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Languages of Brunei

State of Brunei Darussalam. Negara Brunei Darussalam. 365,251. National or official languages: English, Malay. Literacy rate: 85% to 95%. Also includes Korean, Nepali, people from South Asia (4,200), others from the Philippines. Information mainly from R. Needham 1954; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981; K. Purnama 1991; P. Martin 1991; P. Martin, C. Oxog, and G. Poedjosoedarmo 1996. The number of languages listed for Brunei is 17. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages

Belait

[beg] 700 (1995 Martin). Scattered areas in Belait District, Kampung Kiudang, in Tutong District. Alternate names: Balait Jati, Lemeting, Meting.  Dialects: Related to Kiput, Baram, Tinjar. Lexical similarity 54% with Tutong 2.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A 
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Bisaya, Brunei

[bsb] 600 (1984 Dunn). East of Tutong 1 and east to the coast, west of Seria, a few villages near the Sarawak border. Alternate names: Bisayah, Bisaya Bukit, Visayak, Bekiau, Lorang Bukit, Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai, Southern Bisaya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 78% to 79% with Sarawak Bisaya, 57% to 59% with Sabah Bisaya, and 50% with other Dusunic languages.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern 
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Brunei

[kxd] 250,000 in Brunei (1984 SIL). Population total all countries: 304,000. Brunei is in the capital, Brunei-Muara District, and the coastal strip. Kedayan is in West Brunei-Muara District and Tutong District. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Brunei-Kadaian, Orang Bukit.  Dialects: Brunei Malay, Kedayan (Kadaian, Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedyan, Kedien. Kerayan), Kampong Ayer. Brunei, Kadayan, and Kampong Ayer have 94% to 95% lexical similarity with each other, 80% to 82% lexical similarity with Standard Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 5,253 in Brunei (2000 WCD). 44,400 speakers of all Chinese languages (1989).  Alternate names: Hakka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 9,848 in Brunei (2000 WCD).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo] 6,566 in Brunei (2000 WCD). 11.88% of ethnic Chinese.  Dialects: Foochow.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 12,147 in Brunei (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan.  Dialects: Chaochow (Tiuchiu, Teochow), Hainan, Fujian (Hokkien).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 5,909 in Brunei (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Yue, Yueh, Cantonese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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English

[eng] 8,000 in Brunei.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Iban

[iba] 15,000 in Brunei (1995 Martin). Rural areas of Belait and Tutong districts, and Temburong District. Alternate names: Sea Dayak.  Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayic-Dayak, Ibanic 
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Lundayeh

[lnd] 300 in Brunei (1987 Langub). 7 villages in Temburong District. Alternate names: Lun Bawang, Lun Daye, Brunei Murut, Southern Murut, Murut.  Dialects: Trusan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic 
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Malay

[mly]   Alternate names: Standard Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Melanau

[mel] 200 in Brunei (1995 Martin). Around Kuala Belait town. Alternate names: Milanau, Milano, Belana'u.  Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Mukah, Muka, Oya, Oya', Oga).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau 
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Penan, Eastern

[pez]  East of the Baram River, Apoh River District. Alternate names: "Punan".  Dialects: Penan Apoh.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Punan-Nibong 
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Penan, Western

[pne] 50 in Brunei (1988 Lian). West of the Baram River. Dialects: Nibong (Nibon, Penan Nibong), Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Punan-Nibong 
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Tutong 1

[ttx] 15,000 in Brunei (1995 Martin). Population total all countries: 25,000. Central and interior Belait and Tutong districts, east of Bisaya, south of Tutong 2. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sarawak). Alternate names: Dusun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern 
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Tutong 2

[ttg] 12,000 (1996 Martin, Ozog, and Poedjosoedarmo). Around Tutong town on the coast and central Tutong District. Alternate names: Tutung.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 54% with Belait.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B 
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