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Languages of Laos

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Lao People's Democratic Republic, Sathanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao. 6,068,117. Population includes 2,769,000, or 71% speakers Daic languages, 1,100,000, or 24.1% Austro-Asiatic languages, 175,000, or 4% Miao-Yao languages, 42,500, or 1% Tibeto-Burman languages (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Lao. Literacy rate: 43% to 45%. Also includes Central Khmer (10,400), Mandarin Chinese, Sedang (786), Vietnamese (76,000). Information mainly from F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; D. Thomas and R. Headley 1970; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981; J. Matisoff et al. 1996; J. Edmondson and D. Solnit 1997; R. Burling ms. (1998). Blind population: 10,000 (1982 WCE). The number of languages listed for Laos is 82. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages

Aheu

[thm] 1,770 in Laos (2000). Pak Sane Province, Khamkeut District, near Lak Sao. Alternate names: Kha Tong Luang, Thavung, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung 
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Akha

[ahk] 58,000 in Laos (1995 Nguyen Duy Thieu). Luang Namtha, Phongsali provinces. Alternate names: Kaw, Ekaw, Ko, Aka, Ikaw, Ak'a, Ahka, Khako, Hka Ko, Khao Kha Ko, Ikor, Aini, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
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Alak

[alk] 4,000 (2000 Bradley). Southern Laos, mainly in Saravan and Sekong provinces. Alternate names: Hrlak.  Dialects: Included under Bahnaric as closest to Bahnar, Tampuan, Lamam. Also included under Katuic.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
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Arem

[aem] 20 in Laos. Ethnic population: 500 (1995). West central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. Alternate names: Chomrau, Chombrau, Umo.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut  Nearly extinct.
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Bit

[bgk] 1,530 in Laos (1985 Proschan). Population total all countries: 2,030. Near the northern border with China, northeast of Namtha, Luang Namtha Province, and south of Boun Neua; Phongsali Province, Boun-Tai, Samphan, and Khoa districts, 8 villages. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Khabit, Khbit, Phsing, Phsin.  Dialects: Not Khmuic, but Palaungic (J-O Svantesson 1990). Related to Khao in Viet Nam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao 
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Bo

[bgl] 2,950 (2000). Central Laos inland from the bend of the Mekong, Nhang River, around Nape, Kammouan Province and Lak Sao, Bolikhamxay Province, Hinboun District. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
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Bru, Eastern

[bru] 69,000 in Laos (1999). Population total all countries: 129,559. Eastern Savannehkhet Province, Sepone District. Also spoken in Thailand, Viet Nam. Dialects: Tri (So Tri, So Trii, Chali). It is partially intelligible with Western Bru of Thailand. Related to Khua. Mangkong in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So of Thailand. Mangkong is an ethnic group.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Chut

[scb] 450 in Laos (1995 census). Khammouan Province, Bouarapha District, near the Viet Nam border at about the latitude of the Mu Gia Pass. Alternate names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang.  Dialects: May, Ruc.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Con

[cno] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Luang Namtha Province, southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Lametic 
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Halang Doan

[hld] 2,346 in Laos (2000). Attopeu Province, Kasseng Plateau, Sanxai District, on the left banks of the Kamane and Dak Robay rivers, near the Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Halang Duan, Duan, Doan.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan 
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Hani

[hni] 1,122 in Laos (1995). Phongsali Province, along the Yunnan border. None in Thailand. Alternate names: Hanhi, Haw.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
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Hmong Daw

[mww] 169,800 in Laos (1995 census). Northern Laos. Alternate names: White Meo, White Miao, Meo Kao, White Lum, Bai Miao.  Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong), Mong Leng.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Njua

[blu] 145,600 in Laos (1995). Northern Laos. Alternate names: Blue Meo, Blue Miao, Tak Meo, Hmong Njwa, Hmong Leng, Miao, Meo.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hung

