Archived 15th edition
Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Americas > Canada

Languages of Canada

See language map.
Canada. 32,507,874. Indian 800,000 and Inuit 32,000 ethnic total (1993): 146,285 first-language speakers (1981 census). 4,120,770 non-English or French first language, or 15.3% (1991 census). National or official languages: English, French. Literacy rate: 96% to 99%. Also includes Afrikaans (2,353), Armenian (20,053), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (5,000), Belarusan (2,280), Bulgarian (2,276), Central Khmer, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Corsican, Czech (27,038), Danish (29,807), Eastern Panjabi (214,530), Eastern Yiddish (49,890), Estonian (15,295), Finnish (39,069), Greek (143,892), Haitian Creole French (12,317), Hebrew, Hungarian (86,835), Icelandic, Irish Gaelic, Italian (514,410), Iu Mien (100), Japanese (43,000), Judeo-Moroccan Arabic, Kashubian, Korean (73,000), Lao, Latvian (15,000), Lithuanian, Macedonian (12,464), Maltese, Najdi Spoken Arabic (20,000), Northern Kurdish (6,000), Nung, Plains Indian Sign Language, Polish (222,355), Pontic, Portuguese (222,870), Romanian (16,356), Russian (31,745), Scottish Gaelic (3,525), Serbian (7,966), Sinhala (3,004), Slovak, Slovenian (6,415), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English, Spanish (228,580), Standard German (470,505), Swedish (21,591), Sylheti, Tagalog (158,210), Tongan, Turkish (5,179), Turoyo, Ukrainian (174,830), Vietnamese (60,000), Vlax Romani, Welsh (3,160), Western Farsi (15,000), Western Panjabi, Yue Chinese (250,000), India and Pakistan (280,000), speakers of many European languages. Information mainly from W. Chafe 1962, 1965; SIL 1951–2002. Blind population: 27,184. Deaf population: 1,704,551. Deaf institutions: Many. The number of languages listed for Canada is 89. Of those, 85 are living languages and 4 are extinct.

Living languages

Abnaki, Western

[abe] 20 (1991 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 1,800 including Eastern Abnaki in USA (1982 SIL). Quebec on St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City. Alternate names: Abenaki, Abenaqui, St. Francis.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Algonquin

[alq] 2,275 (1998 Statistics Canada). Less than 10% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Southwestern Quebec, northwest of Ottawa and in adjacent areas of Maniwaki and Golden Lake, Ontario. Alternate names: Algonkin.  Dialects: Several dialects. The southern (Miniwaki) and northern varieties (several varieties) are very different.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

American Sign Language

[ase]  English-speaking areas of Canada. Alternate names: ASL, Ameslan.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Assiniboine

[asb] 250 in Canada (1997 D. Parks). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1997 Douglas Parks). West central and southeastern Saskatchewan (Mosquito-Grizzly Bear's Head) and southern Saskatchewan (part of Carry-the-Kettle and Whitebear). Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Assiniboin.  Dialects: Very close to the Assiniboine of Montana. Close to Stoney. Lexical similarity 94% with Dakota of Manitoba, 90% with Dakota of North Dakota, 89% with Lakota and Stoney.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Atikamekw

[atj] 3,995 (1998 Statistics Canada). Three isolated communities on reservations of Manuane, Obedjiwan, Weymontachie, between La Tuque, Quebec, and Senneterre, Quebec, 200 to 400 km north of Montreal in south central Quebec, along the upper reaches of the St. Maurice River. Alternate names: Tête de Boule, Attimewk, Attikamek, Atihkamekw, Atikamek.  Dialects: Nonpalatalized r-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect continuum. Very different from Montagnais and Naskapi in the nearby area.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Babine

[bcr] 500 (1997 S. Hargus). Ethnic population: 2,200 (1982 SIL and 1997 S. Hargus). West central British Columbia, areas of Burns Lake, Babine Lake, Moricetown, towards the Takla Lake area. Alternate names: Babine Carrier, Northern Carrier, Witsuwit'en.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
More information.

Beaver

[bea] 300 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 600 (1987 SIL). North eastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta, Chateh (Assumption) on the Hay River, and Prophet River south of Fort Nelson. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Beaver-Sekani 
More information.

