISLAND), MATASO. 25% to 50% literate. Survey needed.

NAMBAS, BIG [NMB] 1,800 (1983 SIL). Northwest Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. 5% to 15% literate. NT 1986.

NARANGO [NRG] 160 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). South Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Several dialects. Closely related to Amblong and Morouas. Survey needed.

NASARIAN [NVH] 20 (1983 SIL). Southwest coast of Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Nearly extinct.

NAVUT [NSW] 525 (1983 SIL). West central Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Closely related to Malmariv. Survey needed.

NOKUKU (NOGUGU) [NKK] 160 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Bible portions 1901-1918. Survey needed.

NUME (TARASAG, GAUA) [TGS] 450 (1983 SIL). Gaua Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Distinct from Numee of New Caledonia. 50% to 75% literate. Work in progress.

PAAMA (PAAMA-LOPEVI, PAUMA, PAAMESE) [PMA] 5,250 (1983 SIL). Paama, one village on east Epi (Lopevi), a large group in Vila. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: NORTH PAAMA, SOUTH PAAMA. Close to Southeast Ambrym linguistically. 75% to 100% literate. NT 1944. Bible portions 1907-1921.

PIAMATSINA [PTR] 150 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Close to Vunapu. Survey needed.

POLONOMBAUK [PLB] 225 (1983 SIL). Southeast Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South. Survey needed.

PORT SANDWICH [PSW] 750 (1983 SIL). Southeast Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Several dialects. Survey needed.

PORT VATO [PTV] 750 (1983 SIL). Southwest Ambrym Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Bible portions 1899. Survey needed.

REPANBITIP [RPN] 90 (1983 SIL). East Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas. Survey needed.

REREP (PANGKUMU, PANGKUMU BAY) [PGK] 375 (1983 SIL). East Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialect: TISMAN. Bible portions 1892-1913. Survey needed.

RORIA [RGA] 150 (1983 SIL). Central Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Some dialect differences. Survey needed.

SA [SSA] 1,800 (1983 SIL). South Raga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: PONORWAL (SOUTH RAGA), LOLATAVOLA, NINEBULO. Survey needed.

SAKAO (HOG HARBOUR, SANTO, SAKAU) [SKU] 1,500 (1983 SIL). Northeast Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, North. Dialect: LIVARA (LIARA). More divergent linguistically with some Polynesian characteristics. Livara is extinct. Agriculturalists: yam, sweet potato, sugar cane, banana, coconut, breadfruit; fishermen; pig raisers. Bible portions 1905-1949. Survey needed.

SEKE [SKE] 300 (1983 SIL). Central Raga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Survey needed.

SHARK BAY [SSV] 225 (1983 SIL). East Santo on Litaro (Pilot) Island and also on the coast at Shark Bay. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South. Closely related to Lorediakarkar. Survey needed.

SIE (EROMANGA, ERRAMANGA) [ERG] 900 (1983 SIL). Erromanga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga. Dialects: YOKU (ENYAU), IFO (UTAHA), POTNARIVEN, SIE (SORUNG). NT 1909. Bible portions 1864-1914.

SOUTH WEST BAY (SINESIP, SENIANG, NAAHAI) [SNS] 250 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southwest Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Hunters; fishermen; agriculturalists: yam. Bible portions 1905. Work in progress.

SOWA [SWW] 20 (1971 Tryon). Central Raga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Nearly extinct.

TAMBOTALO [TLS] 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southeast Santo, Tambotalo village. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Survey needed.

TANGOA (SANTO) [TGP] 375 (1983 SIL). Tangoa Island, off south Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Distinct from Tongoa (Namakura and North Efate languages). 50% to 75% literate. Bible portions 1892-1923. Survey needed.

TANNA, NORTH [TNN] 2,000 (1988 SIL). North Tanna. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Dialects: EAST TANNA, WEST TANNA, IMAFIN. Two major dialects. There is a dialect chain. Closely related to Whitesands. Bislama is used as second language, but many women and some men do not understand it. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SVO. Agriculturalists: coconut; copra production. Bible portions 1990. Work in progress.

TANNA, SOUTHWEST [NWI] 2,250 (1983 SIL). Southwest Tanna Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Dialects: NOWAI, NVHAL. A complex dialect chain (Wurm and Hattori). Agriculturalists: coconut; copra production. Survey needed.

TASMATE [TMT] 150 (1983 SIL). West Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Some dialect differences. Survey needed.

TOGA (LO, LOH-TOGA, TORRES) [LHT] 315 (1983 SIL). Torres Islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Bible portions 1900. Survey needed.

TOLOMAKO (TOLOMAKO-JEREVIU, BIG BAY, MARINA) [TLM] 450 (1983 SIL). Big Bay, Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Slight dialect differences. Bible portions 1904-1909.

TUTUBA [TMI] 150 (1983 SIL). Tutuba Island, south Santo. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Close to Aore and Malo. Survey needed.

UNUA (ONUA) [ONU] 525; including 50 in Bush Unua. East Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialect: BUSH UNUA. Several dialects. Bible portions 1892-1913. Survey needed.

URA [UUR] 10 or fewer (1977 Lincoln). North Erromanga Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga. Nearly extinct.

URIPIV-WALA-RANO-ATCHIN [UPV] 6,000 (1988 SIL). Northeast Malekula and nearby islands. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Dialects: URIPIV, WALA-RANO, ATCHIN (NALE). Dialect chain from Uripiv in the south to Atchin in the north, with 85% lexical similarity at the extremes. 25% to 50% literate. Bible portions 1893-1989. Work in progress.

VALPEI (VALPEI-HUKUA, VALPAY) [VLP] 300 (1983 SIL). Northwest Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Survey needed.

VAO [VAO] 1,350 (1983 SIL). Vao Island, north Malekula. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Agriculturalists: yam, banana, taro, pineapple, cabbage, coconut, breadfruit; fishermen; pig raisers. Survey needed.

VATRATA (VANUA LAVA) [VLR] 600 (1983 SIL). Vanua Lava Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Dialects: LEON, PAK (BEK), SASAR (LEM). Leon, Sasar, and Pak dialects are extinct. Survey needed.

VINMAVIS (LAMBUMBU) [VNM] 210 (1983 SIL). Central west Malekula Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central. Dialect: WINIV. Survey needed.

VUNAPU [VNP] 375 (1983 SIL). Northwest Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Close to Piamatsina. Survey needed.

WAILAPA [WLR] 100 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southwest Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. A dialect chain with Akei and Penantsiro at the extremes; they are not inherently intelligible. Survey needed.

WETAMUT [WWO] 70 (1972). Gaua Island of the Banks Group, villages of Dorig and Kweteon. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Slight dialect differences. Survey needed.

WHITESANDS (NAPUANMEN, WHITSANDS) [TNP] 3,500 (1988 SIL). Tanna Island, east coast. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Dialects: WEASISI (WASSISI), LOMETIMETI. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SVO. NT 1924. Bible portions 1895-1909.

WUSI (WUSI-KEREPUA) [WSI] 170 (1977 Lincoln). West Santo Island. Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Some dialect differences. Survey needed.


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Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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