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Languages of Colombia

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Republic of Colombia, República de Colombia. 42,310,775. 500,000 speakers of American Indian languages (1997 Centro Colombiano de Estudios de Lenguas Aborígenes). National or official language: Spanish. Literacy rate: 70% to 80%. Also includes Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Yagua, Yuhup. Information mainly from S. H. Levinsohn 1976 a, b, c; Arango and Sánchez 1998; SIL 1964–2003. Blind population: 30,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 300,000 to 2,157,094 in Colombia (1998), 50,000 in Bogotá, half school-aged (1992). Deaf institutions: 8. The number of languages listed for Colombia is 101. Of those, 80 are living languages and 21 are extinct.

Living languages

Achagua

[aca] 400 (1994 SIL). Rio Meta near Puerto Gaitan. Not in Venezuela. Alternate names: Ajagua, Xagua.  Dialects: Close to Piapoco.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Andoque

[ano] 619 (2000 WCD). 50 monolinguals. Extinct in Peru (1992 SIL). There were 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). Aduche River (tributary of Caquetá) 15 km downriver from Araracuara, Amazonas. Alternate names: Andoke.  Dialects: Mason (1950:246 with disclaimer), Tax (1960:433), and Kaufman (1990:43 tentatively) say this is Witotoan. Tovar (1961:150), Witte (1981:1), and Aschmann (1993:2) say it is an isolate.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Arhuaco

[arh] 14,301 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). 90% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,301. Southern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Aruaco, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Bintucua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ike.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
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Awa-Cuaiquer

[kwi] 20,000 in Colombia (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 21,000. Pacific slopes of the Andes, Nariño, from Ecuador border north, near Barbacoas. Also spoken in Ecuador. Alternate names: Coaiquer, Quaiquer, Kwaiker, Awa, Awa Pit, Cuaiquer.  Dialects: More distantly related to Chachi and Colorado.  Classification: Barbacoan, Pasto 
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Barasana

[bsn] 350 (1990 SIL). Pira-Paraná River and tributaries, southern Vaupés Region. Jepa Matsi in Brazil may be a dialect. Alternate names: Southern Barasano, Paneroa, Eduria, Edulia.  Dialects: Taiwano (Taibano, Taiwaeno), Janera, Comematsa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
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Barí

[mot] 850 in Colombia (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,700. Oro River and Catatumbo River Region. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Motilone, Motilón.  Dialects: M. Durbin questions its classification as Chibchan; Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) classify it as Arawakan.  Classification: Chibchan, Motilon 
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Bora

[boa] 500 in Colombia. Population includes 100 or more Miraña and 400 other Bora. Bora are in Providencia on the Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo). Miraña are on the lower Caquetá River, near the mouth of the Cabinari River, Amazonas. Alternate names: Boro.  Dialects: Miraña (Miranha), Bora.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Cabiyarí

[cbb] 50 (1976 Bourgue). Cananarí River (tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés). Alternate names: Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Kauyarí, Cuyare, Kawillary.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland  Nearly extinct.
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Cacua

[cbv] 150 (1982 SIL). Many are monolingual, especially children. Wacará, 30 kilometers east of Mitú, Lower Vaupés Region. Alternate names: Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Guanano, Macu de Desano, Báda, Kákwa.  Dialects: Vaupés Cacua, Macú-Paraná Cacua. Related to Jupda and Nukak.  Classification: Maku 
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Camsá

[kbh] 4,022 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Ethnic population: 4,020. Sibundoy Valley, Putumayo Region. Alternate names: Kamsa, Coche, Sibundoy, Kamemtxa, Kamse, Camëntsëá.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Carabayo

[cby] 150. Amazonas Department, halfway between the San Bernardo and Pure rivers. 3 long houses, at least. Alternate names: "Amazonas Macusa".  Classification: Unclassified 
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Carapana

[cbc] 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 650. Caño Tí (tributary of the middle Vaupés River) and upper Papurí and Pirá-Paraná rivers, Vaupés Region. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Mochda, Moxdoa, Karapaná, Karapano, Carapana-Tapuya, Mextã.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
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Carijona