Bella Coola

[blc] 20 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 700 (1991 Kinkade). Inlet on the central British Columbia coast at the mouth of Bella Coola River, on North Bentinck Arm at the head of Burke Channel. Alternate names: Nuxalk.  Classification: Salishan, Bella Coola  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Blackfoot

[bla] 5,000 in Canada (2000 SIL). Possibly a few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 5,100. Ethnic population: 15,000. Blackfoot, Piegan, and Blood Reserves in southern Alberta. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Pikanii, Blackfeet.  Dialects: Piegan (Peigan), Blood.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
More information.

Carrier

[crx] 1,500 (1987 SIL). All Athapaskan language family first-language speakers in Canada 20,090 (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 2,100 (1987 SIL). Central British Columbia, Stuart and Trembleur Lake area. Alternate names: Central Carrier.  Dialects: Necoslie, Pinchie, Tachie, Grand Rapids, Middle River, Portage.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
More information.

Carrier, Southern

[caf] 500 (1987 SIL). Central British Columbia, west of Quesnel and south of Cheslatta Lake, towards the Fraser and its tributaries, and Anahim Lake-Ulkatcho. Dialects: Cheslatta, Prince George, Stoney Creek, Nautley, Stellaquo. Can use literature adapted from Central Carrier. Lexical similarity 90% with Central Carrier.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
More information.

Cayuga

[cay] 40 to 60 in Canada (2002 M. K. Foster). Population total all countries: 50 to 70. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1997 Mithun, Foster, Michelson). Six Nations, Ontario. Also spoken in USA. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
More information.

Chilcotin

[clc] 2,000 (2000). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. West of Williams Lake, south central British Columbia. Seven reserve communities: Alexandria, Toosey, Anahim, Stone, Nemiah, Redstone, Ulkatcho. Alternate names: Tzilkotin.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Chilcotin 
More information.

Chinook Wawa

[chn] 83 in Canada (1962 Chafe). Population total all countries: 100. British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin.  Dialects: Consists mainly of words from Chinook, with a large admixture of words from Nootka, Canadian French, and English.  Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Chipewyan

[chp] 4,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southeastern Northwest Territories (Snowdrift and Fort Resolution). Communities of Fort Smith, Fort Chipewyan, Wolliston Post, Buffalo Narrows, Brochet, and Reindeer Lake are some of the communities. Alternate names: Dene.  Dialects: Yellowknife.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Chipewyan 
More information.

Comox

[coo] 400. Population includes 1 speaker of Island Comox, fewer than 400 of Sliammon (mainland) (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 850 (1983). British Columbia, Vancouver Island, and the coast north of Powell River. Alternate names: Comox-Sliammon.  Dialects: Island Comox, Sliammon. Speakers all speak the Sliammon (mainland) dialect. No speakers of Island Comox left.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Northern 
More information.

Cree, Moose

[crm] 4,500. All Cree first-language speakers in Canada 87,555 (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL). Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. This community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). Has speakers of Moose Cree, East Cree, and Swampy Cree in it. Alternate names: York Cree, West Shore Cree, West Main Cree.  Dialects: Nonpalatalized l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Cree, Plains

[crk] 34,000 in Canada (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 34,100. Ethnic population: 53,000. North central Manitoba westward across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of the Rocky Mountains. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Western Cree.  Dialects: Plains Cree, Western York Cree, Northern Alberta Cree. Nonpalatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Cree, Swampy

[csw] 4,500 (1982 SIL). All Cree first-language speakers in Canada 60,000 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 5,000. Ontario, along the coast of Hudson Bay and northern west coast of James Bay, and inland into Saskatchewan. Alternate names: York Cree, West Shore Cree, West Main Cree.  Dialects: Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree. Both nonpalatalized n-dialect and l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Cree, Woods

[cwd] 35,000 (1982 SIL). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL). Far north Manitoba and Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill, Manitoba into Saskatchewan. Dialects: Nonpalatalized th-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Dakota

[dak] 5,000 in Canada (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Oak River and Oak Lake, Long Plain west of Winnipeg, Standing Buffalo, Birdtail, Stony Wahpeton, and Moose Woods. May be at Wood Mountain. Alternate names: Sioux.  Dialects: Dakota (Santee), Nakota (Yankton).  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Dogrib

[dgr] 2,110 (2001 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,220. Between Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, 6 communities (Rae-Edzo, Whati (formerly Lac la Martre), Rae Lakes, Snare Lake, Detah and Ndilo (a subcommunity of Yellowknife)). Rae is the center. Dialects: Detah-Ndilo. The Detah-Ndilo dialect developed from intermarriage between the Yellowknife subdivision of the Chipewyan and the Dogrib. Lexical similarity 84% with Southern Slavey, 82% with Northern Slavey.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
More information.

