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Languages of Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Democratic Republic of the Congo, République Démocratique du Congo. Formerly Belgian Congo, Congo-Leopoldville, Congo-Kinshasa, Republic of Zaïre. 58,317,930. National or official languages: Koongo, Lingala, Luba-Kasai, Congo Swahili, French. Literacy rate: 55% to 61%. Also includes Boguru, Fanagalo, Greek, people from India. Information mainly from Y. Bastin 1978; K. S. Olson 1996; John Bendor-Samuel 1989; SIL 1977–2003. Blind population: 73,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 12 (CMD). The number of languages listed for Democratic Republic of the Congo is 215. Of those, 214 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

Living languages

Alur

[alz] 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 1,209,000. Orientale Province: Mahagi Territory and northwest to Djalasiga area. Also spoken in Uganda. Alternate names: Lur, Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Luri, Dho Alur, Jo Alur.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 96% between Jonam and Ngora.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur 
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Amba

[rwm] 4,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 SIL). Nord-Kivu Province, Uganda border area south of Lake Albert, northern foothills of Ruwenzori. Alternate names: Kwamba, Kuamba, Rwamba, Hambo, Ruwenzori Kibira, Humu, Kiumu.  Dialects: Kigumu (Kuamba, Hamba, Lubulebule), Kihyanzi, Kusuwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Asoa

[asv] 25,474 (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Rungu Territory, Ituri Forest, among Mangbetu groups Maele, Meje, Aberu, and Popoi. Alternate names: Asua, Asuati, Asuae, Aka.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Aushi

[auh]  Haut Katanga Province to the east of Lubumbashi. Alternate names: Avaushi, Vouaousi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Avokaya

[avu] 25,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). Population includes 2,000 Ojila, 10,000 Northern Ogambi. Orientale Province, Faradje Territory, close to Sudan border. Alternate names: Abukeia, Avukaya.  Dialects: Ojila, Ajigu (Ajugu), Northern Ogambi, Avokaya Pur.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Babango

[bbm] 2,547 (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Basoko Territory. Alternate names: Mobango.  Dialects: Close to Budza which is immediately downriver; possibly a dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Baka

[bdh] 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1993 UBS). Orientale Province, between Garamba National Park and Sudan border. A few among the Logo. Alternate names: Tara Baaka.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka 
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Bali

[bcp] 42,000 (1987 UBS). 5% to 10% monolingual. Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, between the Tshopo River to the south and the Ituri River to the north, and on the north bank of the Ituri River. Alternate names: Kibali, Kibaali, Baali, Kibala, Libaali, Dhibali.  Dialects: Bemili, Bakundumu, Bafwandaka, Bekeni. Bemili is central linguistically and geographically. Lexical similarity 52% with Lika; 40% to 45% with Bwa and Pagibete; 46% with Komo; 40% with Bhele, Bila, and Bera; 30% with Budu and Ndaka; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Baloi

[biz] 20,000 (2002). Equateur Province, south, west, and east of Bomongo. Alternate names: Loi, Boloi, Baato Baloi, Rebu.  Dialects: Loi, Dzamba (Jamba), Makutu, Mampoko. Close to Balobo (Likila), Ndobo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Bamwe

[bmg] 20,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, in Mwanda Collectivité, upper reaches of Ngiri River between the villages of Limpoko and Sombe, including villages of Moniongo, Libobi, Likata, Mondongo, Lifunga, Bomole, Lokutu, Botunia; 10 villages. Dialects: All village dialects are highly intelligible to each other. Dzando and Ndolo are the most closely related languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Banda, Mid-Southern

[bjo] 2,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Bosobolo Territory in a few villages north of Dubulu, and Mobaye Territory. Dialects: Yakpa (Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa, Bayaka).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Banda, South Central

[lnl] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Equateur Province. Dialects: Ngbugu (Ngubu, Ngbougou).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Banda, Togbo-Vara

[tor] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 24,000. Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory mainly, around towns of Badja and Baya, between villages of Vongba II and Bandema, on the road as far as Gwara II, and scattered villages in the area. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Sudan. Dialects: Togbo (Tohgboh, Tagbo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara 
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Bangala

[bxg] Few first-language speakers. Orientale Province. Alternate names: Ngala.  Dialects: Related to Lusengo and Lingala. There is a trend toward becoming more like Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Bangba

[bbe] 11,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Kopa Collectivité of the Niangara Territory, and the area around Tora in the Watsa Territory. Alternate names: Abangba.  Dialects: Kopa, Tora. Lexical similarity 70% with Mayogo, 72% with Mündü, 90% among dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba 
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Bangi

[bni] 50,948 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 118,752. Equateur Province, east of Congo River from Bolobo to Mbandaka. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Bobangi, Bubangi, Lobobangi, Rebu, Dzamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bangubangu

[bnx] 171,000 (1995 SIL). Population includes 85,000 Bangubangu, 30,000 Mikebwe, 20,000 Kasenga, 32,000 Nonda, 4,000 Hombo. Maniema Province, Kasongo District, Kabambare Territory. Alternate names: Kibangubangu, Bangobango, Kibangobango.  Dialects: Bangubangu, Mikebwe, Kasenga, Nonda, Hombo, Sanzi. Dialects listed are probably separate languages. Most closely related to Hemba (lexical similarity 67%) and Songe (58%). Lexical similarity 81% with Mikebwe, 80% with Kasenga, 80% with Nonda, 71% with Hombo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Barambu

[brm] 25,570 (1990 census). A few hundred living among the Bangba (1996). Orientale Province, Poko Territory, between the Bomokandi and Uélé rivers. Alternate names: Barambo, Amiangba, Amiangbwa, Balambu, Abarambo, Duga.  Dialects: Unconfirmed reports of a 'Pamiaangba' dialect near Dungu in Niangara Territory.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia 
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Beeke

[bkf] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, one village in each of the Bandaka and Bombo collectivités. Alternate names: Beke, Ibeeke.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 65% with Bali, 46% with Lika and Bila, 40% with Bera, 38% with Ndaka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Bemba

[bem] 300,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Near southeastern border of Katanga Province. Possibly in Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Ichibemba, Wemba, Chiwemba.  Dialects: Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Ngoma, Nwesi, Shila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Bemba

[bmy] 295,780 (2000 WCD). Southern Kivu Province. Alternate names: Kinyabemba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Unclassified 
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Bembe

[bmb] 252,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS). Sud-Kivu Province, Fizi Territory, west of Lake Tanganyika. Also spoken in Tanzania. Alternate names: Ibembe, Beembe, Ebembe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 76% to 84% with Lega-Mwenga dialects, 68% with Buyu, 60% with Lega-Shabunda, 55% with Zimba, 50% with Enya, 45% with Nyanga, 40% with Tembo, 30% with Lengola.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bendi

[bct] 32,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Djugu Territory, midway between Bunia and Djalasiga. Alternate names: Mabendi, Mabeni.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Bera

[brf] 120,000 (1992 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory. Alternate names: Kibira, Plains Bira.  Dialects: One dialect, but some variation around Solenyama. Lexical similarity 70% with Amba; 56% to 59% with Bila, Kaiku, Bhele, and Komo; 47% with Bwa, Lika, and Bali; 22% with Nyali and Budu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Bhele

[bhy] 15,000 (1989). Nord-Kivu Province, Lubero Territory, west of Butembo. Southern Bhele is in Munjoa. Alternate names: Ebhele, Kipere, Ipere, Pere, Peri, Piri, Pili, Bili, Kipili.  Dialects: Bugombe (Ebugombe). Lexical similarity 80% with Kaiku and Komo, 70% with Bila, less than 60% with Bera and Amba, 40% with Bali and Lika.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Bila

