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Languages of Brazil

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Federative Republic of Brazil. República Federativa do Brasil. 184,101,109. Population includes 311,656 American Indians (1995 govt. figure). 155,000 speakers of American Indian languages (1985 Rodrigues). National or official language: Portuguese. There are reports of up to 34 groups without peaceful contact. Literacy rate: 76% (1989 WA). Also includes Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Irish Gaelic, Italian (500,000), Japanese (380,000), Korean (37,000), Latvian, Lithuanian, Standard German (1,500,000), Turoyo, Ukrainian, Vlax Romani. Information mainly from D. Ribeiro 1957; A. Rodrigues 1958; J. Hopper 1967; A. Jensen 1985; D. Derbyshire and G. Pullum 1986; SIL 1957–2003. Blind population: 124,805. Deaf population: 9,624,345. Deaf institutions: 60. The number of languages listed for Brazil is 235. Of those, 188 are living languages and 47 are extinct.

Living languages

Agavotaguerra

[avo] 100 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, between the Curisevo and Culuene rivers, near the Kuikúro. Alternate names: Agavotokueng, Agavotoqueng.  Dialects: Related to Waurá and Yawalapiti.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Amahuaca

[amc] 220 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas. Alternate names: Amawáka, Amawaca, Amenguaca, Sayacu.  Dialects: Inuvaken, Viwivakeu.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Amahuaca 
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Amanayé

[ama] Ethnic population: 60 (2000 C. Jensen). Pará, On the Capim River in São Domingos do Capim Minicipality. Alternate names: Amanajé, Manaze, Amanage, Manaxo, Manajo, Manazo, Amanyé.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII  Nearly extinct.
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Amapá Creole

[amd] 25,000 (1995 SIL). Throughout State of Amapá, concentrated around the capital, Macapá. Alternate names: Lanc-Patúa.  Classification: Creole, French based 
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Amikoana

[akn] A few speakers. Northern Amapá. Alternate names: Amikuân.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Amundava

[adw] 50 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Acre, near the Jiparaná River. Alternate names: Amundawa, Amondawa.  Dialects: Close to Tenharim.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Anambé

[aan] 7 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 77 (1993 SIL). Pará, Cairari River, tributary of the Moju River. Dialects: Close to Asuriní.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII  Nearly extinct.
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Apalaí

[apy] 450 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Pará, mainly on the Paru Leste River with fringe groups on the Jari and Citare rivers. 20 villages. Alternate names: Aparai, Apalay.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Apiacá

[api] 2 (1986 Rodrigues). Ethnic population: 90 (2000 C. Jensen). Northern Mato Grosso, upper Rio Tapajos, near confluence of São Manoel, near the border between Pará and Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Apiake, Apiaká.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Apinayé

[apn] 800 (1994 SIL). Tocantins, near Tocantinópolis, 6 villages. Alternate names: Apinajé, Apinagé.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Apinaye 
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Apurinã

[apu] 2,000 (1994 SIL). Amazonas, Acre; scattered over a thousand miles of the Purus River from Rio Branco to Manaus. Alternate names: Ipurinãn, Kangite, Popengare.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Arapaso

[arj] 268 (1992 ALEM). São Gabriel, Iauarete, Amazonas. Alternate names: Arapaço, Araspaso, Koneá.  Dialects: Reported to be a dialect of Tucano.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Arára, Pará

[aap] 110 (1994 SIL). Pará in 2 villages. Alternate names: Ajujure.  Dialects: The closest extant languages are Ikpeng and Bakairí.  Classification: Carib, Northern, Northern Brazil 
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Araweté

[awt] 184 (1994 ALEM). Amazonas, at least one sizeable village, near Xingú River, near Altamira. Alternate names: Bïde.  Dialects: Close to Asuriní, Parakanã, Tapirapé.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Arikapú

[ark] 6 (1998 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio Branco, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Alternate names: Maxubí, Aricapú.  Dialects: Similar to Jabuti.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Yabuti  Nearly extinct.
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Aruá

[arx] 12 (1990). Ethnic population: 40 (2000 C. Jensen). Rio Branco post, Branco and Guaporé rivers, Rondônia. Dialects: Aruáshi (Aruachi).  Classification: Tupi, Monde  Nearly extinct.
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Arutani

[atx] 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 19. Roraima. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Auaqué, Auake, Awake, Aoaqui, Oewaku, Uruak, Urutani, Orotani.  Classification: Arutani-Sape  Nearly extinct.
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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa

[cpb] 212 to 235 in Brazil (1983 SIL). Acre. Alternate names: Ucayali Ashéninca.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Asuriní

[asu] 191 (1995 AMTB). Trocará near Tucurui, on the Tocantins River, Pará. Alternate names: Assuriní, Assuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará, Akwaya.  Dialects: In Akwáwa cluster. Close to Parakanã. Similar to Suruí do Pará.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Asuriní, Xingú

[asn] 63 (1994 ALEM). At least one sizeable village, on Rio Piçava off Xingú River near Altamira, Pará. Alternate names: Awaté, Awaeté, Asuriní de Koatinema, Asurini do Xingu.  Dialects: Different from Asuriní of the Tocantins (Akwaya), and Arawete.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Atorada

[aox] Few speakers in Brazil (2000). Roraima. Alternate names: Atorad, Ator'ti, Dauri, Atorai.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan 
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Atruahí

[atr] 350 (1995 SIL). On the Alalau and Camanau rivers on the border between the state of Amazonas and the territory of Roraima, and on the Jatapu and Jauaperi rivers. 24 villages. Alternate names: Atroaí, Atroarí, Atrowari, Atroahy, Ki'nya.  Dialects: Atruahi, Waimirí (Uaimirí, Wahmirí), Jawaperi (Yauaperi). Related to Sapara, Pauxiana, Piriutite, and Tiquiriá.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waimiri 
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Aurá

[aux] 2 (2004 SIL). Live with the Guajá in Maranhão. Originally lived in Pará. Alternate names: Auré.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani  Nearly extinct.
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Avá-Canoeiro

[avv] 56 (1995 SIL). Goiás, Island of Bananal, and the upper Tocantins River valley. Alternate names: Canoeiros, Canoe, Canoa, Avá, Abá, Awana.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Awetí

[awe] 90 (2000 SIL). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, Rio Culiseu (upper Xingú River). Alternate names: Awetö, Aueto, Aueti, Auiti, Arauite, Arauine.  Classification: Tupi, Aweti 
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Bakairí

[bkq] 570 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso in 9 or 10 villages. Alternate names: Bacairí, Kurâ.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin 
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Banawá