East Cree, Northern

[crl] 5,308 (1997 Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux). West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay, communities of Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most people in Eastmain. Alternate names: Northern James Bay Cree, Northern Eastern James Bay Cree.  Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster. Sometimes classified as Montagnais.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

East Cree, Southern

[crj] 7,306 (1997 Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux). Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the height of land (watershed) east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some speakers in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, and Ouje-Bougoumo. Alternate names: James Bay Cree Southern Dialect, Eastern James Bay Cree Southern Dialect.  Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster. Sometimes classified as Montagnais.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

English

[eng] 17,100,000 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). 820,000 first-language speakers in Quebec (1995 Statistics Canada); plus another 1,500,000 in Quebec whose first or second language is English (1995 Statistics Canada).  Dialects: Newfoundland English.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
More information.

French

[fra] 6,700,000 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). 300,000 speak Acadien, 500,000 speak Franco-Ontariens. Québécois is in Quebec, Franco-Ontariens in Ontario, Acadian is in Caraquet, Shippagan, the east coast of New Brunswick, pockets in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Some Québécois speakers in Manitoba and Newfoundland. Alternate names: Français.  Dialects: Québécois, Franco-Ontarien, Acadian (Acadien).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
More information.

German, Hutterite

[geh] 29,200 in Canada (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 34,200. 333 colonies in Canada, and Japan 1. There are about 90 people in each colony. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Tyrolese, Tirolean, Hutterian German.  Dialects: About 50% intelligible to a speaker of Pennsylvania German, Plautdietsch, and Standard German. Although it is called 'Tirolean', it is not a Tirolean dialect.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian 
More information.

German, Pennsylvania

[pdc] 15,000 in Canada (1995). Kitchener-Waterloo area, Ontario. Alternate names: Pennsylvanisch, Pennsylvania Dutch.  Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German, Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvanisch Deitsch).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German 
More information.

Gitxsan

[git] 400 (1999 Jay Powell). Population includes 220 in the west, 180 in the east. Gitxsan on middle Skeena River in west central British Columbia. Alternate names: Gitksan, Gityskyan, Giklsan.  Dialects: Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan), Gitsken (Western Gitsken). High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga'a and Gitxsan.  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
More information.

Gwich'in

[gwi] 430 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Population includes 300 in Northwest Territories, and 100 in Yukon (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 730. Ethnic population: 1,900 including 1,500 in Northwest Territories, 400 in Yukon (1995 M. Krauss). Northwest Territories: Aklavik, Inuvik, Tsiigehtchic, and Fort McPherson. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Kutchin, Loucheux, Tukudh.  Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich'in, Arctic Village Gwich'in, Western Canada Gwich'in (Takudh, Tukudh, Loucheux), Arctic Red River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin 
More information.

Haida, Northern

[hdn] 30 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 45. Ethnic population: 1,100 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Masset.  Dialects: Borderline inherent intelligibility of Southern Haida.  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Haida, Southern

[hax] 10 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Queen Charlotte Islands, Skidegate. Alternate names: Skidegate.  Dialects: Borderline intelligibility of Northern Haida.  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Haisla

[has] 25 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Inlet on central British Columbia coast at the head of Douglas Channel, near Kitimat. Dialects: Kitimat (Kitamat). Related to Heiltsuk and Kwakiutl.  Classification: Wakashan, Northern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Halkomelem

[hur] 200 in Canada (2002 Poser). Population total all countries: 225. Ethnic population: 6,700 (1977 SIL). Southwestern British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Holkomelem.  Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Halkomelem 
More information.

Han

[haa] 7 or 8 in Canada (1997 Krauss). Ethnic population: 300. Yukon River area in Alaska-Canada border, Dawson. Alternate names: Han-Kutchin, Moosehide, Dawson.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Heiltsuk

[hei] 300 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). Central British Columbia coast including Ooweekeeno on Rivers Inlet. Dialects: Bella Bella (Northern Heiltsuk), Ooweekeeno (Southern Heiltsuk). Related to Haisla and Kwakiutl.  Classification: Wakashan, Northern 
More information.

Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian

[ike] 14,000 (1991 L. Kaplan). Ethnic population: 17,500 (1991 L. Kaplan). West of Hudson Bay and east through Baffin Island, Quebec, and Labrador. Alternate names: Eastern Canadian "Eskimo", "Eastern Arctic Eskimo", Inuit.  Dialects: "Baffinland Eskimo", "Labrador Eskimo", "Quebec Eskimo".  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
More information.

Inuktitut, Western Canadian

[ikt] 4,000 (1981). All Inuit first-language speakers in Canada 18,840 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 7,500 (1981 census). Central Canadian Arctic, and west to the Mackenzie Delta and coastal area, including Tuktoyaktuk on the Arctic coast north of Inuvik (but not Inuvik and Aklavik, and coastal area). Alternate names: Inuvialuktun.  Dialects: Copper Inuktitut ("Copper Eskimo", Copper Inuit), "Caribou Eskimo" (Keewatin), Netsilik, Siglit. Caribou dialect may need separate literature.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
More information.

Inupiatun, North Alaskan

[esi]  Mackenzie delta region including Aklavik and Inuvik, into Alaska, USA. Alternate names: North Alaskan Inupiat, Inupiat, Inupiaq, "Eskimo".  Dialects: West Arctic Inupiatun (Mackenzie Inupiatun, Mackenzie Delta Inupiatun), North Slope Inupiatun.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
More information.

Kaska

[kkz] 400 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 900 (1995 M. Krauss). Southeastern Yukon Territory Watson Lake, Ross River, and Lower Post, and northern British Columbia border area, Lower Post, Fireside, Good Hope Lake, Dease Lake, and Muncho Lake. Alternate names: Caska, Eastern Nahane, Nahane, Nahani.  Dialects: Close to Tahltan.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska 
More information.

Kutenai

[kut] 6 in Canada (2002 Poser). Population total all countries: 12. Southeastern British Columbia, Columbia Lake, Lower Kootenay, St Mary's, and Tobacco Plains. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Ktunaxa, Kootenai, Kootenay.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Kwakiutl

[kwk] 190 in Canada (2002 Poser). Population total all countries: 235. Ethnic population: 3,300 (1977 SIL). Northern Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland, British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Kwagiutl, Kwak'wala.  Dialects: Related to Haisla and Heiltsuk.  Classification: Wakashan, Northern 
More information.

Lakota

[lkt]  Wood Mountain. Those at Wood Mountain may be Dakota. Alternate names: Lakhota, Teton.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Lillooet

[lil] 200 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 2,800 (1977 SIL). Southern British Columbia, area of Lillooet and middle Fraser rivers. Alternate names: St'at'imcets.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
More information.

Malecite-Passamaquoddy

[pqm] 655 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Population total all countries: 1,655. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,000 (1998 SIL). New Brunswick, villages along the Saint John River. Malecite mainly in Canada, Passamaquoddy in Maine, USA. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy.  Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Maritime Sign Language

[nsr]  Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Alternate names: Nova Scotian Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Michif

[crg] 600 in Canada (1998). Scattered locations in Canada. Alternate names: French Cree, Metis.  Classification: Mixed Language, French-Cree 
More information.

Micmac

[mic] 7,310 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Population total all countries: 8,510. Ethnic population: 14,200 in Canada (1998 SIL). In Canada, 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland. Central and northern Nova Scotia. The mainland has 6 major villages: Afton, Picto, Truro, Shubanakati, Bear River, and Yarmouth, and some small communities; Cape Breton Island of Nova Scotia with 5 major villages: Memberto, Eskasoni, Chapel Island, Wakmatkug, and Waikoqomaq; and one small village: Prince Edward Island; the east coast of New Brunswick: Fort Folly, Big Cove, Indian Island, Burnt Church, Eel Ground, Red Bank, Pabino Falls, and Eel River Bar; and eastern Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, with 3 villages: Gespe'q, Gesgapeqiaq, and Listuguj; and Newfoundland with 1 major village: Conn River. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Mi'gmaq, Miigmao, Mi'kmaq, Restigouche.  Dialects: Northern Micmac, Southern Micmac. Generally speakers of dialects have intelligibility between them, but there are lexical, inflectional, word order, and spelling differences.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
More information.