[bip] 40,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory. Alternate names: Kibila, Forest Bira, Ebila, Western Bila.  Dialects: Bombi-Ngbanja, Nyaku. Lexical similarity 94% between dialects. Closely related to other 'Bira' languages: lexical similarity 80% with Kaiku, 72% with Bhele, 70% with Komo, nearly 60% with Bera and Amba, 46% with Beeke, 45% with Bwa, 40% with Lika and Bali, 26% with Mbo, 22% with Budu and Ndaka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Binji

[bpj] 165,000 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Kazumba Territory. Alternate names: Bindji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Boko

[bkp] 21,000. Equateur Province, on Congo River, upstream from Mbandaka. Alternate names: Iboko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bolia

[bli] 100,000 (2000). Bandundu Province, north of Lake Mai-Ndombe. Alternate names: Bulia, Bokoki.  Dialects: Close to, or possibly a dialect of, Ntomba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Boloki

[bkt] 4,200. Equateur Province, both sides of the Congo River, upstream from Mbandaka. Alternate names: Baloki, Buluki, Boleki, River Ruki.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Bolondo

[bzm] 3,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Budjala Territory on the Saw River south of Budjala, around the village of Bamba. Dialects: Most closely related to Motembo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Boma

[boh] 20,500 (2000). Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Buma, Kiboma, Boma Kasai.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Bomboli

[bml] 2,500 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Dongo Collectivité, north of Bomongo on one of the canals flowing into the Ngiri River, between the villages of Bokondo and Bodjinga. Alternate names: Bombongo.  Dialects: Closest to Bozaba and Lobala. 3 dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bomboma

[bws] 23,000 (1983 census). Population includes 1,279 in Lingonda. Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Bomboma Collectivité on the southern Roa Dongo between the villages of Bomboma and Bokonzi, and including the villages of Lingonda, Ebuku, Makengo, Ndzubele, Motuba: 7 villages. Alternate names: Boba.  Dialects: Likaw, Lingonda, Ebuku, Bokonzi. The Likaw in Budjala Territory, southwest of Budjala, are reported to be ethnically one with Bomboma and to have good intercomprehension. Lexical similarity 93% with Ebuku and Lingonda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Borna

[bxx]   Alternate names: Eborna.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Bozaba

[bzo] 5,500 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Mwanda Collectivité, on the islands and canals northwest of the confluence of the Ngiri and Mwanda rivers. Alternate names: Buzaba, Budzaba.  Dialects: Most closely related to Bomboli, then Bomboma and Lobala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Budu

[buu] 180,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Wamba Territory, 8 collectivités. Alternate names: Ebudu, Kibudu, Bodo.  Dialects: Ineta (Timoniko), Wadimbisa (Isombi), Makoda, West Bafwangada (Bafanio), East Bafwangada, Bafwakoyi, Malamba, Mahaa. The first four dialects listed are on the Ibambi side of the Nepoko River; the last four on the Wamba side. The Ibambi group and the Wamba group consider themselves to be one people and language. Lexical similarity 92% within dialects, 85% lexical similarity with Ndaka, 78% with Mbo, 74% with Nyali and Vanuma, 30% with Bali, Lika, and Komo, 20% to 25% with Bhele, Kaiku, Bila, and Bera, 14% with Swahili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Budza

[bja] 226,000 (1985 census). Equateur Province, Mongala, Bumba, and parts of Bongandanga territories. Alternate names: Ebuja, Buja, Budja, Mbudja, Embudja, Limbudza.  Dialects: Mbila, Monzamboli, Bosambi, Yaliambi. Close to Babango. Lexical similarity 89% with Babango, 59% with Ngombe, 48% with Lingala, 35% to 40% with Pagibete and Bwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Buraka

[bkg] 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Equateur Province, scattered groups along the Ubangi River, north and northeast of Bosobolo. Alternate names: Bouraka, Boraka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Bushoong

[buf] 155,137 (2000 WCD). Kasaï Occidental Province, Mweka and northern Ilebo territories. Alternate names: Bushong, Busoong, Bushongo, Shongo, Mbale, Bamongo, Mongo, Kuba, Ganga.  Dialects: Djembe, Ngende, Ngombe (Ngombia), Ngongo, Pianga (Panga, Tsobwa, Shobwa, Shoba).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Buya

[byy] 13,000 (2002).  Alternate names: Ibuya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Buyu

[byi] 10,000 (2002). On Lake Tanganyika, on the border between Sud-Kivu and Katanga provinces. Alternate names: Buyi, Kibuyu, Bujwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 68% with Bembe, 60% with Lega-Mwenga, 55% with Lega-Shabunda, 50% with Zimba and Enya, 40% with Bangubangu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bwa

[bww] 200,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Buta, Bambesa, Banalia, Aketi, and Bondo territories. Buta is considered the center. Most people in Buta and Bambesa territories speak similar dialects. Kiba is in Banalia Territory, Benge and Bati in Aketi and Bondo territories. Alternate names: Boa, Bua, Boua, Libua, Libwali, Libenge, Kibua, Kibwa.  Dialects: Leboa-Le, Yewu, Kiba, Benge, Bati (Baati). Leboa-le, Yewu, and Kiba have 90% lexical similarity to Benge and Bati, 80% to 85% with Pagibete, 60% to 80% with Kango, 60% to 65% with Ngelima, 55% to 60% with Lika, 48% with Komo, 43% with Bali, 37% with Ngombe, 35% with Budza, 30% with Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Bwela

[bwl] 8,400 (2002).  Alternate names: Buela, Lingi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Bwile

[bwc] 12,400 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Haut Katanga Province, north of Aushi in Pweto area at the north end of Lake Mweru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Bwile (L.10) 
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Chokwe

[cjk] 504,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1990 UBS). Population total all countries: 1,009,580. Close to Angola border in southeastern Bandundu, Kasaï Occidental, and Katanga provinces. Also spoken in Angola, Namibia, Zambia. Alternate names: Cokwe, Ciokwe, Tshokwe, Tschiokwe, Shioko, Djok, Imo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.20) 
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Dengese

[dez] 8,600 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Dekese Territory. Alternate names: Ndengese, Lengese, Ileo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Ding

[diz] 155,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, Idiofa Territory, on the Kasaï River. Alternate names: Di, Din, Dzing.  Dialects: Close to Yansi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Dongo

[doo] 12,900 (2000). Orientale Province, east of Watsa. Alternate names: Donga, Dongo Ko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Dzando

[dzn] 6,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Mwanda Collectivité, between the Ngiri and Mwanda rivers in the swamp lands in the villages of Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, and Moliba. Dialects: Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, Moliba. Comprehension of Lifunga dialect of Bamwe is very high. Lexical similarity 6% with Lifunga dialect of Bamwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Efe

[efe] 20,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Mambasa, Watsa, Irumu, and Djugu territories. Dialects: Related to Lese.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Enya

[gey] 15,000 (2000). On Lualaba River from Kisangani upriver to Kongolo, Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory. Alternate names: Tsheenya, Ena, Genya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Mituku, 54% with Lega-Shabunda, 50% with Lega-Mwenga, Bembe, Buyu, and Zimba, 47% with Nyanga, 40% with Lengola, 30% with Komo and Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Foma

[fom] 13,000 (2002). Orientale Province, on the north side of the Congo River upstream from Basoko. Alternate names: Lifoma, Fuma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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French

[fra]   Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fuliiru

[flr] 300,000 (1999 SIL). Sud-Kivu Province, Uvira Territory, north and northwest of Uvira. Alternate names: Fuliru, Kifuliiru, Fulero, Kifulero.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Mashi, 90% with Nyindu and Joba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Furu