[bnh] 100 (2002 SIL). Amazonas, upriver quite a distance from the Jamamadí. Half live on the Banawá River, others on small creeks and in scattered locations; 1 village and 2 extended family settlements. Alternate names: Kitiya, Banavá, Banauá, Jafí.  Dialects: Not as close to Jamamadí linguistically as previously thought.  Classification: Arauan 
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Baniwa

[bwi] 5,460 in Brazil (1983 SIL). Population includes 4,057 Baniwa, 1,000 Hohodené, 403 Seuci. Population total all countries: 5,893. Middle Içana River, Amazonas. They go to Colombia or Venezuela mainly to work or trade. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Baniua do Içana, Maniba, Baniva, Baniba, Issana, Dakenei.  Dialects: Hohodené (Hohodena, Kadaupuritana), Siusy-Tapuya (Seuci, Siuci, Siusi). Related to Carutana and Curripaco. Several groups on the middle Içana and Ayarí rivers who speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Borôro

[bor] 850 (1994 SIL). Central Mato Grosso, 8 villages. Alternate names: Boe.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper 
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Brazilian Sign Language

[bzs]  São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, and elsewhere. Alternate names: Lsb, São Paulo Sign Language.  Dialects: The dialects appear to be inherently intelligible, although northern dialects above the Amazon show greater differences. Some relationship to North American and European sign languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Cafundo Creole

[ccd] 40 (1978 M. Gnerre, U. Estadual de Campinas). Cafundo, 150 miles from São Paulo. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based  Nearly extinct.
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Caló

[rmr] 10,000 in Latin America.  Alternate names: Calo, Gitano, Iberian Romani.  Dialects: Brazilian Calão.  Classification: Mixed Language, Iberian-Romani 
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Canela

[ram] 1,420 (1995 SIL). Population includes 950 Ramkokamekra, 470 Apanjekra (1995 SIL). Maranhão, southeastern Pará. Alternate names: Kanela.  Dialects: Apanjekra (Apanhecra, Apaniekra), Ramkokamekra.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Carib

[car] 100 in Brazil (1995 SIL). State of Amapá. Alternate names: Caribe, Cariña, Kalihna, Kalinya, Galibí, Maraworno, Marworno.  Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib).  Classification: Carib, Northern, Galibi 
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Carútana

[cru] 300 (2000). Northwest Amazonas, near Curripaco. Alternate names: Karutana, Arara do Amazonas.  Dialects: Adaru, Arara, Dzaui (Dzawi), Jauarete (Yawarete Tapuya), Jurupari (Yurupari Tapuya), Mapache, Uadzoli (Wadzoli), Urubu. Close to Curripaco and Baniwa. Arara may be distinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Cashinahua

[cbs] 400 in Brazil (2003). Acre. Alternate names: Cashinahuá, Kaxinawá, Kaxinauá, Kaxynawa, Caxinawá.  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Chiripá

[nhd] 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso do Sul State, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. Alternate names: Nhandeva, Ñandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá, Apytare, Guaraní.  Dialects: Apapocuva.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Cinta Larga

[cin] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Western Mato Grosso. Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] 50 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 411 in Brazil (2000 D. Moore). Amazonas. Alternate names: Cocama, Kokama.  Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla (Kokamilla).  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Cubeo

[cub] 150 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Northwest Amazonas, near São Gabriel. Alternate names: Pamié, Cuveo, Cubeu, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Kobéwa, Hehenawa, Pamiwa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan 
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Culina

[cul] 903 in Brazil (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,303. Amazonas, Acre. Also spoken in Peru. Alternate names: Kulína, Kulyna, Corina, Madija, Madihá.  Dialects: Minor changes from Peruvian dialect.  Classification: Arauan 
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Curripaco

[kpc] 810 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Northwest Amazonas. Alternate names: Curipaco, Kuripako, Koripako, Korispaso.  Dialects: Korripako (Karupaka), Unhun (Cadauapuritana, Enhen).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Dâw

[kwa] 83 (1994 ALEM). Amazonas, across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, a county seat just below the confluence of the Vaupés and Negro rivers. Alternate names: "Kamã", Kamã Makú.  Classification: Maku 
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Dení

[dny] 750 (2002 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Dani.  Dialects: Inauini.  Classification: Arauan 
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Desano

[des] 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,760. Northwestern Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Desâna, Dessano, Wina, Uina, Wirã, Boleka, Oregu, Kusibi.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Enawené-Nawé

[unk] 165 (1995). Mato Grosso within northeast Nambiquara reserve. Alternate names: Eneuene-Mare, Salumã.  Dialects: Related to Parecís.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Fulniô

[fun] 2,788 (1995 SIL). Pernambuco. Alternate names: Furniô, Fornió, Carnijó, Iatê, Yatê.  Dialects: Fulniô, Yatê. Lexical similarity 98% between Fulniô and Yatê dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Fulnio 
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Gavião do Jiparaná

[gvo] 472 (2002 SIL). Rondônia (Gavião). Alternate names: Gavião do Rondônia, Digüt, Ikõro.  Dialects: Gavião, Zoró (Panginey, Cabeça Seca). Partially intelligible with Suruí. Rodrigues lists Zoró and Cinta Larga as separate languages from Gavião (1986).  Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Gavião, Pará

[gvp] 180 (1995 SIL). State of Pará, in a new village called 'Kaikoturé', near Marabá. Some live scattered in or near their original locations in Maranhão and Pará. Alternate names: Parakatêjê, Pukobjê.  Dialects: Related to Krikati-Timbira, Canela, Krahô.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Guajá

[gvj] 370 (1995 AMTB). Maranhão, babassu palm area near Gurupi and Upper Pindaré rivers, some in Serra Canastra, Tocantins, and Guamá Post in Pará. At least 6 isolated groups. Alternate names: Awá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Wazaizara, Guaxare.  Dialects: Related to Guajajára.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Guajajára

[gub] 15,000 (2000 SIL). Maranhco, Pindaré, Grajaú, Mearim, and Zutiua rivers, 81 villages. Alternate names: Guazazzara, Tenetehar, Tenetehára.  Dialects: Pindare, Zutiua, Mearim, Tembe of Gurupi.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Guanano

[gvc] 550 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Population total all countries: 1,000. Northwest Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Wanâna, Wanano, Uanana, Anana, Kótedia, Kótirya.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Guaraní, Mbyá

[gun] 5,000 in Brazil (2000 Dooley). Population total all countries: 16,050. Southwestern Paraná, southeastern São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais. 35 villages in 7 states. Also spoken in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay. Alternate names: Mbyá, Mbua, Mbiá, Bugre.  Dialects: Tambéopé, Baticola. Lexical similarity 75% with Paraguayan Guaraní.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guarequena

[gae] 338 in Brazil (1983 NTM). Amazonas, Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana near Venezuelan border. Alternate names: Urequema, Warekéna, Werekena, Uerequema, Werikena, Arequena.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Guató