[hnu] 2,000 in Laos (1996 Ferlus). Population total all countries: 2,700 to 3,700. Bolikhamsay, Khammouan provinces. The Toum live northeast of Nape and south of the Phong. Also spoken in Viet Nam. Dialects: Toum (Tum), Phong (Pong, Poong, Pong 1, Pong 2).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
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Ir

[irr] 4,420 (2000). Saravan Province, east of Saravan town. Alternate names: In, Yir.  Dialects: Closest to Ong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
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Iu Mien

[ium] 20,250 in Laos (2000).  Alternate names: Mien, Man, Yao, Myen, Highland Yao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Jeh

[jeh] 8,013 in Laos (1995 census). Southern Laos, Xekong Province, Dakchung District; Attopeu Province, Sanxai District, basin of Poko, Kamane, and Dak Main rivers. Alternate names: Die, Yeh, Gie.  Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Jeng

[jeg] 7,320 (2000). Attopeu Province, Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts, 6 villages north of Attopeu town. Alternate names: Cheng, Chiengceng.  Dialects: Related to Oy, Sapuan, Sok.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Kado

[kdv] 225 in Laos (2000). Phongsali Province. Alternate names: Kadu, Katu, Asak, Sak, Gadu, Thet.  Dialects: Kadu, Ganaan (Ganan), Andro, Sengmai, Chakpa, Phayeng.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Luish 
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Kaduo

[ktp] 5,000 in Laos (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population total all countries: 10,292. North central on the China border, north of Mong Ou Tay. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Gazhuo.  Dialects: No information on intelligibility of other Lolo languages. No significant dialect differences.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Bi-Ka 
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Kang

[kyp] 47,636 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 81,701. Houaphan Province, Xam-Tai District; Xiangkhoang Province, Nonghet District. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Tai Khang.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
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Kasseng

[kgc] 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000). Southern Laos near Viet Nam border, Boloven Plateau area north of Attopeu, and between the Jeh, Alak, Laven, and Tareng peoples. Alternate names: Koseng, Kaseng, Kraseng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kaseng 
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Kataang

[kgd] 107,350 (2000). Southern Laos near the Ta'oih and Bru people, around Muong Nong, in Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, and Champassak provinces, around Toumlahn District, 2 villages in Khong Chiem, Ubon Ratachatani District, Thailand. Alternate names: Katang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
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Katu, Western

[kuf] 14,700 (1998). Upper Xe Kong River, high basin of Song Boung River watershed along the Vietnamese border, Sekong, Saravan, and Champassak provinces. Dialects: A different language variety and orthography from Viet Nam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Khlor

[llo] 6,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Saravan Province, Laongam District, south of Ir and Ong. Alternate names: Klor, Lor.  Dialects: Closest to Ngeq.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang 
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Khmu

[kjg] 389,694 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Population total all countries: 479,739. Scattered through northern Laos. Also spoken in China, France, Myanmar, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Kmhmu, Khmu', Khamu, Kamu, Kammu, Khamuk, Kamhmu, Khomu, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng, Lao Terng.  Dialects: Yuan, Khroong (Krong), Luang Prabang, Sayabury, Lyy, Rok, U, Hat.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
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Khua

[xhv] 2,000 in Laos (1981). Khammouan Province, Bouarapha District, northwest of Boualapha. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Khuen

[khf] 8,000 in Laos (1995 Chazee). Population total all countries: 9,000. Luang Namtha Province, Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts. Near the Lamet people. Also spoken in China, USA. Alternate names: Kween, Khween, Khouen.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
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Kim Mun

[mji] 4,500 in Laos (1995 Chazee). Northwestern Laos, Luang Namtha Province, Long, Namtha districts; Huay Sai Province; Nam Moh District, Udom Sai Province, Nam Moh District; Bokeo Province. Alternate names: Mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Man Lan-Tien, Lowland Yao, Jim Mun.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Kiorr