[fuu] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 16,000. Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, east of Bosobolo in Bosobolo and Mobaye territories. Also spoken in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Gbanziri

[gbg] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, a few villages along Ubangi River. Alternate names: Gbanzili, Banziri, Gbandere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Gbati-ri

[gti] 21,000 (2002). Orientale Province, between Isiro and Watsa, north of Mungbere. Alternate names: Gbote.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Gilima

[gix] 12,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, in the north of the Libenge Territory in 3 groups: Bogon in the north, Mbanza-Balakpa in the southeast, and Bandi in the southwest. It may also be in Central African Republic. Dialects: Close to Ngbaka Ma'bo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka 
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Gobu

[gox] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, in two areas, north of Bili between Duguru and Borunu on the Sidi road, and in a wide area around Pandu between the villages of Denbili and Bele II. Also spoken in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Gubu, Ngobo, Ngobu, Gabou, Gabu.  Dialects: Closest to Togbo and Mono.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Hamba

[hba] 13,000 (2002). Kasaï Oriental Province, Lodja Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Havu

[hav] 506,000 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, Kalehe Territory. Alternate names: Kihavu, Haavu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Shi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Hema

[nix] 124,650 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu and Djugu territories. Also spoken in Uganda. Alternate names: Hema-Sud, Southern Hema, Kihema, Congo Nyoro, Nyoro, Runyoro.  Dialects: Toro (Orutoro, Tooro). Toro dialect in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different from Nyoro of Uganda. Lexical similarity 78% between Toro and Nyoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) 
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Hemba

[hem] 180,958 (2000 WCD). Katanga Province, eastern Kongolo Territory. Alternate names: Kihemba, Emba, Kiemba, Luba-Hemba, Eastern Luba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Bangubangu, 64% with Songe, higher than 67% with Mikebwe and Hombo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Holoholo

[hoo] 15,500 (2002). Katanga Province, area northwest of Kalemie. Not in Tanzania. Alternate names: Kiholoholo, Horohoro, Guha, Kalanga, Kikalanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Holu

[hol] 5,095 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Extreme southwest corner of Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Kiholu, Holo, Kiholo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Hunde

[hke] 200,000 (1980 UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, Masisi and Rutshuru territories. Apparently none in Uganda. Alternate names: Kihunde, Kobi, Rukobi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Tembo, 65% with Nande, 57% with Nyanga and Shi, 50% with Lega-Shabunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Hungana

[hum] 400. Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory. Alternate names: Hunganna, Huana, Kihungana, Hungaan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Hungana (H.40) 
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Joba

[job] 10,000 (1989 SIL). Sud-Kivu Province, Uvira Territory, north and northwest of Uvira. Alternate names: Kijoba, Vira, Kivira, Loba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Kabwari

[kcw] 8,400 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, Fizi Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Kaiku

[kkq] 13,000 (2002). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Babombi Collectivité. Alternate names: Ikaiku, Kaiko.  Dialects: Closest to Bila and Bhele. Lexical similarity 80% with Bhele and Bila, 70% with Komo, 56% with Bera, 20% to 25% with Mbo, Ndaka, and Budu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kakwa

[keo] 20,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, Aru Territory, north of Aru, and Faradje Territory. Alternate names: Bari Kakwa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari 
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Kaliko

[kbo] 7,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). Orientale Province, northern Aru Territory, along the Sudan border. Alternate names: Keliko, Kaliko-Ma'di, Ma'di, Maditi.  Dialects: Didi, Dogo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Kango

[kty] 5,900 (2002). Orientale Province, Bas-Uélé District, along the banks of the Uélé River and its tributaries. Alternate names: Likango.  Dialects: Bomokandi, Uélé. One dialect has 70% to 75% lexical similarity with Pagibete, 66% with Ngelima, 75% to 80% with Bwa, 60% with Lika. Bomokandi has 60% to 65% with Bwa and Pagibete, 68% with Lika, 58% with Ngelima. Both dialects have 50% with Bali and Komo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Kango

[kzy] 2,000 (1998 T. Harvey). Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, among the Bali, primarily in the Bakundumu and Bemili collectivités. The smaller dialect has 7 villages just to the south of where the Nepoki River meets the Ituri to become the Aruwimi River. Alternate names: Dikango, Kango Pygmy, Likango, Kikango, "Kibatchua", "Dibatchua".  Dialects: 2 dialects, inherently intelligible with each other. Related to Komo and Bali. Lexical similarity 78% with Komo, 72% with Bila, 60% with Bali, 50% with Lika.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kanu

[khx] 3,500 (1971 Welmers). Nord-Kivu Province, Walikale Territory, Kabunga area. Alternate names: Likanu, Kaanu, Kano.  Dialects: Probably a dialect of Lega-Shabunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Kanyok

[kny] 200,000 (1991 UBS). Kasaï Oriental Province, Mwene-Ditu Territory, between the Bushimaie and Luembe rivers. Alternate names: Kanyoka, Kanioka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Kaonde

[kqn] 36,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1995). Katanga Province, eastern part of Kolwezi Territory. Alternate names: Chikaonde, Kawonde, Chikahonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.40) 
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Kari

[kbj] 1,000. Scattered groups in northwestern Orientale Province, north of Uele River. Only scattered speakers in Central African Republic (1996). Alternate names: Kare, Li-Kari-Li.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Kela

[kel] 180,000 (1972 Barrett). Kasaï Oriental Province, Lomela Territory. Alternate names: Okela, Ikela, Lemba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Kele

[khy] 160,000 (1980 UBS). Population includes 7,000 Yalikoka (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Orientale Province, Isangi Territory, on Lomami and Congo rivers. Alternate names: Lokele, Ekele, Kili, Likelo, Yakusu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Kete

[kcv] 8,400 (2002). Kasaï Occidental Province, northeast of Mweka. Alternate names: Lukete, Kikete.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Kituba

[ktu] 4,200,000 (1990 UBS). Bas-Congo and southern Bandundu provinces. Alternate names: Kikongo-Kutuba, Kikongo Simplifié, Kikongo Ya Leta, Kileta, Kikongo Commercial, Kibulamatadi.  Dialects: Ikeleve, Western Kituba, Eastern Kituba. A creole based on the Kongo dialect spoken in Manianga area (Bas-Congo), but unintelligible to speakers of it or other Kongo dialects. Influenced by Lingala, French, restructured Swahili, Portuguese, and other local dialects. Kituba of Congo is closely related.  Classification: Creole, Kongo based 
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Komo

[kmw] 400,000 (1998 SIL). Maniema Province, and into Orientale and Nord-Kivu provinces, as far as Walikale, Opienge, and Punia. Lubutu is the center. Alternate names: Kikomo, Kikumu, Kikuumu, Kikumo, Kuumu, Kumu, Kumo.  Dialects: No dialects, but speech varieties have the following differences: up to 10% lexical differences, in comparison with the reference lexicon as found in Lubutu. Most noticeable phonological variation: presence of [l]. Most noticeable relational word variation: shape of the alienable possession marker. Lexical similarity 80% with Bhele, 70% with Bila, 58% with Bera, 48% with Bwa, 46% with Bali, Lika, and Pagibete, 30% with Lingala, Lega-Shabunda, and Budu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kongo, San Salvador

[kwy] 536,994 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 865,355. Along the Congo River below Kinshasa in Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola. Also spoken in Angola. Alternate names: Kikongo, Congo, Kisikongo, Kikoongo.  Dialects: Fioti and San Salvador are different enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Konjo

[koo]  Western slope of the Ruwenzori Mountains. Alternate names: Konzo.  Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (J.40) 
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Koongo