[cbd] 140 (1993 SIL). Upper Vaupés, Yarí, and lower Caquetá rivers, 1 hour by motorized canoe; 2 to 3 hours by canoe south of Miraflores, around Puerto Nare. Alternate names: Karijona, Carihona, Omagua, Umawa, Hianacoto-Umaua.  Dialects: M. Durbin says there are possibly two separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona. The two groups have not had contact for many years.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southeastern Colombia 
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Chimila

[cbg] 2,000 (1993 census). Lowlands south and west of Fundación, and scattered in the central part of Magdalena Department. Alternate names: Caca Weranos, San Jorge, Shimizya.  Classification: Chibchan, Unclassified 
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Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] Ethnic population: 20 in Colombia. Lower Putumayo. Alternate names: Cocama, Kokama.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Cofán

[con] 600 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 to 700 in Colombia (2000 Borman). Colombia-Ecuador border area, Putumayo Province. Alternate names: Kofan, Kofane, A'i.  Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa.  Classification: Chibchan, Cofan 
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Cogui

[kog] 9,770 (2000 SIL). Nearly all are monolingual. Ethnic population: 11,000 (1998 census). Northern, eastern, and western slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Kogui, Coghui, Kogi, Kagaba, Kaggaba.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
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Colombian Sign Language

[csn] 50,000 deaf in Bogotá in 1992.  Dialects: Some signs are similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the USA.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Cubeo

[cub] 6,000 in Colombia (1994 SIL). 10% monolinguals. Population total all countries: 6,150. Vaupés, Cuduyari, Querarí rivers and tributaries, Vaupés Region. Also spoken in Brazil, Venezuela. Alternate names: Cuveo, Kobeua, Kubwa, Kobewa, Pamiwa, Hehenawa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan 
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Cuiba

[cui] 2,343 in Colombia (1993 census). 50% monolingual. Population total all countries: 2,993. Meta Casanare and Capanapara rivers and tributaries. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Cuiva, Cuiba-Wámonae.  Dialects: Chiricoa, Masiware (Masiguare), Chiripo (Wupiwi, Siripu), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Amaruwa (Amorua). 8 dialects; 2 in Venezuela, 7 in Colombia.  Classification: Guahiban 
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Curripaco

[kpc] 2,699 in Colombia (2000 WCD). 6,943 in Colombia including Baniwa. Population total all countries: 3,719. Guainia, Isana, and Inirida rivers. Also spoken in Brazil, Venezuela. Alternate names: Curipaco, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Koripako.  Dialects: Close to Baniwa and Carutana.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Desano

[des] 800 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Papurí and Abiyu rivers (tributary of the Vaupés), Pacá River (tributary of the Papurí), and Macú Parana River (tributary of the Papurí), plus other tributaries of the Papurí. Alternate names: Desána, Dessana, Wina, Boleka, Oregu, Kusibi.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Emberá, Northern

[emp] 13,000 in Colombia (1988 Aguirre and Pardo-Rojas). Atrato River basin in Chocó Department, Pacific coastal rivers from Cabo Corrientes, to Antioquia (Rio Verde) Department. Alternate names: Emperã, Eberã Bed'ea, Eperã Pedea, Atrato, Darién, Dariena, Panama Embera, Eberã, Cholo.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Northern 
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Emberá-Baudó

[bdc] 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Embera in Colombia: 71,000 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Baudó River basin and Pacific (north) coastal rivers between cabo corrientes and the south of the San Juan River, near Northern Emberá. Alternate names: Baudó, Catrú.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Northern Embera and Epena.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
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Emberá-Catío

[cto] 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). 90% to 95% are monolingual. Population total all countries: 15,040. Upper Sinu, San Jorge, San Pedro, Murri rivers. Also spoken in Panama. Alternate names: Catio, Katio, Embena, Eyabida.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Northern 
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Emberá-Chamí

