Ethnologue: Questionnaires

Environmental Questionnaire

This is not intended to be a complete typology but a rough guide to the general physical setting and economic adaptation of the culture.

Name of language_____________________



Person filling out form_________________________________

E-mail address__________________________________________

1. Ecosystem type:_____________________________________________________

Desert: arid region lacking moisture to support vegetation

Savannah: tropical or subtropical grassland, treeless or containing scattered trees and drought-resistant undergrowth

Scrub forest: dwarf or stunted trees and shrubs

Tropical forest: thick vegetation of tall trees with undergrowth of shorter trees, shrubs, and vines; in belts paralleling the equator to 23º27'

Tundra: level or rolling treeless plain in northern arctic regions

Deciduous forest: trees whose leaves fall off seasonally

Pine forest

Gallery forest: relatively narrow stretches of forest or jungle bordering rivers in predominantly savannah area. Peoples use them in conjunction with surrounding ecotypes

Semi-tropical: partially tropical vegetation

2. Geological type:___________________________________________________

Mountain mesa: flat-topped rocky hills with steep sloping sides

Mountain slope: cultivating or living on the sides of mountains

Mountain valley: long depression between mountains, usually with an outlet

Coastal: seashore or land nearby

Plains: broad stretches of land with few or no rises or depressions

Riverine: people live near major rivers, depend heavily on fishing (freshwater, not coastal), hunt the river environs, plant the floodplain, travel the waterways (usually by canoe); populations typically in large villages of more than 200

Interfluvial: zone away from major waterways, e.g. along small streams; usually small villages or family groups of 10 to 100, people rely on hunting, horticulture, travel by foot, frequently avoid major waterways

Islands: (volcanic, coral, other?)

3. Subsistence type:____________________________________________________

Pastoralists: (nomadic, sedentary?)

Hunter-gatherers: (nomadic, sedentary?)

Fishing culture

Swidden agriculturalists: people rely on a variety of resources: horticulture, collecting, hunting, fishing, slash and burn

Peasants: adapted marginally to market system, rely on balanced use of agriculture for subsistence and money for purchasing goods and some foodstuffs

Intensive agriculturalists: raise crops not for local consumption but almost exclusively for sale; cash used to buy most foodstuffs and goods

Coconut palm specialization

Craftsmen: only if major subsistence base (include cottage industry)

Industrial: only if large scale production

4. Altitude range (in meters) where people live: ____________________________________________________________________________

5. Climate:_______________________________________________________________

Please return this update form to:

Editor, Ethnologue
c/o International Linguistics Center
7500 West Camp Wisdom Road
Dallas, Texas 75236 USA
E-mail: [email protected]

Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor.
Copyright © 1996 Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc. All rights reserved.

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