[kng] 1,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 UBS). Bas-Congo Province. Cataract dialect in Bas-Congo Province and around Mbanza Manteke, Fioti north of Boma, and scattered communities along the Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. Also spoken in Angola, Congo. Alternate names: Kongo, Kikongo, Congo, Kikoongo.  Dialects: South Congo, Central Kongo, West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti), Bwende (Buende), East Kongo, Southeast Kongo, Nzamba (Dzamba). Other languages of the Kongo group are sometimes regarded as dialects of Kongo (see separate entries for Beembe, Doondo, Kunyi, Vili, Monokutuba, and Kituba). In Angola Ndingi and Mboka may be separate languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Kpala

[kpl] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, small groups in Libenge and Bosobolo territories. Alternate names: Kwala, Kpwaala, Gbakpwa.  Dialects: Close to Monzombo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Kusu

[ksv] 26,000 (1971 Welmers). Southwestern corner of Maniema Province, Kibombo Territory. Alternate names: Kikusu, Kutsu, Lokutsu, Kongola, Fuluka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Kwami

[ktf] 400. Maniema and Nord-Kivu provinces, between Kasese and Walikale. Alternate names: Kikwami, Kikwame, Kwame.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Nyanga, 68% with Lega-Shabunda, 66% with Kanu and Enya, 61% with Mituku, 57% with Zimba, 55% with Bembe, 52% with Lega-Mwenga, 49% with Hunde and Shi, 48% with Buyu, 47% with Tembo, 46% with Nande, 41% with Lengola, 34% with Komo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Kwese

[kws] 60,000. Eastern Bandundu Province, west of Kikwit. Alternate names: Pindi, Kikwese, Ukwese.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Lala-Bisa

[leb]  Extreme southeast corner of Katanga Province. Dialects: Ambo (Bambo, Kambonsenga), Luano, Swaka, Wulima, Lala (Ichilala), Bisa (Ichibisa, Wiza).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Bisa 
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Lalia

[lal] 55,000 (1993). Southeast corner of Equateur Province, Ikela Territory, collectivités of Tumbenga, Lokina, Lofume, Tshwapa, and Loile. Yalosaka is the center. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Lamba

[lam]  Southeast corner of Katanga Province. Alternate names: Ichilamba, Chilamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Lamba 
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Langbashe

[lna] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, along the Ubangi River, villages of Sidi, Bada, Zimango, Banga, Boduna, and a few other villages elsewhere in the territory. Alternate names: Langbashi, Langbase, Langbasi, Langwasi, Langbwasse.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Lega-Mwenga

[lgm] 44,896 (2000 WCD). Sud-Kivu Province, Mwenga Territory. Alternate names: Shile, Kilega, Rega, Kirega, Leka-Shile, Leka-Sile, Ishile, Ileka Ishile.  Dialects: Iyoko, Ibanda, Isopo, Lusenge, Bilembo-Mango, Mizulo. 20 dialects. Speakers say Lega-Shabunda and Bembe are difficult to understand. Lexical similarity 96% to 88% among dialects, 84% to 76% with Bembe, 81% to 67% with Lega-Shabunda, 60% with Buyu, 50% with Zimba, Enya, and Mituku, 45% with Nyanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Lega-Shabunda

[lea] 400,000 (1982 UBS). Sud-Kivu and Maniema provinces, Shabunda and Pangi territories. The first 5 dialects are in Shabunda Territory, Kinyamunsange is in Pangi Territory. Alternate names: Kilega, Rega, Kirega, Ileka-Igonzabale, Leka-Igonzabale, Igonzabale.  Dialects: Kigala, Kigyoma, Liliga, Kisede, Kinyabanga, Kinyamunsange (Pangi). Lexical similarity 67% to 81% with Lega-Mwenga, 65% with Kwami, 60% with Bembe, 55% with Budu, Mituku, and Enya, 50% with Zimba, Nyanga, and Hunde, 45% with Nande, 30% with Komo. Kanu is probably a dialect with 92% similarity.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Lele

[lel] 26,000 (1971 Welmers). Western edge of Kasaï Occidental Province, Ilebo and Tshikapa territories, and extreme east of Bandundu Province, Idiofa and Gungu territories. Alternate names: Usilele, Bashilele.  Dialects: Intelligible with Wongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Lendu

[led] 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 760,000. Orientale Province, Ituri District, Djugu Territory, west and northwest of Lake Albert. Also spoken in Uganda. Alternate names: Bbadha, Bbaledha, Kilendu, Baletha, Batha, Balendru, Bale, Hema-Nord, Kihema-Nord.  Dialects: Djadha (Jidha), Tadha, Pidha, Ddralo (Ddradha), Njawlo (Njawdha). Tadha is the standard dialect. Djadha is the largest dialect and the one used for literature. Jidha is the speech variety of the Bagegere (Northern Hema) who have adopted Lendu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Lengola

[lej] 100,000 (1998). Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory, Maniema Province, Lubutu and Punia territories, both sides of the Lualaba River, but more on the west side within a triangle between Opienge, Lowa, and a point called 'Km 100' on the Kisangani-Lubutu road. Alternate names: Kilengola, Lengora.  Dialects: 2 dialects which differ in pronunciation. Lexical similarity 40% with Enya and Mituku, 35% to 40% with Budu and Komo, 30% to 35% with Lega-Shabunda, Lega-Mwenga, and Zimba, 25% to 30% with Bembe, Buyu, and Bali.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Lese

[les] 50,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Watsa, Djugu, Irumu, and Mambasa territories. Alternate names: Lesa, Lesse, Lissi, Walisi, Walese, Balese, Mbuti.  Dialects: Lese Karo, Arumbi (Upstream Lese), Ndese (Lese Dese), Vukutu (Vonkutu, Obi), Fare. Close to Mamvu, Bendi, Mangbutu, Efe.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Libinza

[liz] 10,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts, in Kungu and northern Bomongo districts, on the Ngiri and Mwanda rivers, from the villages of Monia and Boniange southward, on islands as far as Bomongo. Alternate names: Libinja.  Dialects: Monia, Boniange, Kutu. There are other dialects besides those listed. Dialects or closely related languages: Balobo (Likila), Ndobo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Ligenza

[lgz] 43,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Bumba Territory, 3 or 4 small areas. Alternate names: Gendja, Digenja, Gendza-Bali.  Dialects: Bokoy, Elowa, Benza, Bolupi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Lika

[lik] 60,000 (1989 SIL). Population includes 57,000 in Wamba District, 3,000 in Rungu District. Orientale Province, Upper-Uele District, Wamba Territory, Balika-Toriko Collectivité. Some in Rungu Territory, Mongomasi Collectivité. Alternate names: Kilika, Toriko, Kpongo, Mabiti.  Dialects: Likó (Ikó), Lilikó, Liliká (Liká). Lexical similarity 65% to 70% with Bomokandi Kango, 55% to 60% with Pagibete, Bwa, and Uélé Kango, 52% with Bali, 51% with Ngelima, 46% with Komo, 40% with Bhele, Bila, and Bera, 30% with Budu, 25% with Lega languages and Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Likila

[lie] 8,400 (2002). Equateur Province, around Makanza town on the northern bank of the Congo River. Alternate names: Bangela, Balobo.  Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Libinza or Baloi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Lingala

[lin] 2,037,929 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Second-language speakers together with Bangala in Democratic Republic of the Congo: 7,000,000 (1999 WA). Population total all countries: 2,139,202. Widely used in Bandundu, Equateur, and Orientale provinces, except the southeast of Orientale. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Ngala.  Dialects: Close to Lusengo and Bangala. Lexical similarity 33% with Bobangi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Lobala