[cmi] 11,000 (1995 SIL). Departments of Risaralda, Caldas, Antioquía, Valle, including the Municipio of Caramanta. Alternate names: Chami.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
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Emberá-Tadó

[tdc] 1,000 (1991 SIL). Upper San Juan River Region, Andes, Risaralda Region, near the Chamí. Alternate names: Embená Tadó.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
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Epena

[sja] 8,000 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 8,050. Southern Pacific coast, Caucá, Nariño, Chocó departments. Also spoken in Ecuador, Panama. Alternate names: Emberá-Saija, Saija, Epená Saija, Epéna Pedée, Southern Embera, Southern Empera, Cholo.  Dialects: Basurudó.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
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Guahibo

[guh] 18,772 in Colombia (1993 census). 40% monolingual. Population total all countries: 23,772. Ethnic population: 21,425 in Colombia (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Casanare, eastern Meta, Vichada, Guaviare, Guainia states, plains regions. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Guajibo, Goahibo, Guaigua, Guayba, Wahibo, Goahiva, "Sicuani", "Sikuani".  Dialects: Guahibo (Sikuani), Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Tigrero. The Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan.  Classification: Guahiban 
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Guambiano

[gum] 15,596 (2000 WCD). Less than 10% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 to 15,000 (2000). Central Andes Range near Popayán, Cauca, in concentrated areas. Alternate names: Guambia, Moguex, Namdrik.  Classification: Barbacoan, Coconucan 
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Guanano

[gvc] 450 in Colombia (1983 SIL). Lower Vaupés River region. Alternate names: Wanana, Uanano, Kotiria, Anana, Kótedia.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Guayabero

[guo] 1,237 (1993 census). Ethnic population: 1,237 (1993). Upper Guaviaré River, Metá and Guaviaré states. Alternate names: Jiw, Cunimía, Mítus, Mítua.  Classification: Guahiban 
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Huitoto, Minica

[hto] 1,700 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,705. Upper Igara-Parana. Caquetá River at Isla de los Monos, Caguan River near Sanvicente del Caguan. Also spoken in Peru. Alternate names: Minica, Meneca.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
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Huitoto, Murui

[huu] 1,900 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Caraparana, Putumayo, and Leticia rivers. None left in Brazil. Alternate names: Bue, Witoto.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
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Hupdë

[jup] 150 in Colombia (1991 SIL). Papurí and Tiquié river systems. Alternate names: Ubdé, "Hupdá Makú", "Jupdá Macú", "Macú de Tucano", "Makú-Hupdá".  Classification: Maku 
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Inga

[inb] 12,000 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 16,000. Ethnic population: 17,860. Sibundoy Valley, in and around Santiago, San Andrés, and Colón; Aponte, Department of Nariño. 1,000 in Bogotá, small numbers in regional capitals. None in Ecuador. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Highland Inga.  Dialects: Santiago Inga, San Andrés Inga, Aponte Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua of Ecuador. Aponte Inga may need separate literature.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Inga, Jungle

[inj] 9,141 (2000 WCD). Upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. Alternate names: Lowland Inga, Mocoa, Ingano.  Dialects: Yunguillo-Condagua, Guayuyaco. Closest to Highland Inga. Distinct from Napo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Islander Creole English

[icr] 12,000 to 18,000 (1981 SIL). San Andrés and Providencia Islands. Alternate names: San Andrés Creole, Bende.  Dialects: There is reported to be a 'deep Creole'. Very close to Belize Creole English.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western 
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Koreguaje

[coe] 2,000 (1995 SIL). Orteguaza and Caquetá rivers and tributaries, Caquetá Region. Alternate names: Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko'reuaju, Caquetá, Chaocha Pai.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Coreguaje 
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Kuna, Border

[kvn] 876 in Colombia (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,576. North coastal region near the Panama isthmus. Also spoken in Panama. Alternate names: Colombia Cuna, Caiman Nuevo, Cuna, Paya-Pucuro.  Dialects: Classification of Kuna is uncertain; it may be an isolate with certain Chibchan features.  Classification: Chibchan, Kuna 
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Macaguán

