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Languages of Myanmar

Union of Myanmar, Pyeidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw. Formerly Burma. 42,720,196. Speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages: 28,877,000 or 78% of the population, Daic languages 2,778,900 or 9.6%, Austro-Asiatic languages 1,934,900 or 6.7%, Hmong-Mien languages 6,000 (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Burmese. Literacy rate: 66% to 78%; 78.5% over 15 years old (1991). Also includes Eastern Tamang, Geman Deng, Iu Mien, Malay (21,000), Sylheti, Chinese (1,015,000), people from Bangladesh and India (500,000). Information mainly from F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; A. Hale 1982; B. Comrie 1987; R. B. Jones 1988; J. Matisoff et al. 1996; D. Bradley 1997; R. Burling ms. (1998). Blind population: 214,440. Deaf population: 2,684,514. Deaf institutions: 1. The number of languages listed for Myanmar is 109. Of those, 108 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

Living languages

Achang

[acn] 1,700 in Myanmar (1983). West of the Irrawaddy River in Katha District, near Banmauk, scattered among the Lashi. Along the China border. Alternate names: Anchan, Chung, Atsang, Acang, Ngac'ang, Ngachang, Ngochang, Mönghsa, Tai Sa'.  Dialects: Maingtha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
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Akha

[ahk] 200,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 449,261. Eastern part of Kengtung Shan State. Also spoken in China, Laos, Thailand, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Kaw, Ekaw, Ko, Aka, Ikaw, Ak'a, Ahka, Khako, Kha Ko, Khao Kha Ko, Ikor, Aini, Yani.  Dialects: Ako, Asong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
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Anal

[anm]  Also possibly in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Namfau.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Anu

[anl] 700.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Arakanese

[mhv] 730,000 in Myanmar (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 954,000. Southwest, Arakan Province. Also possibly in China. Also spoken in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Maghi, Morma, Yakan, Yakhaing, Rakhain, Mogh, Magh, Marma, Mash, Rakhine.  Dialects: One of the better known varieties of nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Blang

[blr] 12,000 in Myanmar (1994). Eastern Shan State, Mong Yang area, and Kengtung. Alternate names: Bulang, Pulang, Pula, Kawa, K'ala, Plang, Kontoi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Bulang 
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Burmese

[mya] 32,000,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 32,301,581. South, central, and adjacent areas. Also spoken in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Bama, Bamachaka, Myen, Myanmar.  Dialects: Merguese (Mergui, Beik), Yaw, Danu (Taruw), Burmese, Palaw. There are diglossic high and low varieties. The preferred variety is spoken in Mandalay. Merguese (250,000 speakers), Danu (100,000 speakers), and Yaw (20,000) may be separate languages. They are distinct varieties (1997 D. Bradley). Speakers in Bangladesh speak Bomang, not Standard Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Chak

[ckh] 20,000 in Myanmar (2002). Population total all countries: 25,500. Most in Arakan Blue Mountains, Myanmar. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Classification: Unclassified 
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Chaungtha

[ccq] 121,700 (1983).  Dialects: Related to Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Chin, Asho

[csh] 10,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population total all countries: 11,422. Irrawaddy River, lowlands. Also spoken in Bangladesh. Alternate names: Qin, Asho, Ashu, Shoa, Sho, Khyang, Kyang.  Dialects: Thayetmyo (Thayetmo), Minbu, Lemyo, Khyang. Close to Saingbaung Chin. Also related to Shendu and Chinbon. Lemyo, Thayetmo, Minbu, and Khyang may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho 
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Chin, Bawm

[bgr] 3,581 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Falam area, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Bualkhaw

[cbl]  Chin State, Falam Township. Dialects: Closest to Zanniet Chin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho 
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Chin, Chinbon

[cnb] 19,600 (1983). Kanpetlet, Yaw, Seidoutia, and Paletwa townships. Alternate names: Ütbü, Chindwin Chin, Sho, Chinbon.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 50% with Asho Chin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Sho 
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Chin, Daai

[dao] 30,000 (1994 UBS). Matupi, Paletwa, Kanpetiet townships. Alternate names: Daai, Dai, M'kaang.  Dialects: Matupi Daai, Paletwa Daai, Kanpetiet Daai. Two subgroups: one of them Tuishiip, or Shiip. Daai is reported to have 6 main subgroups.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Falam