[loq] 60,000 (2000 D. Morgan). Very few monolinguals. Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts, Kungu and Bomongo territories, on the road northeast of Dongo as far as the village of Mokusi, and on the road south from Dongo following the Ubangi River, and forest south and west of this road. Dialects: Poko, South Lobala, Tanda, Likoka. Closest to Bomboma and Libinza in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Lexical similarity 65% with Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Logo

[log] 210,000 (1989 SIL). Population includes 100,000 Ogambi. Orientale Province, Faradje Territory, and town of Watsa. Alternate names: Logoti.  Dialects: Ogambi (Ogamaru, Northern Logo), Doka, Lolya, Obilebha (Obelebha, Obileba), Bhagira (Bagela), Bari (Bari-Logo, Bariti). A dialect cluster, with Lolya as central. Close to Avokaya and Omi. Avokaya in Democratic Republic of the Congo spoken in the northern Ogambi Area, may be closer to Logo than to Avokaya in Sudan.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Lombi

[lmi] 12,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, Barumi and Bekeni collectivités. Opienge, Banguruye, and Bangolu are centers. Alternate names: Lumbi, Rombi, Rumli, Odyalombito.  Dialects: Close to Mangbetu, but not as close as Mangbetu dialects are to each other.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Lombo

[loo] 10,000 (1971 Welmers). Orientale Province, both sides of Congo River in Isangi area. Alternate names: Olombo, Ulumbu, Turumbu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Lonzo

[lnz] 300. Bandundu Province, Kenge Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Luba-Kasai

[lua] 6,300,000 (1991 UBS). Used throughout Kasaï Occidental and Kasaï Oriental provinces. Alternate names: Luba-Lulua, Tshiluba, Western Luba, Luva.  Dialects: Significant dialect differences between East Kasai Region (Baluba people) and West Kasai Region (Bena Lulua people). Hemba is a closely related language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Luba-Katanga

[lub] 1,505,000 (1991 UBS). Katanga Province, Haut-Lomami District. Alternate names: Luba-Shaba, Kiluba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Lugbara

[lgg] 840,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Orientale Province, Aru Territory, 6 collectivités. Alternate names: High Lugbara.  Dialects: Zaki, Abedju-Azaki, Lu, Aluru, Nio, Otsho.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Luna

[luj] 50,000. Kasaï Oriental Province, Lusambo Territory. Alternate names: Inkongo, Kuba, Northern Luba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Lunda

[lun]  Southern and southwestern Katanga Province, Lualaba District; extreme south of Bandundu Province, Kahemba Territory. Alternate names: Chilunda.  Dialects: Lunda Ndembu, Lunda Kalunda, Lunda Kambove.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Lusengo

[lse] 42,000 (2002). Primarily on the Congo River in Equateur Province, Mankanza, Lisala, and Bumba territories. Alternate names: Losengo.  Dialects: Kangana, Iliku (Eleko, Leko, Eleku, Loleko, Leku), Limpesa, Lipoto (Upoto, Kele, Ingundji), Bumwangi, Busu Djanga, Empesa Poko, Esumbu, Kunda, Kumba, Lusengo Poto, Mongala Poto, Ngundi, Mongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Lwalu

[lwa] 21,000 (1971 Welmers). Kasaï Occidental Province, Luiza Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Ma

[msj] 4,700 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Orientale Province, north of Niangara, close to Kapili River. Alternate names: Amadi, Madi, Madyo.  Dialects: Closest to Dongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Mabaale

[mmz] 42,000 (2002). Equateur Province, Ngiri River area. Alternate names: Lomabaale, Mabale, Mbali.  Dialects: Bembe, Lipanja, Banza, Mbinga, Lobo (Balobo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Mamvu

[mdi] 60,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, west and southwest of Watsa in Watsa Territory. Possibly some in Uganda. Alternate names: Tengo.  Dialects: Amengi, Mamvu (Momvu, Momfu).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Mangbetu

[mdj] 620,000. Orientale Province, Rungu, Niangara, Poko, Watsa, Wamba, and northeast corner of Banalia territories. The Popoi group is in Banalia Territory, and the Aberu group is in Wamba Territory. None in Uganda. Alternate names: Nemangbetu, Mangbettu, Mambetto, Amangbetu, Kingbetu.  Dialects: Meje (Medje), Mangbetu, Makere, Malele, Popoi. The Medje dialect is reported to have the most speakers, and is the most widely understood. Lombi and Asua are related separate languages.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Mangbutu

[mdk] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Population includes 1,200 Andinai. Orientale Province, south of the Kibali River and east of the Moto River in Watsa Territory. Alternate names: Mombuttu, Wambutu, Mangu-Ngutu.  Dialects: Andinai, Makutana, Angwe (Andali). The Andinai are separated from the other Mangbutu by the Lese. The Andali are a clan speaking the Angwe dialect.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Mayeka

[myc] 21,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 25,474 (2000 WCD). Vicinity of Congo, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo borders. Not in Central African Republic. Dialects: A member of the same dialect cluster as Nyanga-li, Gbati-ri.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Mayogo

[mdm] 100,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Isiro area. Most are in the Rungu and Wamba territories. Alternate names: Maigo, Maiko, Mayko, Kiyogo, Majugu, Mayugo.  Dialects: Madimadoko, Madipia (Mabozo, Magbai, Mabodese, Madjedje). Lexical similarity 70% to 75% with Bangba, 62% with Mündü.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba 
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Mba

[mfc] 36,087 (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Banalia Territory, Banjwade area. Alternate names: Kimanga, Manga, Kimbanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Mbala

[mdp] 200,000 (1972 Nida). Bandundu Province, Bagata and Bulungu territories, between Kwango and Kwilu rivers. Alternate names: Gimbala, Rumbala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Mbala (K.60) 
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Mbandja

[zmz] 351,543 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 361,998. Equateur Province, various areas in Sud Ubangi, Nord Ubangi, and western Mongala districts, to west, southwest, and east of the Ngbaka language. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Mbanza, Mbanja, Mbandza.  Dialects: Kala, Gbado.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern 
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Mbesa

[zms] 8,400 (2002). Orientale Province, northern Yahuma Territory, south of Congo River. Alternate names: Mombesa, Mobesa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Mbo

[zmw] 11,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Bombo Collectivité. Alternate names: Kimbo, Imbo.  Dialects: Speakers of Ndaka, Budu, Vanuma, Nyali, and Mbo agree that their languages are closer to each other than to other border Bantu languages. One dialect. Lexical similarity 87% with Ndaka, 78% with Budu, 77% with Vanuma, 76% with Nyali, 30% with Komo, 25% with Bhele, Kaiku, Bila, Bera.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Mbole

[mdq] 100,000 (1971 Welmers). Orientale Province, southwest of Kisangani. Alternate names: Lombole.  Dialects: Keembo, Nkimbe (Nkembe), Yangonda, Yaisu, Inja, Botunga, Yaamba, Yaikole. Close to Mituku.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Mfinu

[zmf] 8,400 (2002). Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Emfinu, Funika, Mfununga.  Dialects: Ntsiam, Ntswar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Mituku

[zmq] 50,948 (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory, west of Lualaba River. Alternate names: Kinya-Mituku, Metoko.  Dialects: Close to Mbole. Lexical similarity 67% with Enya, 55% with Lega-Shabunda, 50% with Nyanga, Lega-Mwenga, Bembe, Buyu, and Zimba, 40% with Lengola.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Moingi

[mwz] 4,200 (2002). Orientale Province, Yahuma Territory, south of Congo River, opposite the town of Basoko. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Mongo-Nkundu