[xko] 2,359 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Louang Nam Tha and Bokeo provinces, 6 villages. Also spoken in Myanmar. Alternate names: Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao 2, Con, Col.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Kuan

[uan] 2,500 (1995 census). Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong District, near the Mouan River. Dialects: Some classification problems, possibly because of migration.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Unclassified 
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Kuy

[kdt] 51,180 in Laos (2000). 80% monolingual. Savannakhet, Saravan, Sedone provinces. A large group on both sides of the Mekong in southern Laos. Alternate names: Sui, Suai, Suay, Suoi, Soai, Suei, Aouei, Kuoy, Kui, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Old Khmer, Cuoi.  Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu 
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Lahu

[lhu] 8,702 in Laos (1995 census). Bokeo Province, Peung, Tonpheung, Houayxay districts. Alternate names: Museu, Mussuh, Muhso, Musso.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lahu Shi

[kds] 3,240 in Laos (2000). Population total all countries: 40,240. Bokeo Province, Kentung District. Also spoken in China, Myanmar, Thailand, USA, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Kutsung, Kucong, Yellow Lahu, Shi, Kui, Kwi.  Dialects: Difficult intelligibility of Black Lahu. A distinct language from Nyi (Red Lahu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lamet

[lbn] 16,740 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 16,864. Northwestern Laos, Luang Namtha, Bokeo provinces. Also spoken in Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Lemet, Kha Lamet, Khamet, Khamed, Rmeet.  Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Lametic 
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Lao

[lao] 3,000,000 in Laos (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 3,188,577. Mekong River Valley from Luang Prabang south to the Cambodian border. The Lao Kao went to Thailand and are in Nan, Loei, Saraburi, and elsewhere; the Lao-Khrang are in the Nakhonsawan and Nakhon Pathom area. May also be in Viet Nam. Also spoken in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, France, Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Laotian Tai, Laotian, Phou Lao, Eastern Thai, Lum Lao, Lao Wiang, Lao Kao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao, Lao-Tai, Lào, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi.  Dialects: Luang Prabang, Vientiane (Wiang Jan), Savannakhet (Suwannakhet), Pakse, Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang. Dialect cluster with Northeastern Tai of Thailand.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Laos Sign Language

[lso]   Dialects: Related to sign languages in Viet Nam and earlier ones in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Lave

[brb] 12,750 in Laos (1984). Population total all countries: 18,444. Attopeu Province, Laos-Cambodian border. Also spoken in Cambodia, France, USA, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Proue, Brou, Love, Laveh, Rawe.  Dialects: Palau. Close to Krung 2, Kravet, Sou.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
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Laven

[lbo] 40,519 in Laos (1995 census). Southwestern Laos, Champassak, Attopeu provinces, Boloven Plateau, near the Alak. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Loven, Boloven, Boriwen, Laweenjru, Jaru, Jru', Jruq.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven 
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[khb] 134,100 in Laos (2000). Western Phongsali, Luang Namtha, Bokeo, Udomxay, Xanyabouli, Luang Prabang provinces. Alternate names: Lue, Lu, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Mal

[mlf] 23,193 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 26,193. Xaignabouli Province, Phiang District, west of the Mekong River. Also spoken in Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Khatin, T'in, Htin, Thin, Tin.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Lua, Phai, or Pray 3.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Maleng

[pkt] 800 in Laos (1996 Ferlus). Population total all countries: 1,000. Khammouan Province, Nakay District, Nam Theun Valley, near the banks of the Theun River. Also spoken in Viet Nam. Alternate names: Malieng, Malang.  Dialects: Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan), Malang, Hareme.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
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Mlabri

[mra] 24 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Xaignabouli Province, Phiang District, near Thailand border. Alternate names: Mla, Mla-Bri, Mabri, Mrabri, Yumbri, Ma Ku, Yellow Leaf.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri 
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Ngeq