Mohawk

[moh] 350 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Population total all countries: 3,350. Ethnic population: 24,000 in Canada, 30,000 including USA (1999 SIL). Southwestern Quebec, southern Ontario. Also spoken in USA. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
More information.

Montagnais

[moe] 8,483 (1987 Quebec Ministere de la Sante el des Services Sociaux). Population includes 5,866 in Western Montagnais, and 2,617 in Eastern Montagnais. 9,070 first-language speakers of Montagnais and Naskapi (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1996 D. Myers SIL). 11 communities in Quebec and Labrador, from Lake St. John eastward along the Saguenay Valley to the north shore of the St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence eastward to St. Augustin, northward to the height of land at Schefferville and inland Labrador (Goose Bay, Lake Melville). Western Montagnais is in 4 communities: Mashteuiatsh (near Roberval, Quebec), Betsiamites, Uashat-Maliotenam (near Sept-Iles, Quebec), and Matimekosh (near Schefferville, Quebec). The others speak Eastern Montagnais: Mingan, Natashquan, La Romaine, Pakuashipi (St. Augustine, Quebec, sometimes called Pakuashipu), and Sheshatshiu (North-West River, Labrador). Alternate names: Innu Aimun, Innu.  Dialects: Western Montagnais, Eastern Montagnais. Palatalized l-dialect and palatalized n-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect cluster. There are possibly 3 dialects based on the shifting of Proto-Algonquian *l within Western Montagnais to 'n'. Two Western Montagnais communities (Mashteuiatsh, Betsiamites) use 'l' as the reflex of Proto-Algonquian *l, and the other Western Montagnais (Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh) use 'n'. Uashat-Maliotenam and Matimekosh could be classified as Central Montagnais. All Eastern Montagnais speakers use 'n'.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Munsee

[umu] 7 or 8 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 400 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Southern Ontario, Moraviantown Reserve. Alternate names: Delaware, Ontario Delaware.  Dialects: Close to Unami in USA.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Naskapi

[nsk] 1,177. Population includes 677 Western Naskapi, 500 Eastern Naskapi (1996 Ministere de la Sante el des Services Sociaux). 9,070 first-language speakers of Naskapi and Montagnais (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 1,177 (1996). 2 communities in Quebec and Labrador. Those in Kawawachikamach are about 10 km northeast of Schefferville in northeastern Quebec at the height of land (watershed). On December 15, 2002 most of the Mushuau Innu moved from Utshimassits (Davis Inlet) to Natuashish on the mainland. Natuashish is an isolated community in Labrador. Alternate names: Innu Aimuun, Iyuw Imuun.  Dialects: Western Naskapi, Eastern Naskapi (Mushuau Innu).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
More information.

Nisga'a

[ncg] 700. Possibly 5 scattered speakers in Alaska (1997). Ethnic population: 5,400 (1997 M. Krauss). Lower Nass River Valley, villages of Aiyansh (Ay'ans), Canyon City (Gitwinksihlkw), Greenville (Laxtalts'ap or Gitxat'in), Kincolith (Gingolx), British Columbia. Alternate names: Nass, Niska, Nishka, Nisk'a, Nishga.  Dialects: Variation within Nass not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga'a and Gitxsan.  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
More information.

Nootka

[noo] 200 (2002 Poser). Population includes Nitinat 30 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1977 SIL). Southwestern British Columbia, Nitinat along Pacific side of Vancouver Island and on Nitinat Lake. Alternate names: Nutka, Nuuchahnulth.  Dialects: Nitinat (Ditinat, Didinaht, Nitinaht).  Classification: Wakashan, Southern 
More information.

Ojibwa, Central

[ojc]  Central Ontario from Lake Nipigon in the west to Lake Nipissing in the east. Alternate names: Central Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Dialects: An area of transitional dialects (see Lisa Valentine, 1995, Making it their own: Severn Ojibwe communicative practices, Univ. of Toronto Press, p. 22).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Ojibwa, Eastern

[ojg] 25,885 (1998 Statistics Canada). Southern Ontario, north of Lake Ontario and east of Georgian Bay. East of a north-south line through the base of the Bruce Peninsula (Rhodes 1976:131). Alternate names: Ojibwe, Ojibway.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Ojibwa, Northwestern