[lol] 400,000 (1995). Southern half of Equateur Province and northeastern part of Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Mongo, Lomongo.  Dialects: Mpama, Wangata, Panga (Ipanga, Titu, Buli, South Nkundo), Bukala (Kala), Yalima (Yajima), Kutu (Bakutu), Ekonda Mongo (Lomongo), Longo (Bolongo), Nkundo (Nkundu, Lonkundu, Lonkundo, Lolo), Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, Konda (Ekonda, Lokonda, Lokwala), Longombe. Dialect or language cluster: Lalia, Mongo-Nkundu, Ngando, Ombo. The Longombe dialect is spoken along the road between Boende and Wema, is closest to the Bakutu dialect, and is distinct from the Lingombe language. Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, and Konda may be separate languages. Konda is in Equateur Province, Equateur District, Mai-Ndombe District, Kiri Territory. In Mbandaka, speakers called their dialect 'Lonkundo'.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Mono

[mnh] 65,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, and some in Libenge Territory. Bili is the center. Alternate names: Amono.  Dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Galaba, Kaga, Mpaka. Closest linguistically to Togbo and Gobu, but quite different ethnically from Togbo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Monzombo

[moj] 5,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, on east bank of Ubangi River south of Libenge. Alternate names: Monjombo, Mono-Jembo, Monzumbo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Mpuono

[zmp] 165,000 (1972 Nida). Bandundu Province, Idiofa Territory. Dialects: Mpuono, Mpuun (Mbuun, Kimbuun, Mbunda, Gimbunda). Close to Yansi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Mündü

[muh] 2,800 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, north and northeast of Faradje. Alternate names: Mundo, Mountou, Mondo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu 
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Mvuba

[mxh] 5,095 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Nord-Kivu Province, Beni Territory, around Oicha. Also spoken in Uganda. Alternate names: Mbuba, Bambuba, Bamvuba, Mvuba-A, Obiye.  Dialects: Close to Lese.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Nande

[nnb] 903,000 (1991 UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, mainly in Beni and Lubero territories. Alternate names: Kinandi, Kinande, Nandi, Northern Nande, Ndande, Orundande.  Dialects: Nande, Kumbule (Ekikumbule), Mate (Ekimate), Tangi (Ekitangi), Sanza (Ekisanza), Shu (Ekishu), Ekisongoora (Songola, Nyangala), Swaga (Ekiswaga, Ekikira), Yira (Ekiyira). Lexical similarity 75% with Konjo, 65% with Hunde, 55% with Tembo and Shi, 45% with Nyoro, Nyanga, and Lega-Shabunda, 40% with Talinga-Bwisi, 30% with Bhele, 25% with Amba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (J.40) 
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Ndaka

[ndk] 25,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Bandaka Collectivité, along the road between Bunia and NiaNia. Roads also go to Kisangani and Isiro. Alternate names: Ndaaka, Indaaka.  Dialects: Only 1 dialect. Speakers of Mbo, Budu, Vanuma, Nyali, and Ndaka agree that their languages are closer to each other than to other border Bantu languages. Lexical similarity 87% with Mbo, 85% with Budu, 76% with Vanuma, 73% with Nyali, 30% with Komo, 22% with Bhele, Kaiku, Bila, and Bera.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Ndo

[ndp] 100,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, Mahagi and Aru territories, south of the Lowa River, west and northwest of Djalasiga, a pocket of Okebu on the border with Uganda. Alternate names: Ke'bu, Oke'bu, Kebutu, Ndu.  Dialects: Avari (Avare, Avere, Aviritu), Oke'bu, Membi (Membitu, Meembi, Mombi, Ndo).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Ndobo

[ndw] 10,190 (2000 WCD). Equateur Province, between Bomongo and the Congo River. Alternate names: Ndoobo.  Dialects: It may be a dialect of Baloi or Libinza.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Ndolo

[ndl] 8,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Budjala Territory, Ndolo-Liboko Collectivité, on the Moeko River, south of Budjala between Ndama and Bokala villages, and in Tando and Lisombo villages. Alternate names: Ndoolo, Mosange, Tando.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Ndunga

[ndt] 2,500 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Equateur Province, 8 villages in Lisala Territory. Alternate names: Mondunga, Mondugu, Bondonga, Modunga.  Dialects: Close to Mba (Kimanga).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Ngando

[nxd] 220,000 (1995). Equateur Province, Maringa River area, north of Ikela. Alternate names: Ngandu, Longandu.  Dialects: Related to Lalia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Ngbaka

[nga] 1,012,184 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). 600,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,018,836. Equateur Province, Gemena Territory and surrounding area, 850 villages. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Ngbaka Minangende, Ngbaka Gbaya.  Dialects: Dialect differences are minor. Related to Gbaya of Central African Republic and Cameroon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Ngbaka Ma'bo

[nbm] 11,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Equateur Province, Libenge District, and Zongo Territory, on the road north and south of Zongo, and in a belt just north of Libenge. Alternate names: Ngbaka Limba, Mbaka, Mbacca, Bwaka, Bouaka, Nbwaka, Gbaka, Gwaka, Mbwaka, Ma'bo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka 
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Ngbandi, Northern

[ngb] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). 75,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 250,294. Equateur Province, Mobaye and Yakoma territories, extending into Orientale Province, Bondo Territory. Also spoken in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Ngwandi, Mongwandi, Baza.  Dialects: 2 dialects, about equal in size. Sango is derived from Ngbandi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Ngbandi, Southern

[nbw] 105,000. Equateur Province, Businga, Budjala, Kungu, and Libenge territories. Alternate names: Mongbandi, Mbati, Ngbandi-Sud, Ngbandi-Ngiri, Ngwandi, Mongwandi.  Dialects: Different enough from Northern Ngbandi that separate literature is needed.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Ngbinda

[nbd] 4,200 (2002).  Alternate names: Bungbinda, Bangbinda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Ngbundu

[nuu] 16,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Libenge Territory. Northern group is north of Libenge from the Boyabo crossroads east to Budu and north to Oro. Southern group is south of Libenge, mixed with Mbandja and other language groups. Not in Central African Republic. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southwestern 
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Ngelima

[agh] 13,588 (2000 WCD). Orientale Province, Banalia and Basoko territories. Alternate names: Bangelima, Bangalema, Angba, Leangba.  Dialects: Beo, Buru (Boro, Leboro), Tungu, Hanga. May be more than one language. Close to Bwa. The Ngombe group is sometimes called Bantu C.40. Lexical similarity 60% to 65% with Bwa, Kango, and Pagibete, 50% with Lika and Komo, 40% with Ngombe, Benza, and Budza.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Ngiti

[niy] 100,000 (1991). Orientale Province, Irumu Territory, south of Bunia. Alternate names: Kingiti, Ngeti, Kingeti, Ndruna, Druna, Bindi, Lendu-Sud.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Ngombe

[ngc] 150,000 (1971 Welmers). Equateur Province, extensive area along both sides of Congo River, primarily in Mongala District and in adjacent parts of Southern Ubangi and Equateur districts. Binja is in Orientale Province, Aketi Territory. Alternate names: Lingombe.  Dialects: Binja (Binza, Libindja, Libinja), Wiindza-Baali, Doko. Close to Bwela (Lingi), Doko, Libale. Lexical similarity 78% between standard Ngombe and Binja, 59% with Ngombe, 40% with Lingala, Pagibete, and Ngelima, 37% with Bwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Ngongo

[noq] 4,076 (2000 WCD). Bandundu Province. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Ngul

[nlo] 8,400 (2002). Western Bandundu Province along the Kasaï River north of Idiofa. Alternate names: Ngoli, Ingul, Nguli, Ngulu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.60) 
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Ngundu

[nue] 5,095 (2000 WCD).  Dialects: Closest to Kpagua.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Nkutu