[mbn] 405 (1993 census). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 542 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Arauca, Agualinda, and San José de Lipa between the Lipa, Ele, and Cuiloto rivers and Caño Colorado, and other scattered locations. Alternate names: Macaguane, Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü.  Dialects: Unintelligible to speakers of other Guahibo varieties.  Classification: Guahiban 
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Macuna

[myy] 450 in Colombia (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 550. Lower Pira-Parana, Vaupés Region; Apaporis tributaries and Miriti-Parana. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Makuna, Buhagana, Roea, Emoa, Ide, Yeba, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Paneroa, Jepa-Matsi, Yepá-Mahsá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
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Malayo

[mbp] 3,225 (1993 Organizacósn Gonawindu Tayrona). Southern and eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Marocasero, Maracasero, Sanja, Sanka, Sancá, Arosario, Arsario, Guamaka, Guamaca, Wiwa.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
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Muinane

[bmr] 150 (1982 SIL). Upper Cahuinarí, (tributary Caquetá) Amazonas. Alternate names: Muinana, Muinani, Muename.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Nhengatu

[yrl] 3,000 in Colombia. Vaupés. Alternate names: Yeral, Geral, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Modern Tupi.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Nukak Makú

[mbr] 300. Jungle region between Guaviare and Inirida rivers, up to Maparipan. Near Charco Caimán. Alternate names: Maczsa, Guaviare.  Classification: Maku 
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Ocaina

[oca] 12 in Colombia (1982 SIL). Upper Igara-Paraná and tributaries, Amazonas Region. Alternate names: Okaina.  Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo'tsa.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Ocaina 
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Páez

[pbb] 71,400 to 83,300 (2000 SIL). 35,700 to 41,650 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 122,638 (2000 WCD). Central Andes Range near Popayán, Cauca. Alternate names: Nasa Yuwe.  Dialects: Pitayo, Paniquita (Panikita).  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Palenquero

[pln] 500 (1989 J. Holm). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1989 J. Holm). Village of San Basilio de Palenque southeast of Cartagena, and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla. Alternate names: Palenque, Lengua.  Dialects: Entirely unintelligible to Spanish speakers. Linguistic influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of the Congo (I. Hancock 1987).  Classification: Creole, Spanish based 
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Piapoco

[pio] 4,542 in Colombia (1993 census). Population total all countries: 4,641. Tributaries and lower Vichada River region, and Meta and Guaviare rivers. Also spoken in Venezuela. Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Piaroa

[pid] 80 in Colombia (1991 Adelaar). Near the Sáliba. Alternate names: Kuakua, Guagua, Quaqua.  Classification: Salivan 
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Piratapuyo

[pir] 450 in Colombia. Papurí River and lower Vaupés, Amazonas. Most near RC mission at Teresita. Others in small groups. Alternate names: Waikino, Urubu-Tapuya, Uaikena.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Playero

[gob] 244 (2000 WCD). Arauca River, Venezuela border, Arauca Division, on the banks of the Arauca River from Gaviotas Island to Arauca. Alternate names: Rio Arauca Guahibo.  Dialects: Low intelligibility of other Guahibo.  Classification: Guahiban 
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Providencia Sign Language

[prz] Known by most people on the Island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (1986 W. Washabaugh). Providencia Island off the coast of Nicaragua. Dialects: They have not been exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Puinave

[pui] 2,000 in Colombia (1977 NTM). Population total all countries: 2,240. Inírida River and tributaries, Territory of Guainia. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Puinabe.  Dialects: Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Macú.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Quichua, Napo Lowland

[qvo] Undetermined number in Colombia. Putumayo River. Alternate names: Lowland Napo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Romani, Vlax

[rmy] 79,000 Gypsies in Colombia (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Several hundred thousand in Latin America (1984 Ian Hancock).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax 
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Sáliba