[ojb] 20,000 (2000 UBS). Southern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. Alternate names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Dialects: Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Albany River Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Ojibwa, Severn

[ojs] 8,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,000 or fewer, possibly including some Northwestern Ojibwa (1999 SIL). Northern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. Alternate names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree, Oji-Cree, Cree.  Dialects: Winisk River Ojibwa, Severn River Ojibwa.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Ojibwa, Western

[ojw] 10,000 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL). Westward from Lake Winnipeg into Saskatchewan with outlying groups as far west as British Colombia. Alternate names: Saulteaux, Plains Ojibway, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Okanagan

[oka] 400 in Canada (1977 SIL). Population total all countries: 512. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Another source says 10,000 in the ethnic group (1996 Peter Stark). Colville has fewer than 200 (1999 R. McDonald). South central British Columbia, east of the Fraser Valley and to the west of Kootenai. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan.  Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
More information.

Oneida

[one] 200 in Canada (1991 M. Dale Kincade). Population total all countries: 250. Ethnic population: 1,500 to 2,000 (1997 K. Michelson). Southern Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also spoken in USA. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
More information.

Onondaga

[ono] 50 to 100 in Canada (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Population total all countries: 65 to 115. Ethnic population: 18,173 (1997 H. Woodbury). Southern Ontario: Six Nations Reserve. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Onandaga.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Onondaga 
More information.

Ottawa

[otw] Including Ottawa, Eastern and Central Ojibwa in USA: 8,000 speakers. Including Ottawa and all Ojibwa in Canada: 30,000 (1999 C. Fiero SIL). All Ojibwa first-language speakers in Canada: 25,885 (1998 Statistics Canada). Total of 35,000 in all Ojibwa, Chippewa, and Ottawa in Canada and USA (1999 C. Fiero). Ethnic population: 60,000. Islands in, and areas surrounding, Lake Huron, from the region of Manitoulin Island to southern Ontario north of Lake Erie. Walople Island Reserve. West of a north south line through the base of Bruce Peninsula (Rhodes 1976:131). Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Odawa, Ojibwe, Ojibway.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
More information.

Plautdietsch

[pdt] 80,000 in Canada (1978 Kloss and McConnell). Total German first-language speakers in Canada including standard German, 561,000 (1986 Hawkins in B. Comrie). 110,735 in Latin America are fairly monolingual. Population total all countries: 401,699. Southern Canada; Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia. Also spoken in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Russia (Asia), Uruguay, USA. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennoniten Platt.  Dialects: 50% intelligible with other Low German languages, Standard German, Pennsylvania German, or Hutterite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
More information.

Potawatomi

[pot]  Southern Ontario, Walpole Island Reserve. Alternate names: Pottawottomi.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
More information.

Quebec Sign Language

[fcs] 50,000 to 60,000 (2000 SIL). Quebec, except northern Quebec, Ottawa, Northern Ontario, Bathurst New Brunswick, and a few in Vancouver and Edmonton. Alternate names: Langue Signe Quebecars, Langue des Signes Québécoise, LSQ, Langue des Signes du Québec.  Dialects: Related to French Sign Language (LSF).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Salish, Straits

[str] 20 in Canada (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Southeastern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Straits.  Dialects: Saanich, Samish, Lummi, Ts'ooke, Semiahmoo, Songish. Most speakers are of the Saanich dialect.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Sarsi

[srs] 50 (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Alberta, near Calgary. Alternate names: Sarcee, Tsuu T'ina.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Sarcee 
More information.

Sechelt

[sec] 40 (1990 M.D. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 550 (1977 SIL). British Columbia coast north of Vancouver. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Northern  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Sekani

[sek] 30 to 40 (1997 Sharon Hargus). Ethnic population: 600 (1982 SIL and 1997 S. Hargus). North central British Columbia, McLeod Lake, Ware (Finlay River), Ingenika. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Beaver-Sekani  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Seneca

[see] 25 in Canada (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Six Nations Reserve, Ontario. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
More information.

Shuswap

[shs] 500 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 6,500 (1990 M.D. Kinkade). British Columbia, east central. Alternate names: Secwepemc.  Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
More information.

Slavey, North

[scs] 790 (2001 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,600 (1995 Michael Krauss). Mackenzie District, along the middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories, and in the Mackenzie Mountains In the isolated communities of Deline, Fort Good Hope, Tulita, Colville Lake, Norman Wells, and Yellowknife. Alternate names: Slavi, Dené, Mackenzian, "Slave".  Dialects: Hare, Bearlake, Mountain. Distinct from South Slavey.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
More information.