[gta] 40 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 382 (1993 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul and Bolivian border, banks of the Paraguai and going up the São Lourenço rivers. Classification: Macro-Ge, Guato  Nearly extinct.
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Himarimã

[hir] 40. Amazonas, Tapayá Valley, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Hixkaryána

[hix] 600 (2000 SIL). Population includes 89 Xereuyana (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2000). Amazonas, upper Nhamunda River to Mapuera and Jatapú rivers. Alternate names: Hixkariana, Hishkaryana, Parukoto-Charuma, Parucutu, Chawiyana, Kumiyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Faruaru, Sherewyana, Xerewyana, Xereu, Hichkaryana.  Dialects: Close to Waiwai. No dialectal variation. The Sherewyana speak the same language but some live with the Waiwai.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Hupdë

[jup] 1,208 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,358. Rio Auari, northwestern Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: "Hupdá Makú", "Jupdá Macú", "Makú-Hupdá", "Macú de Tucano", Ubdé.  Dialects: Hupdë, Tuhup, Nëhup. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligibility among Yahup, Tuhup, and Nëhup needs investigation. Tuhup and Nëhup may be extinct.  Classification: Maku 
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Iapama

[iap]  Border region of Pará and Amapá. Classification: Unclassified 
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Ikpeng

[txi] 146 (1995). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Txikão, Txikân, Chicao, Tunuli, Tonore.  Dialects: Similar to Arara of Pará.  Classification: Carib, Northern, Northern Brazil 
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Ingarikó

[ake] 500 in Brazil. Roraima and Rio Branco. Alternate names: Acewaio, Akawai, Akawaio, Acahuayo.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon 
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Ipeka-Tapuia

[paj] 135 (1976 RC). Içana, Amazonas. Alternate names: Pato-Tapuya, Pato Tapuia, Cumata, Ipeca, Pacu, Paku-Tapuya, Payuliene, Payualiene, Palioariene.  Dialects: Waliperi (Veliperi). Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat it as a dialect of Siuci (see Baniwa).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Irántxe

[irn] 191 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso, headwaters of the Rio Cravari, tributary of the Rio Sangue, which is a tributary of the Rio Juruena. Alternate names: Iranxe, Iranche, Münkü.  Dialects: Münkü (Mynky, Menku, Kenkü, Myy), Irántxe.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Unclassified 
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Jabutí

[jbt] 5 (1990). Rio Branco Post, Rondônia. Alternate names: Yabutí, Jabotí, Djeoromitxi.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Yabuti  Nearly extinct.
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Jamamadí

[jaa] 195 (1994 SIL). Population includes 12 Mamoria. Amazonas, scattered over 200,000 square miles. Alternate names: Yamamadí, Kanamanti, Canamanti.  Dialects: Bom Futuro, Jurua, Pauini, Mamoria (Mamori), Cuchudua (Maima), Tukurina. Other groups are called 'Jamamadí' which are closer to Culina or Dení. Tukurina may be a separate language. Dialects or related languages: Araua, Pama, Sewacu, Sipo, Yuberi.  Classification: Arauan 
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Jaruára

[jap] 155 (2000 SIL). Amazonas, Lábrea Minicipality, near the Jamamadí, 7 villages. Alternate names: Jarawara, Yarawara.  Dialects: Formerly considered a dialect of Jamamadí.  Classification: Arauan 
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Júma

[jua] 4 (1998). There were 300 in 1940. Amazonas, Rio Açuã, tributary of the Mucuim. Alternate names: Yumá, Katauixi, Arara, Kagwahiva, Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Jurúna

[jur] 181 (1998 SIL). Xingú Park, northern Mato Grosso, near mouth of the Maritsauá-Mitau River, 2 villages. Alternate names: Yurúna, Iuruna, Jaruna, Yudya.  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna 
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Kabixí

[xbx] 100 (1986 SIL). Slopes of Planalto dos Parecís, right bank of upper Guaporé, near Vila Bela, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Cabichí, Cabishi.  Dialects: Related to Cujuna, Cumana, Mataua, Wanham, Urunumacan.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Guapore 
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Kadiwéu

[kbc] 1,200 (1995 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, around Serra da Bodoquena. 3 villages. Alternate names: Mbaya-Guaikuru, Caduvéo, Ediu-Adig.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan 
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Kaingáng

[kgp] 18,000 (1989 SIL). São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul; 21 locations. Central Kaingang is in São Paulo and Santa Catarina. Alternate names: Coroado, Coroados, Caingang, Bugre.  Dialects: Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern 
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Kaiwá

[kgk] 15,000 in Brazil (1994 SIL). Population total all countries: 15,512. Mato Grosso do Sul. Also spoken in Argentina. Alternate names: Caiwa, Caingua, Cayua, Caiua, Kayova, Kaiova.  Dialects: Teüi, Tembekuá, Kaiwá. Somewhat intelligible with Paraguayan Guaraní. Lexical similarity 70% with Pai Tavytera of Paraguay.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Kamayurá

[kay] 279 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Kamaiurá, Camaiura, Kamayirá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VII 
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Kanamarí

[knm] 647 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, upper regions of Jurua, Jutai, Itaquai rivers. Alternate names: Kanamaré, Canamarí.  Dialects: Tshom-Djapa (Txunhuã-Djapá, Txunhuã Dyapá).  Classification: Katukinan 
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Karahawyana

[xkh] 40 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, near the Waiwai. Dialects: Probably Cariban.  Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Karajá

[kpj] 1,700 (1995 SIL). Population includes 383 Javaé (1986 SIL). Goiás, Pará, Mato Grosso, Araguaia River, Bananal Island, and Tocantins. Alternate names: Xambioá, Chamboa, Ynã.  Dialects: Javaé (Javahe). Men and women speak different dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Karaja 
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Karapanã

[cbc] 50 in Brazil (1986 SIL). São Gabriel and Pari-Cachoeira, Amazonas. Alternate names: Carapana, Carapanã, Mextã.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
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Karipuná

[kuq] 12 to 15 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Acre, banks of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers. Alternate names: Karipuná do Guaporé, Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Karipuná de Rondônia, Kagwahiva.  Dialects: Jacaria, Pama (Pamana). Loukotka identified this as Panoan.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Karipúna Creole French

[kmv] 672 (1995 SIL). Amapá, on French Guiana border. Alternate names: Crioulo.  Dialects: There are conflicting reports about how different it is from Guianese Creole French. It is different from Haitian Creole.  Classification: Creole, French based 
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Karitiâna

[ktn] 200 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Candeias River, tributary of the upper Madeira River. Alternate names: Caritiana.  Classification: Tupi, Arikem 
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Karo