[nkw] 40,000 (1972 Nida). Northern Kasaï Oriental Province. Alternate names: Nkuchu, Nkutshu, Bankutu.  Dialects: Elembe, Hamba, Lokalo (Kalo), Kongola-Meno, Ngongo, Saka (Losaka).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Ntomba

[nto] 100,000 (1980 UBS). Bandundu Province, northeast of Lake Tumba. Alternate names: Lontomba, Ntumba, Luntumba, Ntomba-Bolia.  Dialects: Imona, Mpongo, Nkole, Ntomba, Sakanyi, Soko, Saw. Close to Saw, Bolia (Bokoki).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Nyali

[nlj] 43,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Djugu Territory, Kilo Collectivité. Alternate names: Linyali, Nyari, Huku, Nyali-Kilo, North Nyali.  Dialects: Only one dialect, since 'Nyali-South' is actually Vanuma. Speakers of Vanuma, Mbo, Ndaka, Budu, and Nyali are closer to each other than to other border Bantu languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Vanuma, 76% with Mbo, 73% with Ndaka and Budu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Nyanga

[nyj] 150,000 (1994 census). Nord-Kivu Province, Walikale Territory, Wanyanga Collectivité. Alternate names: Kinyanga, Inyanga.  Dialects: Inyanga, Ifuna, Ikumbure, Itiri. The dialects do not differ much. Itiri appears to be the most divergent. The dialect around Bana-Bangi is reported to be the best understood. Lexical similarity 70% with Kwami, 57% with Hunde, 54% with Kanu, 50% with Lega-Shabunda and Tembo, 45% with Nande, Lega-Mwenga, and Bembe, 42% with Shi, 40% with Buyu and Zimba, 30% with Komo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Nyanga (D.40) 
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Nyanga-li

[nyc] 48,000 (2002). Orientale Province, Watsa Territory, southwest of Watsa. Alternate names: Linyanga-le.  Dialects: A member of the same dialect cluster as Gbati-ri, Mayeka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Nyindu

[nyg] 8,400 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, west of Lake Kivu. Dialects: Many Nyindu speakers consider themselves to be Lega-Mwenga, but Lega and Shi speakers consider them to be Shi. Their speech is reported to be a mixture of Lega-Mwenga and Shi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Nzakara

[nzk]  Orientale Province, northwestern part of Bondo Territory, on the border with Central African Republic. Alternate names: N'sakara, Sakara, Zakara, Ansakara.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Ombo

[oml] 8,400 (2002). Maniema Province, northwest of Kindu. Alternate names: Loombo, Hombo, Songola.  Dialects: Mbuli (Mbole). Jongo and Langa may be dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Omi

[omi] 39,500 (1989 SIL). Orientale Province, Aru Territory, between the Nzoro and Lowa rivers along the Aru to Aba road. Alternate names: Kaliko-Omi.  Dialects: Close to Kaliko, but not close enough to Kaliko or Ma'di to use literature in those languages. Previously considered to be a Kaliko dialect.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Pagibete

[pae] 28,000 (2000 SIL). Population includes 6,000 Momveda, 4,500 Mongbapele. Equateur Province, Businga, Yakoma, and Bumba territories. Mongbapele is along the road south of Businga. Momveda is in the area around Ngakpo on the north side of the Dua River, across from Gumba, and in Butu, Yakoma Territory. Ndundusana is to the south of Butu and at Ndundu-Sana in the northern Bumba Territory. Before the civil war they also lived in Businga, Lisala, and Gbadolite towns. Alternate names: Apakabeti, Apakibeti, Apagibete, Apagibeti, Pagabete.  Dialects: Momveda, Mongbapele, Ndundusana (Gezon, Egezon, Egezo, Egejo). Momveda and Mongbapele are similar, and have 90% lexical similarity with Ndundusana. Momveda and Mongbapele have 80% lexical similarity with Bwa, Ndundusana has 85%. Dialects have 60% to 75% with Kango, 60% to 65% with Ngelima, 55% to 60% with Lika, 46% with Komo, 40% to 45% with Bali, 35% to 40% with Ngombe and Budza, 30% with Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Pambia

[pmb] 21,000 (1982 SIL). Northern Orientale Province. Alternate names: Apambia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia 
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Pelende

[ppp] 8,400 (2002). Bandundu Province, Kenge Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Phende

[pem] 420,000 (1991 UBS). Bandundu Province, Idiofa and Gungu territories, south of the Kasaï River. Alternate names: Kipende, Giphende, Pende, Gipende, Pindi, Pinji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Poke

[pof] 46,000 (1971 Welmers). Orientale Province, Isangi Territory, south of Congo River downstream from Kisangani. Alternate names: Topoke, Tofoke, Tovoke, Puki.  Dialects: Baluombila, Likolo, Liutwa, Lombooki. May be able to use Lokele literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Ruund

[rnd] 152,845 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 251,353. Katanga Province, Lualaba District. Also spoken in Angola. Alternate names: Uruund, Northern Lunda, Luunda, Chiluwunda, Muatiamvua, Luwunda, Lunda-Kamboro, Lunda Kambove.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Rwanda

[kin] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, Rwanda border area between Lakes Edward and Kivu and extending westward. Alternate names: Kinyarwanda, Ruanda.  Dialects: Bwisha (Kinyabwisha), Mulenge (Kinyamulenge), Twa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Sakata

[skt] 75,000 (1982 UBS). Bandundu Province, Kutu, Mushie, and Inongo territories, Lukenie River, and Semendua area. Alternate names: Kisakata, Saka, Lesa, Odual.  Dialects: Sakata, Djia (Kidjia, Dia, Dja), Bai (Kibai). A cluster of dialects. Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Salampasu

[slx] 60,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Southeastern part of Kasaï Occidental Province, east of Luiza. Alternate names: Chisalampasu.  Dialects: Luntu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Samba

[smx] 4,200 (2002). Bandundu Province, northern part of Kasongo-Lunda Territory. Alternate names: Tsamba, Usamba, Tsaam, Shankadi.  Dialects: Close to Holu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Sanga

[sng] 431,000 (1991 UBS). Katanga Province, north of Likasi, widely dispersed in Lubudi, Mitwaba, and Pweto territories. Alternate names: Kisanga, Southern Luba, Luba-Sanga, Luba-Garenganze.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Sango

[sag] Few speakers in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Extreme northern border of Equateur Province (Oubangui River). Alternate names: Sangho.  Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based 
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Seba

[kdg] 167,000 (2002). Katanga Province, Kasenga Territory. Alternate names: Sewa, Shishi, Kunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Bisa 
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Sengele

[szg] 17,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, west of Lake Mai-Ndombe. Alternate names: Kesengele, Sengere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Sere

[swf] 2,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 2,528. Groups live among the Zande in Orientale Province, northeast of Ango. No speakers in Sudan. Also spoken in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Shere, Sheri, Chere, Serre, Shaire, Siri, Sili, Basiri, Basili.  Dialects: Closest to Ndogo and Tagbu. Slight dialect differences in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere 
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Shi

[shr] 654,000 (1991 UBS). Sud-Kivu Province, north, west, and south of Bukavu. Alternate names: Mashi.  Dialects: Lindja, Hwindja (Lwindja), Ziba, Longe-Longe. Lexical similarity 70% to Havu and Tembo, 57% with Hunde, 55% with Nande, 44% with Lega-Shabunda, 42% with Nyanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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So

[soc] 6,000 (1971 Welmers). Orientale Province, north of Basoko. May also be in Uganda. Alternate names: Heso, Eso, Soko, Soa, Gesogo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Sonde