[ngt] 12,189 (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Southern Laos, Sekong, Saravan, Champassak provinces, 25 villages. Alternate names: Ngeh, Nge', Ngae, Kriang, Nkriang.  Dialects: Closest to Khlor. Related to Alak 2.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang 
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Nung

[nut] A few in Laos.  Alternate names: Nong.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
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Nyaheun

[nev] 5,152 (1995 census). Eastern part of Boloven Plateau near Sekong and Paksong. Alternate names: Nha Heun, Nyah Heuny, Hoen, Nia Hoen, Hun, Hin, Niahon, Nyahön, Yaheun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun 
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O'du

[tyh] 194 in Laos (1996 F. Proschan). Xiang Khoang Province, Nonghet District. Alternate names: O Du, Iduh, 'Iduh, "Tay Hat", "Hat", "Haat".  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
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Ong

[oog] 10,300 (2000). Saravan Province, north of Saravan town. Alternate names: Tong, Hantong.  Dialects: Closest to Ir.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
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Oy

[oyb] 14,947 (1995 census). 80% monolingual. Attopeu Province, at the foot of the Bolaven Plateau near Pakse. Alternate names: Huei, Oi.  Dialects: Riyao, Tamal Euy, Inn Tea, Kranyeu. Related to Jeng, Sapuan, Sok, The.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Pacoh

[pac] 13,224 in Laos (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Saravan Province, Samouay District; Savannakhet Province, Nong District. Alternate names: Bo River Van Kieu, Pokoh.  Dialects: Pahi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Phai

[prt] 15,000 in Laos (1995 census). Phongsali Province, Boun-Tai, Boun-Nua, Phongsali, Samphan districts; Xaignabouli Province, Hongsa, Xaignabouli, Phiang districts. Alternate names: Thung Chan Pray, Phay, Kha Pray, Pray 1, Prai.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Phana'

[phq] 350 (1995 census). Luang Namtha Province, Luang Namtha District, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Bokeo Province, Houayxay District, one village. Alternate names: Pana', Bana'.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha 
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Phong-Kniang

[pnx] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Southern Houaphan Province, Viangthong and Houamuang districts, near the Neun River; northern Xieng Khouang Province. Alternate names: Pong 3, Khaniang, Kenieng, Keneng, Lao Phong.  Dialects: Related to Puoc and Khang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Phu Thai

[pht] 154,400 in Laos (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Khammouan, Savannakhet, Saravan, Champassak provinces; some found in Oudomxai and Luang Prabang provinces. Alternate names: Putai, Phutai, Puthay.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Phuan

[phu] 106,099 in Laos (2000 WCD). Bolikhamxai, Vientiane, Xiangkhoang, and Houaphan. Alternate names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Phunoi

[pho] 35,635 in Laos (1995 census). North central, around Phony Saly. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi.  Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong. Close to Bisu, Pyen, and Mpi. Those listed as dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Pu Ko

[puk]  2 villages. Alternate names: Poko.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Puoc

[puo] 2,164 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Northeast, Houaphan Province, Xiangkho District; Xieng Khouang Province, Het River, along the Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Kha Puhoc, Puhoc, Puok, Pou Hok, Xinh Mul, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Ksing Mul, Lao Muh, Kha Niang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
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Rien

[rie] 5,279 (2000 WCD).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Saek

[skb] 14,000 in Laos (1990 Diller). Population total all countries: 25,000. Central Laos near the Viet Nam border. Upper Nam Noy and Nam Pheo areas in Khammouan Province and the village of Na Kadok in Khamkeut District, Borikhamxay Province. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Sek, Tai Sek, Set.  Dialects: Na Kadok, Khammouan. Close to Tai Mène.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Sek 
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Salang

[hal] 4,000 in Laos. Southern Laos, Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Halang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
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Sapuan

[spu] 2,400 (1981). Southern Laos, Attopeu Province, banks of the Se Kong and Se Kamane rivers. Alternate names: Sapouan.  Dialects: Related to Oy, Sok, Jeng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Sila