[arr] 150 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, and Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Itogapúk, Itogapuc, Ntogapig, Ntogapid, Ramarama, Itanga, Arara-Karo, Uruku, Arára do Jiparaná, Arára.  Dialects: Karo.  Classification: Tupi, Ramarama 
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Katawixi

[xat] 10 (1986 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Catawixi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catauichi.  Classification: Katukinan  Nearly extinct.
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Katukína

[kav] 1 (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 360. Acre. Alternate names: Katukina do Jutaí, Pidá-Djapá, Catuquina.  Dialects: Cutiadapa (Kutia-Dyapa).  Classification: Katukinan  Nearly extinct.
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Katukína, Panoan

[knt] 196 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas, Acre. Alternate names: Catuquina, Waninnawa, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Katukina do Juruá.  Dialects: Arara-Shawanawa (Shawanawa-Arara), Ararapina, Ararawa, Sanainawa (Saninawacana). Possibly intelligible with Marubo.  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Kaxararí

[ktx] 220 (1995 AMTB). Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna, Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas. Alternate names: Kaxariri.  Classification: Panoan, Eastern 
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Kaxuiâna

[kbb] 434 (1986 SIL). Population includes 300 Warikyana, 134 Kaxuiâna. Imabu River near perimetral norte, on Trombetes River near junction with Mapuwera, northwestern Para. A few are living with the Hixkaryána; most with the Trió. Alternate names: Kashuyana, Kashujana, Kachuana, Warikyana, Warikiana, Kaxúyana.  Dialects: Pawiyana (Pawixi).  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Kayabí

[kyz] 800 (1994 SIL). Northern Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, and southern Para; Teles Pires River and Tatui, many villages. Alternate names: Kajabí, Caiabi, Parua, Maquiri.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Kayapó

[txu] 4,000 (1994 SIL). 3,950 monolinguals. Population includes 469 Xikrin (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, southern Pará, both sides of the Xingú River, on the west up to the Iriri and its tributaries, and on the west bank to the Fresco and Zinho rivers, 14 villages. Alternate names: Kokraimoro.  Dialects: Xikrin (Xukru, Diore), Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú. Those listed as dialects are only slightly different.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kayapo 
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Kohoroxitari

[kob] 622 (1976 RC). Amazonas, Prelazia Rio Negro. Classification: Unclassified 
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Korubo

[xor] 500 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas. Alternate names: Caceteiros.  Dialects: Possibly Panoan. May be the same as Marúbo, or related to Yanomámi.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Krahô

[xra] 1,200 (1988 SIL). Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins, 5 villages. Alternate names: Craô, Kraô.  Dialects: Different from Canela, but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Kreen-Akarore

[kre] 122 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, northern Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Kren Akarore, Panará.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Kayapó; possibly closer to Canela.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kreen-Akarore 
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Krenak

[kqq] 80 (1989 SIL). Left margin of Doce River, on reservations in east São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Paraná. Classification: Macro-Ge, Botocudo 
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Kreye

[xre] 30 (1995 SIL). Maranhão and Pará. Alternate names: Krem-Ye, Crenge, Crange, Creye, Crenye, Taze, Tage.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira  Nearly extinct.
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Krikati-Timbira

[xri] 420 (1995). Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins. The Timbira are in Governador Village, Municipality of Amarante. Dialects: Krinkati (Karakati), Timbira. The Krikati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Kuikúro-Kalapálo

[kui] 526 (1995 AMTB). Population includes 277 Kuikúro and 249 Kalapálo. Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, three villages along the Culuene River. Alternate names: Kuikuru, Guicurú, Kurkuro, Cuicutl, Kalapalo, Apalakiri, Apalaquiri.  Dialects: The Kuikúro and the Kalapálo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin 
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Kuruáya

[kyr] 52 to 147 (1998). Pará, tributaries of the lower Xingú River. Alternate names: Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia.  Classification: Tupi, Munduruku 
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Machinere

[mpd] 400 (1995 AMTB). Acre. May also be in Bolivia. Alternate names: Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenerí, Manitenére, Maxinéri.  Dialects: Distinct enough from Yine (Piro) in Peru to need separate literature. Manitenére may be different from Machinere.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Macuna

[myy] 100 in Brazil (1973 RC). Rio Chié, Amazonas. Alternate names: Makuna, Buhagana, Baigana, Wuhána, Jepa-Matsi, Yepá-Mahsá, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yebamasã, Paneroa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
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Macushi

[mbc] 15,000 in Brazil. Population total all countries: 24,600. Contingo, Quino, Pium, and Mau rivers, northeast Roraima and Rio Branco. Also spoken in Guyana, Venezuela. Alternate names: Makusi, Makuxi, Macusi, Makushi, Teweya, Teueia.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Arecuna or Patamona.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Macushi 
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Makuráp

[mpu] 114 (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 700 (2000 C. Jensen). Pororoca Post, Guaporé, and Mequéns rivers, Branco, Rondônia, and scattered locations. Alternate names: Makurápi, Macuráp, Macurapi, Massaka, Kurateg.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Mandahuaca

[mht] 3 in Brazil (1993 ALEM). Amazonas, upper Cauaboris, tributary of the Rio Negro, Colombian border. Alternate names: Mandauaca, Mandawáka, Ihini, Maldavaca.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Mapidian

[mpw] 50 in Brazil (1986 Howard). Roraima, with the Waiwai. Also spoken in Guyana. Alternate names: Maopityan, Maiopitian, Mawayana, Mahuayana.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 10% with Wapishana and 20% with Atorada.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan  Nearly extinct.
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Maquiritari

[mch] 270 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Roraima. Alternate names: Mayongong, Maquiritare, Maquiritai, Makiritare, Pawana, Soto.  Dialects: Cunuana, De'cuana (Wainungomo), Ihuruana, Maitsi, Mayongong (Ye'cuana, Yekuana).  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Marúbo

[mzr] 594 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, along the headwaters of the tributaries of the Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí, near the Peru border. Alternate names: Maruba, Marova, Kaniuá.  Dialects: Speakers say they cannot understand Matsés (Mayoruna). Possibly intelligible with Panoan Katukína.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Matipuhy

[mzo] 40 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Matipu, Mariape-Nahuqua.  Dialects: Matipuhy, Nahukuá (Nakukwa, Nafukwá, Nahuqua). Ruhlen says Kalapálo is a dialect of Nahukua. May also be intelligible with Kuikúro.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin  Nearly extinct.
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Matís

[mpq] 120 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, Javari Valley, Municipality of Atalaia do Norte, on the border with Peru. Dialects: Seems to be different from Matsés, although similar.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Matsés

[mcf] 1,000 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Matse, Mayoruna.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Maxakalí

[mbl] 728 (1994 SIL). Minas Gerais, 100 miles inland from coast, 14 villages. Alternate names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Macuni, Monaxo, Monocho.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Maxakali 
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Mehináku