[slc] 1,305 in Colombia (1993 census). Population total all countries: 1,555. Meta and Casanare rivers. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Sáliva.  Classification: Salivan 
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Siona

[snn] 300 in Colombia (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 550. Live on both sides of the Putumayo River. Also spoken in Ecuador. Alternate names: Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
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Siriano

[sri] 337 in Colombia (2001 WCD). Population total all countries: 347. Paca and Vina rivers, Vaupés Region. Also spoken in Brazil. Dialects: Different from Desano.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Spanish

[spa] 34,000,000 in Colombia (1995).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Tanimuca-Retuarã

[tnc] 300 (1976 SIL). Population includes 180 Tanimuca. Guacayá, Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Parana), Mirití-Parana, Apaporis, and Popeyaka rivers near the mouth of the Pira River below Popeyaca, Amazonas Region. Alternate names: Retuama, Retuarã, Letuama, Letuhama, Ufaina, Uairã.  Dialects: Tanimuca, Retuarã. The Tanimuca and Retuarã are two ethnic groups living close together who speak the same language. Possibly Eastern Tucanoan.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Tanimuca 
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Tariano

[tae] Ethnic population: 332 in Colombia (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Lower Papurí, Vaupés Region. Alternate names: Tariána.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland  Nearly extinct.
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Tatuyo

[tav] 350 (1983 SIL). Pira-Paraná headwaters and Upper Papurí, Vaupés Region. Alternate names: Pamoa, Oa, Tatutapuyo, Juna.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
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Ticuna

[tca] 8,000 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Amazon River. Alternate names: Tikuna, Tukúna, Tucuna.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Tinigua

[tit] 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. Sierra de la Macarena, Metá Department. Formerly they were in the Llanos de Yarí, Caquetá Department. Alternate names: Tiniguas.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Totoro

[ttk] 4 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Ethnic population: 3,650 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). 17 km west of Silvia, Cauca, in town of Totoro. Classification: Barbacoan, Coconucan  Nearly extinct.
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Tucano

[tuo] 2,000 in Colombia. Upper Papurí River and tributaries. Alternate names: Daxsea, Dachsea, Dasea, Betoya, Betaya, Tukana.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Tunebo, Angosturas

[tnd] 50.  Dialects: 71% intelligibility between Eastern and Angosturas Tunebo.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo  Nearly extinct.
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Tunebo, Barro Negro

[tbn] 300 (1981 SIL). Isolated, on the edge of the eastern plains in the Andes foothills above Paz de Ariporo, in Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca. Alternate names: Eastern Tunebo.  Dialects: 62% intelligibility of Cobaría Tunebo.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
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Tunebo, Central

[tuf] 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). North slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy, Boyaca and Arauca regions; Satocá, Calafita, Tegría (Boyaca), Cobaría (Boyacá). Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Cobaría Tunebo, U'wa.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
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Tunebo, Western

[tnb] 700 (1998). Santander del Sur. Alternate names: Aguas Blancas, U'wa.  Dialects: The most divergent of the Tunebo languages.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
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Tuyuca

[tue] 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 815. Inambu, Tiquie, and Papurí rivers. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Waimaha

[bao] 600 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Almost no monolinguals. Population total all countries: 700. Tributaries of mid and upper Pira-Paraná, upper Papurí and Tiquié, in and around the capital of the Vaupés, Mitú, southeastern Vaupés region. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Waimaja, "Bará", Northern Barasano, Barasano.  Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Wayuu

[guc] 135,000 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 305,000. Guajira Peninsula on the Caribbean coast. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Guajiro, Goajiro, Guajira.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Caribbean 
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Woun Meu

[noa] 3,000 in Colombia. San Juan River basin. Alternate names: Waun Meo, Waumeo.  Classification: Choco 
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Yarí

[yri] 758 (2000 WCD). Yarí River, Caquetá Region, above El Capitán waterfalls near the Yarí River. About 50 years ago 140 of them migrated to the Apaporis River, and settled on the upper Vaupés River near Puerto Nare. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Carijona (Carib), a Western Tucanoan language, or Huitoto.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Yucuna