[flm] 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population includes 9,000 Tashon, 16,000 Zanniat, 7,000 Khualshim, 4,000 Lente, 14,400 Zahao 18,600 in Laizao (1983). Population total all countries: 125,367. Falam District, Chin Hills. Also spoken in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Hallam Chin, Halam, Fallam, Falam.  Dialects: Zanniat, Tashon (Tashom, Shunkla, Sunkhla), Laizo (Laiso, Laizao, Laizo-Shimhrin), Zahao (Zahau, Yahow, Zahau-Shimhrin, Lyen-Lyem), Khualshim (Kwelshin), Lente (Lyente), Chorei. Chorei may be a separate language. In India, other dialect or clan names are: Choral, Dap, Eauglong, Ranjkho, Bong, Bongcher, Kaljang, Korbong, Langkai, Moosephang (Machaphang), Migli, Mitahar. They are collectively called 'Baro Halam'. Rupini and Koloi are said to be quite different from the others. Tapong is reported to have difficult intelligibility for speakers of other dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Haka

[cnh] 100,000 in Myanmar (1991 UBS). Population includes 2,000 Zokhua, 60,100 Lai (1983). Population total all countries: 446,264. Chin Hills, Haka area. Also spoken in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Haka, Hakha, Baungshe, Lai.  Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua, Shonshe. Shonshe may be a separate language.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Khumi

[cnk] 36,700 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 37,888. Arakan Hills, Akyab area. Matu are in Southern Chin State, Matupi, Mindat, and Paletwa townships, western Myanmar. Also spoken in Bangladesh, India. Alternate names: Khumi, Khami, Khweymi, Khimi, Khuni.  Dialects: Khimi, Yindi (Yindu), Khami, Ngala.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi 
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Chin, Khumi Awa

[cka] 40,900 (2003). Arakan Hills, coast areas. Dialects: The coastal dialect differs from the inland Khumi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern, Khumi 
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Chin, Mara

[mrh] 20,000 in Myanmar (1994). Lushai Hills. Alternate names: Mara, Lakher, Zao, Maram, Mira.  Dialects: Tlongsai, Hlawthai, Sabeu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Mro

[cmr] 137,765 (2000 WCD). Arakan State. Dialects: Lexical similarity 13% with Mru of Bangladesh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Mün

[mwq] 30,000 (1991 UBS). Chin Hills, western. Alternate names: Mün, Ng'men, Cho, Yawdwin, Mindat, "Chinbok".  Dialects: Nitu. Related to Daai Chin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Chin, Ngawn

[cnw] 15,000 (1984). Chin Hills, Falam area. Alternate names: Ngawn, Ngorn, Ngon.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Paite

[pck] 8,900 in Myanmar (1983). Tiddim District, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Paite, Paithe, Oarte, Hainte, Vuite.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Senthang

[sez] 18,200 (1983). Haka, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Senthang, Hsemtang.  Dialects: Very different from other Chin languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Siyin

[csy] 10,000 (1991 UBS). Chin Hills. Alternate names: Siyin, Siyang, Sizang.  Dialects: Close to Paite Chin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Tawr

[tcp] 700 (1996 D. Van Bik). Falam, Haka, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Tawr, Torr.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chin, Tedim

[ctd] 189,100 in Myanmar (1990 BAP). Population total all countries: 344,100. Chin Hills State, Upper Chindwin, Tiddim area. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Tedim, Tiddim.  Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhow, Kamhao). Other Chin languages or dialects of this area are Saizang, Teizang, Zo (Zome).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Thado

[tcz] 26,200 in Myanmar (1983).  Alternate names: Thadou, Thado-Ubiphei, Thado-Pao, Kuki, Kuki-Thado.  Dialects: Baite, Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Chin, Zotung

[czt] 40,000 (1990 UBS). Chin Hills, Haka area. Alternate names: Zotung, Banjogi, Bandzhogi, Zobya.  Dialects: Zotung is reported to be intelligible with Haka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Chittagonian

[cit]  Arakan State. Dialects: Rohinga (Akyab).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese 
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Danau

[dnu] 10,000 (1984).  Alternate names: Danaw.  Dialects: Closest to Riang-Lang and Pale Palaung.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Danau 
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Gangte

[gnb]   Alternate names: Gante.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Hmong Njua