[mmh] 121 (1995 AMTB). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Mehinaco, Mahinaku, Minaco.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Waurá.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Miarrã

[xmi]  Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Classification: Unclassified 
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Miraña

[boa]  Amazonas near the Solimões, between the Tefé and Caiçara rivers, and along the Brazilian part of the Rio Iça. Alternate names: Boro, Bora.  Dialects: Miranha (Miraña, Mirãnia).  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Mondé

[mnd] 30 (1995 AMTB). Apidia River, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, near Pimenta Bueno, Rondônia. Alternate names: Sanamaiká, Sanamaykã, Sanamaica, Salamãi, Salamaikã.  Dialects: Related to Arua, Gavião Do Jiparaná.  Classification: Tupi, Monde  Nearly extinct.
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Morerebi

[xmo] 100 (2000). Amazonas, Rio Preto and Marmelos, 2 villages. Dialects: May be a Tenharim dialect. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Mundurukú

[myu] 7,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 7,000. Pará, Amazonas, middle and upper Tapajós and middle Madeira rivers, 22 villages. Alternate names: Mundurucu, Monjoroku, Weidyenye, Paiquize, Pari, Caras-Pretas.  Classification: Tupi, Munduruku 
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Nadëb

[mbj] 300 (1986 SIL). Amazonas, three locations on the Uneiuxi River, a tributary of the Negro River, on the Japura and Negro rivers, and in other scattered places. Alternate names: Nadeb Macu, Makú Nadëb, Makunadöbö, Nadöbö, Anodöub, Kabori, Kabari, Xiriwai, Xuriwai.  Classification: Maku 
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Nambikuára, Northern

[mbg] 136 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 136 (1999). Mato Grosso (Mamaindé), Rondônia (Latundê). Alternate names: Mamaindé.  Dialects: Mamaindé, Negarotê, Tawanxte, Taxmainite, Taxwensite, Yalapmunxte (Lacondê, Latundê).  Classification: Nambiquaran 
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Nambikuára, Southern

[nab] 1,150 (2000 SIL). 950 monolinguals. Northwestern Mato Grosso, scattered along the Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway for about 300 km. 10 villages. Alternate names: Nambiquara, Nambikwara.  Dialects: Manduka, Khithaulhu, Halotesu, Saxwentesu, Wakalitesu, Serra Azul, Hahaintesu, Wasusu, Alatesu, Waikisu, Galera, Sarare.  Classification: Nambiquaran 
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Nhengatu

[yrl] 3,000 in Brazil (1998). Population total all countries: 8,000. Lower Vaupés, Içana, and Negro River areas, Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia, Venezuela. Alternate names: Yeral, Geral, Língua Geral, Nyengatú, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Ñeegatú, Waengatu, Coastal Tupian, Modern Tupí.  Dialects: Based on Tupinambá, developed by the Portuguese during the 17th and 18th centuries as the language of communication.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Ninam

[shb] 466 in Brazil (1976 UFM). Most are monolingual. Population includes 236 in southern dialect, 230 in northern dialect. Population total all countries: 566. Mucajai, upper Uraricáa, and Paragua rivers, Roraima. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Yanam, Xirianá, Shiriana Casapare, Kasrapai, Jawaperi, Crichana, Jawari.  Dialects: Southern Ninam (Shirishana, Mukajai), Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua).  Classification: Yanomam 
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Ofayé

[opy] 15 (2002). Ethnic population: 37 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso do Sul, along the Verde, Vacaris, and Ivinhema rivers, and area of Brazilândia. Alternate names: Opaié-Shavante, Ofaié-Xavante, Opayé.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Opaye  Nearly extinct.
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Omagua

[omg] There may be none left in Brazil (1995). Amazonas. Alternate names: Canga-Peba, Agua, Janbeba, Compeva, Omagua-Yete, Ariana, Pariana, Anapia, Macanipa, Yhuata, Umaua, Cambeba, Campeba, Cambela.  Dialects: Aizuare (Aissuari), Curacirari (Curazicari), Curucicuri (Curuzicari), Paguana (Paguara).  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III  Nearly extinct.
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Oro Win

[orw] 5 (1996 SIL). Ethnic population: 55 (1998). Headwaters of the Pacaas-Novos River, a tributary of the Mamoré River, along the Brazil-Bolivia border. Dialects: Related to Tora, Itene (More), and Pakaasnovos (Wari), but not inherently intelligible with them.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira  Nearly extinct.
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Pakaásnovos

[pav] 1,833 (1994 SIL). Rondônia, 7 villages. Alternate names: Jaru, Uomo, Pakaanovas, Pacaas-Novos, Pakaanova, Pacahanovo, Oro Wari, Wari.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira 
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Palikúr

[plu] 800 in Brazil. Population total all countries: 1,300. Northern coastal tip along rivers, Amapá. Also spoken in French Guiana. Alternate names: Palikour, Palicur, Palijur.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Eastern Maipuran 
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Papavô

[ppv] 170 (2000 WCD). Acre, Taramacá River. Classification: Unclassified 
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Parakanã

[pak] 451 (1995 AMTB). Pará, Xingú Park, lower Xingú River, near São Felix and Altamira towns. Alternate names: Parakanân, Parocana, Awaeté.  Dialects: A member of the Akwáwa cluster.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Parecís

[pab] 1,200 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso, 6,000 square kilometers. 15 to 20 villages. Alternate names: Paressí, Paresí, Haliti.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Paumarí

[pad] 700 (1994 SIL). Amazonas. 3 villages, mainly on the Purus River. Alternate names: Purupurú.  Dialects: Paumarm (Pammari), Kurukuru (Curucuru), Uaiai. 3 inherently intelligible dialects.  Classification: Arauan 
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Pemon

[aoc] 679 in Brazil. 220 Taulipang dialect, 459 Ingarikó dialect. Rio Branco, near Guyana border, Roraima. Alternate names: Pemong.  Dialects: Taulipang (Taurepan), Camaracota (Ipuricoto), Arecuna (Aricuna, Arekuna, Jaricuna), Ingarikó (Ingaricó).  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon 
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Pirahã

[myp] 150 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 SIL). The Pirahã are small, the Múra larger. Amazonas, along the Maici and Autaces rivers. Alternate names: Múra-Pirahã.  Dialects: Múra. Probably related to Matanawi, which is extinct.  Classification: Mura 
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Piratapuyo

[pir] 618 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,068. Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Waikino, Pira-Tapuya, Uaikena, Uaicana, Waikhara, Waina, Uaiana, Uainana.  Dialects: Close to Guanano linguistically; ethnically distinct, but the two groups do not intermarry. Lexical similarity 99% with Guanano (N. Waltz).  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 5,955 in Brazil (1985 SIL). Primarily in Canada. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Pokangá