[ycn] 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10 to 20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Miriti-Parana (tributary Caquetá), Amazonas Region. Some have moved to La Pedrera on the lower Caquetá, Ararcuara, some to Leticia. Alternate names: Matapi, Yukuna.  Dialects: In some traditional ceremonies they use a ritual language which is mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Yukpa

[yup] 2,500 in Colombia (1976 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,000. Ethnic population: 3,530 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Serranía de Perijá, Cesar Department, Municipio of Augustín Codazzi and neighboring municipios north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border. Río Cascará dialect is in the Municipio of Agustín Codassi along the Casacará River and the Caño Iroka. Caqo Padilla-La Laguna is small and farther north. Río Maracas is to the south in the Municipio of Becerril. Also spoken in Venezuela. Alternate names: Yuko, Yuco, Yupa, Yucpa, Northern Motilón, Carib Motilón.  Dialects: Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Caño Padilla-La Laguna, Coyaima. At least five extant dialects including two in Venezuela. Ruhlen says Coyaima was a dialect. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably the largest ones, and different enough to probably be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Relations between speakers of different dialects have sometimes been hostile in the past. Presently they have little contact with each other. Unrelated to Bari. Low lexical similarity with Japreira of Venezuela (Luis Oquendo, U. of Zulia-Venezuela).  Classification: Carib, Northern, Coastal 
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Yurutí

[yui] 300 in Colombia (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 300. Upper Pacá River (tributary of Papurí) and Caño Yi River, Vaupés. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Juruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Luruty-Tapuya, Yuriti, Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Wayhara, Patsoka, Wajiaraye.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Extinct languages

Andaqui

[ana] Extinct. Southern highlands. Alternate names: Andaki.  Classification: Barbacoan, Andaqui 
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Anserma

[ans] Extinct.  Alternate names: Anserna.  Dialects: Related to Cauca, Arma (both extinct), and Caramanta.  Classification: Choco 
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Arma

[aoh] Extinct.  Classification: Choco 
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Barbacoas

[bpb] Extinct. Near the coastal town of Barbacoas, Nariño. Classification: Barbacoan, Pasto 
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Cagua

[cbh] Extinct.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Caramanta

[crf] Extinct. Near city of Andes, Christiania, Municipio de Jardín, Antioquía region. Classification: Choco 
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Cauca

[cca] Extinct.  Dialects: Related to Anserma.  Classification: Choco 
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Chibcha

[chb] Extinct. Central highlands. Alternate names: Muisca, Mosca.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper 
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Chipiajes

[cbe] Extinct.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Coxima

[kox] Extinct.  Alternate names: Koxima.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Coyaima

[coy] Extinct. Tolima Region. Dialects: Ruhlen says it was a Yukpa variety.  Classification: Carib, Northern, Coastal 
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Cumeral

[cum] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Macaguaje

[mcl] Extinct. Ethnic population: 50 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Lower Putumayo, tributaries of Caquetá River. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
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Natagaimas

[nts] Extinct. Tolima Region. Classification: Unclassified 
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Omejes

[ome] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Pijao

[pij] Extinct. Tolima Region. Alternate names: Piajao.  Dialects: M. Durbin said there is not enough data to classify it linguistically.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Ponares

[pod] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Runa

[rna] Extinct.  Classification: Choco 
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Tama

[ten] Extinct. Vicente, Orteguaza River, Caquetá Region. Dialects: Ruhlen says it is a Koreguaje dialect.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Tama 
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Tomedes

[toe] Extinct.  Alternate names: Tamudes.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Yahuna

[ynu] Extinct. Ethnic population: Fewer than 23 in ethnic group, fewer than 20 on Umana River, 3 on Apaporis River (1988). Umuqa River, a tributary of the Piraparana River. Alternate names: Yaúna, Yayuna.  Dialects: Opaina, Datuana.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Unclassified 
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