[slt] 1,772 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 2,612. North central, north of Muong Hai. Also spoken in Viet Nam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani 
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[sss] 102,000 in Laos (1993). Population total all countries: 160,000. Khammouan, Thakhek, Savannakhet provinces, both sides of the Mekong River. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Mangkong, Mang-Koong, Makong, So Makon, Mankoong, Mang Cong, Bru, Kah So, Thro.  Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong. Close to Bru.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Sok

[skk] 1,600 (1981). Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Sork, Sawk.  Dialects: Related to Oy, Sapuan, Jeng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Sou

[sqq] 2,360 (2000). Southern Laos, Attopeu Province, Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. Alternate names: Suq, Souk, Su, Su', Sawk.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
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Tai Daeng

[tyr] 25,000 in Laos (1991). Northeastern Laos, near the Viet Nam border. Alternate names: Red Thai, Thai Do, Thai Dang, Tai Deng, Daeng.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Dam

[blt] 50,000 in Laos (1995). Khammouan Province. Alternate names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den.  Dialects: Tai Muoi (Tai Muei, Tay Mueai, Meuay).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Dón

[twh] 200,000 in Laos (1995 census). Northeastern Laos. Alternate names: Tai Blanc, Thái Tráng, Tai Lai, Tai Kao, White Tai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Loi

[tlq] 500 in Laos (1995 census). Luang Namtha Province, Long District. Tai Loi is across the border in Myanmar. Tai Loi may also be in China. Alternate names: Loi, Tailoi, Wakut, Monglwe.  Dialects: Tai Loi, Doi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Tai Long

[thi] 4,800 (2004).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
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Tai Mène

[tmp] 7,200 (1995 census). Borikhamxay Province, Vieng Thong District, several villages; Khamkeut District, many villages: Lak Xao, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Sop Chat, Ka'ane, Phon Thoen, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng. Alternate names: Tai Maen, Tai-Maen, Tay Mènè, Tai Mene, Tai Man, Tai Men.  Dialects: Close to Saek.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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Tai Nüa

[tdd] 35,000 in Laos (1995 Chazee). Northwestern Laos. Also possibly in north Viet Nam. Alternate names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Tai Pao

[tpo] 3,300 (1995 census). Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong, Khamkeut, Pakkading districts. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Talieng

[tdf] 23,091 (1995 census). Muong Phine-Bung Sai area, Savannakhet Province. Alternate names: Taliang, Tariang.  Dialects: Related to Trieng or Hre in Viet Nam; may be the same as Trieng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West 
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Ta'oih, Lower

[tto] 15,836 (2000 WCD). Saravan Province, northwest of Saravan town. Alternate names: Tong.  Dialects: Tong, Hantong'. Not intelligible with Upper Ta'oih.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
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Ta'oih, Upper

[tth] 30,876 in Laos (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Population total all countries: 49,876. Saravan Province, mainly in Ta-Oy District. Also spoken in USA, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Ta-Oy, Ta-Oi, Tau Oi, Ta Hoi, Kantua.  Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan', Palee'n, Leem, Ha'aang (Sa'ang). Not intelligible with Lower Ta'oih until speakers have had at least 2 weeks' contact.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
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Tareng

[tgr] 5,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Just west of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. Alternate names: Tariang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
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Tay Khang

[tnu] 200. Khammouan Province. Possibly also in Viet Nam. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
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Thai, Northern

[nod] 9,396 in Laos (2000 WCD). Haut Mekong and Sayaboury provinces, Laos. Alternate names: Lanna, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lannatai, "Yuan", "Youon", "Youanne", Myang, Muang.  Dialects: Nan.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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The

[thx] 2,920 (2000). Attopeu Province. Alternate names: Thae.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The 
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Yoy

[yoy] 1,000 in Laos (1995 census).  Alternate names: Yoi, Yooi, Yooy, Dioi, Jui.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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