[shc] 96,000 (2002). Southeastern Bandundu Province, Feshi Territory. Alternate names: Kisonde, Soonde, Kisoonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Songa

[sgo]  Southern Kivu Province. Alternate names: Kisonga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Unclassified 
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Songe

[sop] 1,000,000 (1991 WA). Population includes 150,000 in Western Kalebwe (1982 UBS). Kasaï Oriental Province, between Sankuru and Lualaba rivers, mainly in Kabinda Zone and eastward into Kongolo and Kabolo territories of Katanga Province. Alternate names: Songye, Kisongye, Lusonge, Kalebwe, Northeast Luba, Yembe, Kisonge, Luba-Songi, Kisongi.  Dialects: Western Kalebwe (Esambi Kipya, Songe), Eastern Kalebwe (Kilombeno Kibya, Ikalebwe), Mbagani. Related to Mbagani.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Songo

[soo] 13,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory. Possibly also in Angola. Alternate names: Kisongo, Itsong.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Songomeno

[soe] 50,000 (1972 Barrett). Kasaï Occidental Province, Dekese Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Songoora

[sod] 1,300 (1971 Welmers). Maniema Province, Punia, Kindu, and Shabunda territories. Gengele is in Kindu Territory. Alternate names: Songola, Kesongola, Binja.  Dialects: Gengele (Kegengele), North Binja, South Binja. North and South Binja may be separate languages. Gengele is reported to be a creole based on Lega-Shabunda, Kusu, and other languages (W. B. Mwangati 1991).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Suku

[sub] 50,000 (1980 UBS). Southern Bandundu Province, west of Feshi, in areas of Moanza and Mwela. Alternate names: Kisuku.  Dialects: One report says that it is not in the Yaka (H.30) subgroup, but in the Kongo subgroup (H.10). Another says it is in Holu (K.10).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Swahili, Congo

[swc] 1,000. Throughout the Katanga, Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu, and Maniema provinces and the southeastern part of the Orientale Province. There are other varieties of Swahili in East Africa. Alternate names: Zaïre Swahili.  Dialects: Ituri Kingwana, Lualaba Kingwana, Katanga Swahili, Kivu Swahili. Kingwana is a pidgin Swahili which functions sociolinguistically as a dialect. There are several regional dialects, with that of the formerly Arabized areas being closest to Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania. Lexical similarity 30% with Lingala and with the Lega group, 15% to 20% with Bira-Huku group, Bali, and Lika.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Taabwa

[tap] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1972 Barrett). Population total all countries: 310,000. Katanga Province, on Lake Tanganyika, south of Moba. Also spoken in Zambia. Alternate names: Rungu, Ichitaabwa, Tabwa.  Dialects: Shila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Tagbu

[tbm] 17,000 (2002). Widely scattered. None in Sudan or Central African Republic. Alternate names: Tagbo, Tagba.  Dialects: Closest to Sere and Ndogo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere 
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Talinga-Bwisi

[tlj] 30,890 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 WCD). Nord-Kivu Province, Beni Territory, Butalinga County, within the boundaries of the Virunga National Park, up to the Uganda border. Alternate names: Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Olubwisi, Bwissi, Mawissi, Lubwissi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Teke, Eboo

[ebo] 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Bandundo Province, Mushie Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70) 
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Teke, Ibali

[tek] 71,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 107,221. Kwamouth, Masia, Kinshasa, near Banbana on road to Kenga. Upstream from Kinshasa to Kwa (Kasaï) River and inland to Fatunda area. Also spoken in Congo. Alternate names: Kiteke, Ibali, Eastern Teke.  Dialects: Mosieno, Ngee (Esingee), Bali (Ambali, Teo, Tio, Tyo). Ngee may be a separate language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70) 
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Tembo

[tbt] 150,000 (1994 SIL). Sud-Kivu and Nord-Kivu provinces, almost all in Kalehe Territory. Alternate names: Kitembo, Chitembo, Nyabungu.  Dialects: Tembo (Kitembo), Rhinyihinyi. No major dialect differences. Related to Havu, Hunde, Shi, Fuliiru. Lexical similarity 75% with Hunde, 70% with Shi, 55% with Nande, 50% with Nyanga, 45% with Lega Shabunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Tembo

[tmv] 5,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts, Budjala and Bomongo districts, villages of Libanza, Bokele, and Bosanga on the Banga-Melo River, at 1 or 2 villages on the Mongala River southwest of Akula,, and Sumba Island. Alternate names: Motembo, Litembo.  Dialects: There may be wide dialect variations.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Tetela

[tll] 750,000 (1991 UBS). Northern Kasaï Oriental Province. Alternate names: Otetela, Sungu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Tiene

[tii] 24,500 (1977 SIL). Bandundu Province, Bolobo area on Congo River and inland savannah and forest. Alternate names: Kitiene, Kitiini, Tende.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Vanuma

[vau] 6,700 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory, Tchabi Collectivité. Alternate names: Bvanuma, Livanuma, Bambutuku.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Nyali, 75% with Budu, Ndaka, and Mbo, 76% with Bila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Wongo

[won] 12,691 (2000 WCD). Kasaï Occidental Province, Ilebo and Tshikapa territories. Bandundu Province, Guagu and Idiofa territories, in area of Lubue River. Alternate names: Gongo, Ndjembe, Tukkongo, Tukongo, Bakong.  Dialects: Intelligible with Lele.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Yaka

[yaf] 700,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 900,000. Bandundu Province (400,000), Popokabaka and Kasongo Lunda territories. Also spoken in Angola. Alternate names: Kiyaka, Iaka, Iyaka.  Dialects: Ngoongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Yakoma

[yky] 10,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Yamongeri

[ymg] 13,000 (2002). Equateur Province, south of the Congo River. Alternate names: Yamongiri.  Dialects: Related to Budza.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Yango

[yng] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Kungu and Libenge districts, around Esobe River and in village of Gbendere. Alternate names: Gbendere.  Dialects: Close to Monzombo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Yansi

[yns] 100,000 (1997 Salikoko Mufwene). Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory, Loange River area. Alternate names: Yanzi, Eyanzi, Kiyanzi, Eyansi, Yans.  Dialects: Yeei (Yey). Related to Ding, Mbuun.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Yela

[yel] 33,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Equateur Province, mainly in Bokungu Territory. Alternate names: Boyela, Kutu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Yombe

[yom] 669,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Population total all countries: 1,056,126. Western Bas-Congo Province, Mayombe Forest. Also spoken in Angola, Congo. Alternate names: Kiyombe, Kiombi, Bayombe.  Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Yulu

[yul]  Binga are in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan; Yulu are in Sudan and Central African Republic. Alternate names: Youlou.  Dialects: Binga, Yulu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Zande

[zne] 730,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 1,142,000. Far north of Orientale Province, Bas-Uele District. Also spoken in Central African Republic, Sudan. Alternate names: Pazande, Zandi, Azande, Sande, Asande, Badjande, Bazenda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Zimba

[zmb] 120,000 (1994 census). Maniema Province, Kasongo Territory, Mulu and Maringa collectivités. Dialects: Binja (Soe, Sole), Semulu (Semolo, Nyembombo, Kisembombo), Semalinga, Kwange, Mamba (Kyenyemamba). Kwange and Mamba may be separate languages. Lexical similarity 55% with Bembe, 50% with Lega-Mwenga, Lega-Shabunda, Buyu, Mituku, Enya, 40% with Nyanga, 34% with Bangubangu, 32% with Komo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Extinct languages

Ngbee

[jgb] Extinct. Orientale Province, scattered in Rungu, Niangara, Wamba, and Watsa territories. Alternate names: Lingbee, Lingbe, Mangbele, Majuu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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