Slavey, South

[xsl] 1,410 (2001 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,600 (1995 M. Krauss). Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River and drainage in Mackenzie District, northeast Alberta, northwest British Columbia in the communities of Fort Liard, Fort Providence, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith, Hay River, Hay River Dene (reserve), Jean Marie River, Nahanni Butte, Trout Lake, Wrigley and Yellowknife. Alternate names: Slavi, "Slave", Dené, Mackenzian.  Dialects: North and South Slavey are separate languages.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
More information.

Squamish

[squ] 15 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 2,300. Southwestern British Columbia, north of Vancouver. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Squamish  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Stoney

[sto] 1,000 to 1,500 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,200 (1987 SIL). Southern Alberta, west and northwest of Calgary, and central Alberta, west of Edmonton. Southern Stoney occupy 3 reserves represented on the Stoney Tribal Council at Morley, Alberta: Eden Valley, west of Longview, Alberta, the southernmost reserve and principally Bearspaw Band members (about 400 speakers); Morley, west of Calgary, the main administrative center of Stoney Country, with about 2,700 people of all three southern bands: the Bearspaw, Chiniki, and Wesley Bands; Big Horn Reserve west of Rocky Mountain House, the most northerly of the 3, with about 100 people, mostly Wesley Band. Alternate names: Stony, Nakoda.  Dialects: Southern Stoney, Northern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% intelligible with each other. The northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity 89% with Assiniboine, 86% with Dakota of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
More information.

Tagish

[tgx] 2 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 possibly (1995 M. Krauss). Southern Yukon, west or west-northwest of the Tlingit, with some at Carcross. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tahltan

[tht] 35 (2002 Poser). Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL). Telegraph Creek, northwest British Columbia. Dialects: Close to Kaska.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tanana, Upper

[tau] 10 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 40 (1995 M. Krauss). Southwestern Yukon Territory, Beaver Creek. Alternate names: Nabesna.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana 
More information.

Thompson

[thp] 595 (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). British Columbia, south central. Fraser River north of Yale, and the lower Thompson River and tributaries. Alternate names: Ntlakapmuk, Nklapmx.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
More information.

Tlingit

[tli] 145 in Canada (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 1,000 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Northwestern British Columbia: Atlin, and southern Yukon: Carcross and Teslin. Alternate names: Thlinget, Tlinkit.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Tlingit 
More information.

Tsimshian

[tsi] 750 in Canada (2002 Poser). Population includes 1 Southern Tsimshian. Population total all countries: 800. Ethnic population: 3,200 in Canada (1995 M. Krauss). Northern coast of British Columbia. Southern Tsimshian is at the southern end on the coast at Klemtu. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Tsimpshean, Zimshian, Chimmezyan.  Dialects: Southern Tsimshian (Sguxs, Old Klemtu), Coast Tsimshian (Sm'algyax).  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
More information.

Tuscarora

[tus] 7 or 8 in Canada (1991 Kinkade). Population total all countries: 11 to 13. Six Nations Reserve, Ontario. Also spoken in USA. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tutchone, Northern

[ttm] 200 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Central Yukon, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, Carmacks, Whitehorse, and White River areas. Alternate names: Selkirk.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tutchone 
More information.

Tutchone, Southern

[tce] 200 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 1,400 (1995 M. Krauss). Southwestern Yukon Territory, Whitehorse, Aishihik-Champagne, and Kluane-Burwash areas. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tutchone 
More information.

Extinct languages

Beothuk

[bue] Extinct. Newfoundland. Alternate names: Beothuc, Bethuck, Bethuk, Newfoundland, Red Indians.  Dialects: The theory that it was an Algonquian language is not accepted by all Algonquianists.  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Laurentian

[lre] Extinct. Along the St. Lawrence River. Alternate names: St. Lawrence Iroquoian.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian 
More information.

Pentlatch

[ptw] Extinct. Ethnic population: 40 (1977 SIL). South Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Alternate names: Puntlatch.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Northern 
More information.

Tsetsaut

[txc] Extinct. Portland Canal area, borderline to southwest Alaska and British Columbia. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan 
More information.