[pok] 100 (1983 SIL). Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés, Amazonas. Alternate names: Pakang, Pokangá-Tapuya, Bará, Barasano, Bara Sona.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Portuguese

[por] 163,153,389 in Brazil (1998). Throughout the country. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician 
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Poyanáwa

[pyn] 310 (1995 AMTB). Acre, upper Rio Môa, tributary of the Jumá. Alternate names: Poianáua, Puinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Puruborá

[pur] 2 (2002 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Alternate names: Puruba, Aurã, Pumbora, Puroborá, Burubora, Kuyubi, Cujubi, Migueleno, Miguelenho.  Classification: Tupi, Purubora  Nearly extinct.
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Rikbaktsa

[rkb] 800 (1994 SIL). Mato Grosso, confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between the Arinos and Sangue rivers, and Posto Escondido on the west bank of the Juruena 700 km north. 9 villages and 14 settlements. Alternate names: Aripaktsa, Erikbatsa, Erikpatsa, Canoeiro.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Rikbaktsa 
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Sabanês

[sae] 60 (1995 AMTB). Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Sabones, Sabanê.  Classification: Nambiquaran 
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Sakirabiá

[skf] 70 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Municipality of Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste, on the Mequens River. Alternate names: Sakirabiát, Sakirabiáp, Sakiriabar, Sakirabiák, Sakirap.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Salumá

[slj] 239 (2000 WCD). Northwest Pará, on the upper Anamu, source of the Trombetas, along the Suriname border. Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana 
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Sanumá

[xsu] 462 in Brazil (1976 UFM). Auaris River, Roraima. Alternate names: Tsanuma, Sanema, Guaika, Samatari, Samatali, Xamatari.  Dialects: Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Auaris.  Classification: Yanomam 
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Sateré-Mawé

[mav] 9,000 (1994 SIL). Pará, Amazonas, Andirá, and Maués rivers, between the lower Tapajós and lower Madeira rivers. More than 14 villages. Alternate names: Maué, Mawé, Mabue, Maragua, Sataré, Andira, Arapium.  Classification: Tupi, Mawe-Satere 
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Sharanahua

[mcd] 500 in Brazil. Marináwa in Acre, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá, municipality of Cruziero do Sul, on Rio Humaitá off the Juará River. Alternate names: Acre Arara.  Dialects: Marinahua (Marináwa), Chandinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Sikiana

[sik] 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 48. Northwest Pará, between the Rio Cafuini and the headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near the Suriname border. Also spoken in Suriname, Venezuela. Alternate names: Sikiâna, Shikiana, Sikïiyana, Chiquiana, Chikena, Chiquena, Xikujana, Xikiyana.  Dialects: Close to Salumá.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana  Nearly extinct.
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Siriano

[sri] 10 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). São Gabriel, Amazonas. Alternate names: Siriana, Siriane, Suryana, Surianá, Surirá, Sarirá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Suruahá

[swx] 130 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas. Alternate names: Suruwahá, Zuruahá, Mndios do Coxodoá.  Classification: Arauan 
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Suruí

[sru] 800 (1994 SIL). A series of villages and scattered locations along the Rondônia-Mato Grosso border. 10 villages. Alternate names: Suruí do Jiparaná, Suruí de Rondônia, Paiter.  Dialects: Related to Cinta Larga and Gavião do Jiparaná.  Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Suruí do Pará

[mdz] 140 (1995 SIL). Pará, 110 km from Marabá, in municipio of São João Araguaia. Alternate names: Akewere, Akewara, Aikewara, "Mudjétira", "Mudjetíre", "Mudjetíre-Suruí", Suruí.  Dialects: Member of Akwáwa cluster. Probably fairly close linguistic relationship to Asuriní and Parakanã.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Suyá

[suy] 196 (1995 AMTB). Population includes 31 Tapayuna. Xingú Park, Mato Grosso, headwaters of Rio Culuene. Dialects: Beiço de Pau (Tapayúna), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku).  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Suya 
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Tapirapé

[taf] 350 (2000 SIL). Mouth of the Tapirapé and Araguaia rivers, northeastern Mato Grosso. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Tariano

[tae] 100 in Brazil (1996 A. Aikhenvald). Ethnic population: 1,500 in Brazil (1985 Rodrigues). Middle Vaupés River, Santa Rosa (Juquira), Iauarete, Periquitos, and Ji-Ponta, Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Tarîna, Taliáseri.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland  Nearly extinct.
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Tembé

[tqb] 150 to 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700 (2000 C. Jensen). Maranhão, Gurupi, and Guamá rivers. None in Guamá speak Tembé, only Portuguese. In Gurupi about 100 of 170 speak Tembé. Alternate names: Tenetehara.  Dialects: The speech of most or all groups of this name is intelligible with Guajajára.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Tenharim

[pah] 493. Population includes 350 Tenharim (2000 SIL), 130 Parintintín (2000 SIL), 13 Diahói (1994 SIL). Amazonas. The Diahói are on the Rio Marmelos, Karipuna on Jaci Paraná River Post in Rondônia, Morerebi on Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. Alternate names: Tenharem, Tenharin, Kagwahiva, Kagwahiv, Kawaib.  Dialects: Tenharim (Tenharem, Tenharin), Parintintín, Kagwahiv (Kawaib), Karipuna Jaci Paraná, Mialát, Diahói (Jahui, Giahoi). Boca Negra is a related ethnic group. Tenharim and Kagwahiv are nearly identical. Eru-eu-wau-wau (Uru-eu-wau-wau) and Morerebi may be dialects. The Tenharim consider the Diahói to be relatives; slight dialect difference. The Morerebi are a family group who have not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and do not want contact with outside culture. The Amundava, Kayabí, Parintintín, Tenharim, Júma, Karipuna, and Diahói all call themselves 'Kagwahiva' (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph).  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Terêna

[ter] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, in 20 villages and 2 cities. Alternate names: Tereno, Etelena.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Ticuna

[tca] 25,000 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 41,000. West Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia, Peru. Alternate names: Tikuna, Tukuna, Magüta.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Torá

[trz] 40 (1990). Ethnic population: 120 (1990 YWAM). Amazonas, on the lower Rio Marmelos, tributary of the Rio Madeira. Alternate names: Toraz.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira  Nearly extinct.
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Tremembé

[tme]  Almofa, la Ceará. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Trió

[tri] 329 in Brazil (1995). Pará, Rio Mapari. Alternate names: Tirió, Tiriyó.  Dialects: Pianocotó.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Trumaí

[tpy] 78 (1995). Xingú Park, source of Xingú River, villages along banks, Mato Grosso. Dialects: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Tubarão

[tba] 90 (1986 SIL). Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near the Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. Alternate names: Aikanã, Wari, Uari, Corumbiara, Kolumbiara, Huari.  Dialects: Masaká (Massaca).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Unclassified 
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Tucano

[tuo] 2,631 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 4,631. Amazonas. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Tukána, Takuna, Daxsea.  Dialects: Yohoraa (Curaua), Wasona (Uasona).  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Tuparí

[tpr] 300 (2000). Rondônia, Branco River, tributary of the Guaporé, Pororoca Post. Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Tuyuca

[tue] 465 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas. Alternate names: Tuyuka, Tuiuca, Dochkafuara, Doka-Poara, Doxká-Poárá.  Dialects: Tsola.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Urubú-Kaapor

[urb] 500 (1988 SIL). Maranhão, Gurupi River, 8 to 10 villages scattered over 2,800 sq. mi. Alternate names: Urubú, Kaapor, Kaaporté, Caapor, Ka'apor.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Urubú-Kaapor Sign Language

[uks] 7 users (1986 J. Kakumasu). Maranhão. Alternate names: Urubú Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau

[urz] 100 (1995). Rondônia, on the upper Jaciparaná, Cautário, and Jamari rivers. Alternate names: Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Uruewawau, Kagwahiva.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Uru-Pa-In

[urp] 200 (1995 SIL). Rondônia, Municipality of Ariquemes. Classification: Unclassified 
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Waimaha

[bao] 100 in Brazil (1998). Prelazia Rio Negro, Amazonas. Alternate names: Waimaja, Northern Barasano, Barazana, "Bará".  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Waiwai

[waw] 1,800 in Brazil (2003). Population total all countries: 2,000. Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. Also spoken in Guyana. Alternate names: Uaiuai, Uaieue, Ouayeone.  Dialects: Katawian (Katwena, Katawina, Catawian, Catauian, Parucutu, Parukutu, Katuena, Cachuena). Related to Salumá. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Katawian as a separate language.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai 
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Wapishana

[wap] 1,500 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Roraima. Alternate names: Wapixiána, Wapisiana, Wapishiana, Wapixiana, Uapixana, Vapidiana.  Dialects: Amariba, Atorai.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan 
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Waurá

[wau] 240 (1994 SIL). Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Uaura, Aura.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Mehináku.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Wayampi

[oym] 530 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Population includes 520 speakers of Amapari in Brazil and 10 of Oiapoque. Along tributaries of the upper Amapari River, west central Amapá, and northern Pará. 8 villages. Alternate names: Guayapi, Guaiapi, Oyampí, Oiampí, Wajapae, Wayãpi, Waiãpi, Waiampi, Wayapae, Oyampík, Oyanpík, Wajapuku, "Oiampipucu", "Oyampipuku".  Dialects: Oiyapoque Wayampi, Amapari Wayampi, Jari.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Wayana

[way] 150 in Brazil. Amapá, among the Apalaí. Alternate names: Oayana, Oyana, Oiana, Uaiana, Wayâna, Upurui, Alukuyana.  Dialects: Rucuyen (Roucouyenne), Urucuiana (Urucena).  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Wayoró

[wyr] 80 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Pororoca Post, Guapore River. Alternate names: Wayurú, Ayurú, Ajurú, Uaiora, Wajaru.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Xavánte

[xav] 10,000 (2000 SIL). Mato Grosso, 6 noncontiguous reservations, 80 villages. Alternate names: A'uwe Uptabi, Akuên, Akwen, A'we, Chavante, Shavante, Crisca, Pusciti, Tapacua.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xerénte

[xer] 1,552 (2002 SIL). Tocantins, between the Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. Alternate names: Sherenté.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xetá

[xet] 3 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 100 to 250 (1986 SIL). Paraná, among the Kaingang. Alternate names: Aré, Seta, Sheta, Cheta.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I  Nearly extinct.
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Xipaya

[xiy] 2 (2000 SIL). Pará, lower Xingú River. Alternate names: Shipaja, Xipaia.  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna  Nearly extinct.
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Xiriâna

[xir] 903 (2000 WCD). Tributaries of Demeni and Rio Negro, Amazonas, near Venezuela border. Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Xokleng

[xok] 250 (1975). Ethnic population: 784 (2000 WCD). Santa Catarina, along tributary of the Itajaí River. Alternate names: Aweikoma, Bugre, Botocudos.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern 
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Yaminahua

[yaa] 357 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Acre. Alternate names: Yamináwa, Jaminawá, Yamanawa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yanomámi

[wca] 9,000 (1994 SIL). Waicá post, Uraricuera River, Roraima, Toototobi post, Amazonas, Catrimani River, Roraima. Alternate names: Waicá, Waiká, Yanoam, Yanomam, Yanomamé, Surara, Xurima, Parahuri.  Dialects: Yanamam (Patimitheri, Waika), Yanomam (Naomam, Guadema, Wadema, Warema), Yanomay (Toototobi), Nanomam (Karime), Jauari (Joari, Yoari, Aica). Related to Yanomamö of Brazil and Venezuela.  Classification: Yanomam 
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Yanomamö

[guu] 1,943 in Brazil. Amazonas, upper tributaries of Rio Negro. Alternate names: Guaica, Guaharibo, Yanomami, Shamatri, Shaathari.  Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco).  Classification: Yanomam 
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Yawanawa

[ywn] 310 (1994 SIL). Acre. 1 village of 100 people, with the remainder living along a river. Alternate names: Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yuhup

[yab] 360 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas, on a tributary of the Vaupés River. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Makú-Yahup, Yëhup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, "Maku".  Dialects: Limited intelligibility of Hupdë. Ruhlen and other classify it as related to Puinave.  Classification: Maku 
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Yurutí

[yui] 50 in Brazil (1991 SIL). Iauarete, Amazonas. Alternate names: Juruti, Juruti-Tapuia, Luruty-Tapuya, Juriti, Yuriti, Yuriti-Tapuia.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Zo'é

[pto] 136 (1995 SIL). State of Pará, Municipality of Obidos, on the Cuminapanema River. Alternate names: Tupí of Cuminapanema, Poturu, Poturujara, Buré.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Extinct languages

Acroá

[acs] Extinct. Bahia area. Alternate names: Coroá.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central 
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Arára, Mato Grosso

[axg] Extinct. Ethnic population: 100 (1998). Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Arikem

[ait] Extinct. Rôndonia State, Candeias and Jamari rivers, tributaries of the upper Madeira. Alternate names: Ariken.  Classification: Tupi, Arikem 
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Arua

[aru] Extinct.  Alternate names: Arawá.  Classification: Arauan 
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Guana

[gqn] Extinct. Mato Grosso do Sul, near the Terêna. Alternate names: Kinikinao, Chuala, Chana, East Paraná, Kinihinao, Equinao.  Dialects: Related to Terêna, Iranche.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Kaimbé

[xai] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,100 to 1,400 (1986 SIL). Bahía. Classification: Unclassified 
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Kaingáng, São Paulo

[zkp] Extinct. São Paulo. Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern 
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Kamakan

[vkm] Extinct. Bahia area. Alternate names: Ezeshio.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Kamakan 
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Kamba

[xba] Extinct. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, near Corumbá. Alternate names: Camba.  Dialects: May have been Tupí.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Kambiwá

[xbw] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,108 (1995 SIL). Pernambuco. Classification: Unclassified 
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Kanoé

[kxo] Extinct. Ethnic population: 150 (2000 C. Jensen). Rondônia, Guaporé River, scattered locations. Alternate names: Canoé, Guaratégaya, Guarategaja, Koaratira, Guaratira, Amniapé, Mekem, Mekéns, Mequem, Mequen, Mequens, Muki.  Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Kapinawá

[xpn] Extinct. Ethnic population: 354 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco. Classification: Unclassified 
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Karipúna

[kgm] Extinct. Territory of Amapá, on French Guiana border. Alternate names: Karipúna do Uaçá, Karipúna do Amapá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Karirí-Xocó

[kzw] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,062 (1995 SIL). Alagoas. Alternate names: Karirí, Kariri Xucó, Kipeá, Xokó-Karirí, Xukuru Kariri, Xukurú, Xocó, Xokó.  Dialects: Kipeá (Quipea), Kamurú (Camuru), Dzubukuá (Dzubucua), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial (Greenberg 1959), Macro-Carib (Swadesh 1959), Macro-Ge (Rodrigues 1975), Isolate (Rivet and Loukotka 1952, Larsen 1984).  Classification: Unclassified 
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Kepkiriwát

[kpn] Extinct. Rôndonia, formerly on the Pimenta Bueno River. Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Maritsauá

[msp] Extinct. Manitsaua-Missu, a tributary of the Upper Xingú, Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Manitsawá, Mantizula.  Dialects: Arupai (Urupaya).  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna 
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Miriti

[mmv] Extinct. Ethnic population: 55 (1995 AMTB). Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua, Amazonas. Alternate names: Miriti-Tapuia, Miriti Tapuyo, Neenoá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Miriti 
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Nukuini

[nuc] Extinct. Acre, northwestern, from the upper Mõa to the Rio Sungarú in Juruá. Alternate names: Nuquini.  Dialects: Cuyanawa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Unclassified 
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Oti

[oti] Extinct. São Paulo. Alternate names: Chavante, Euchavante.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Oti 
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Otuke

[otu] Extinct. Mato Grosso lowlands into eastern Bolivia. Alternate names: Otuque, Otuqui, Louxiru.  Dialects: Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, Tapii; all are extinct.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Otuke 
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Pankararé

[pax] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1995 AMTB). Bahía. Alternate names: Pankaré.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Pankararú

[paz] Extinct. Ethnic population: 3,676 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, Alagoas. Alternate names: Pankarará, Pankarú, Pancaru, Pancaré, Pankaravu, Pankaroru.  Dialects: Possibly related to Kirirí.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Paranawát

[paf] Extinct. Ethnic population: 50 to 100 (1986 SIL). Rondônia, tributaries of the Jiparaná (Machado) River and Sono River. Alternate names: Paranauat, Pawaté, Majubim.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Pataxó-Hãhaãi

[pth] Extinct. Ethnic population: 2,950 (1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais, Bahía, Pôsto Paraguassu in the municipality of Itabuna. Alternate names: Pataxi, Patashó, Patoxó, Pataxó-Hãhãhãe.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Potiguára

[pog] Extinct. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 C. Jensen). Paraíba, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on the Baía da Traição, in the municipality of Mamanguape. Alternate names: Pitonara.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Puri

[prr] Extinct. Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais, and adjacent areas. Alternate names: Coroado.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Puri 
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Tapeba

[tbb] Extinct. Ethnic population: 984 (1995 AMTB). On the Ceará River, in Caucaia, Ceará. Alternate names: Tabeba.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Tingui-Boto

[tgv] Extinct. Ethnic population: 800 (1986 SIL). Alagoas. Alternate names: Tingui, Carapató, Karapató.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Truká

[tka] Extinct. Ethnic population: 909 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, Bahía. Classification: Unclassified 
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Tukumanféd

[tkf] Extinct. Rondônia, mouth of the Cacoal tributary of the Jiparaná. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Tupí

[tpw] Extinct. Formerly along coast around what is now São Paulo. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Tupinambá

[tpn] Extinct. Formerly along coast from Rio de Janeiro north to the Amazon River. Alternate names: Tupí, Tupí Antigo, Old Tupí, Brasiliano, Brasilica.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Tupinikin

[tpk] Extinct. Ethnic population: 820 (1995 AMTB). Espirito Santo, Bahia. Alternate names: Tupinaki, Tupinikim, Tupiniquim.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Turiwára

[twt] Extinct. Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL). Pará, live with the Tembé on the Acará-miri River. Alternate names: Turiuara.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Tuxá

[tud] Extinct. Ethnic population: 900 (1995 AMTB). Bahía, Pernambuco. Alternate names: Tusha, Todela.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Tuxináwa

[tux] Extinct. Acre. Alternate names: Tuchinaua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Uamué

[uam] Extinct. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco, vicinity of Floresta. Alternate names: Aticum, Atikum, Huamuê.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Umotína

[umo] Extinct. Ethnic population: 160 (1993). Mato Grosso, along the Paraguay River. Alternate names: Umutina, Barbados.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper 
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Urumi

[uru] Extinct. Formerly Rondônia, Marmelos River, tributary of the middle Madeira. Classification: Tupi, Ramarama 
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Wakoná

[waf] Extinct. Ethnic population: 500 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Alagoas. Classification: Unclassified 
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Wasu

[wsu] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,024 (1995 AMTB). Alagoas. Alternate names: Waçu.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Wiraféd

[wir] Extinct. Rondônia, on the Riosinho and Muquí tributaries of the Jiparaná. Alternate names: Wiroféd, Uirafed.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Xakriabá

[xkr] Extinct. Ethnic population: 4,643 (1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais. Alternate names: Chakriaba, Shacriaba, Chikriaba.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xipináwa

[xip] Extinct. Southern Amazonas and Acre. Alternate names: Shipinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Xukurú

[xoo] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,800 (1995 SIL). Pernambuco, Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near the city of Cimbres, Bahía. Alternate names: Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Yabaâna

[ybn] Extinct. Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL). Amazonas, headwaters of the Marauia and Cauaboris, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. Alternate names: Jabaana, Yabarana.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Unclassified 
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Yawalapití

[yaw] Extinct. Xingú Park, Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti.  Dialects: Related to Waurá and Mehináku.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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