[blu] 10,000 in Myanmar (1987 Haiv Hmoob).  Alternate names: Blue Meo, Green Miao, Tak Meo, Hmong Njwa, Hmong Leng.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hpon

[hpo] A few hundred speakers (1997 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 2,254 (2000 WCD). Gorges of the upper Irrawaddy, north of Bhamo. Alternate names: Hpön, Phun, Phön, Phon, Megyaw, Samong.  Dialects: North Hpon, South Hpon.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
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Hrangkhol

[hra] 8,117 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 26,782. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Rangkhol.  Dialects: Closest to Biete.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Intha

[int] 90,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Near Inle Lake in the southern Shan State. Alternate names: Inntha.  Dialects: One of the better-known varieties of nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Jingpho

[kac] 900,000 in Myanmar (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 940,000. Kachin State. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Kachin, Jinghpaw, Chingpaw, Chingp'o, Marip.  Dialects: Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong. Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different than Jingpho. Lexical similarity 50% with Singhpo of India.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
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Kado

[kdv] 128,500 in Myanmar (1983). Population includes 90,300 Kado, 38,200 Ganaan. Population total all countries: 228,725. The Kado are found in Ban Mauk Township, Sagaing Division (a region west of the railway midway between Mandalay and Myitkyina). The Ganaan are found just west of the Kadu people. The Thet are found in Rakhine State. Also spoken in China, Laos. Alternate names: Kadu, Katu, Kato, Kudo, Asak, Sak, Gadu, Thet, That, Mawteik, Puteik, Woni, Kadu-Ganaan.  Dialects: Kadu, Ganaan (Ganan), Andro, Sengmai, Chakpa, Phayeng. Kadu, Ganaan, Andro, Sengmai, Chakpa, and Phayeng may be separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Luish 
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Karen, Brek

[kvl] 16,600 (1983). All Karen languages in Myanmar 2,600,000. Southwestern Kayah State. Alternate names: Brek, Brec, Bre, Pramano, Pre, Laku.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Brek 
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Karen, Bwe

[bwe] 15,700 (1983). Kyèbogyi area of Kayah State. A few in Thailand. Alternate names: Bghai Karen, Baghi, Bwe.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Unclassified 
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Karen, Geba

[kvq] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Northern Kayah State and southern Shan State. Alternate names: Geba, Kaba, Karenbyu, Kayinbyu, White Karen, Eastern Bwe.  Dialects: May be part of the same dialect cluster with Bwe and Brek.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Western 
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Karen, Geko

[ghk] 9,500 (1983). Yamethin, Toungoo districts, Mobyè State of the southern Shan States. Alternate names: Gek'o, Gheko, Gekho, Ghekhol, Ghekhu, Keku, Kekhong, Kekaungdu, Gaikho, Padaung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Unclassified 
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Karen, Lahta

[kvt] 9,550 (2000 WCD). Southern Shan State. Alternate names: Lahta, Taru, Tarulakhi, Khahta, Peu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Eastern 
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Karen, Manumanaw

[kxf] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Western Kyèbogyi part of Kayah State. Alternate names: Manumanaw, Manu, Monu, Manö.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Karen, Paku

[kpp] 5,300 (1983). Southern hills east of Taungoo in Kayah State. Alternate names: Paku, Pagu, Monnepwa, Monebwa, Mopwa, Mopha, Mopaga, Mogpha, Mogwa, Thalwepwe.  Dialects: Bilichi, Dermuha. Close to S'gaw. Some reports indicate Paku and Mopwa are separate languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw 
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Karen, Pa'o

[blk] 560,000 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 560,743. Southwestern Shan State and east of the Gulf of Martaban in Tenasserim. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Northern Taungthu, Black Karen, Pa-U, Pa'o, Pa Oh, Pa-O.  Dialects: Southern Pa'o, Northern Pa'o. Southern Pa'o is in Myanmar, Northern Pa'o in Thailand.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pa'o 
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Karen, Pwo Eastern

[kjp] 1,000,000 in Myanmar (1998). Population total all countries: 1,050,000. Karen State, Mon State, Tensserim Division. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Phlou, Moulmein Pwo Karen.  Dialects: Pa'an (Moulmein, Inland Pwo Eastern Karen), Kawkareik (Eastern Border Pwo Karen), Tavoy (Southern Pwo Karen). Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen varieties. Lexical similarity 91% to 97% among dialects, 63% to 65% with other Pwo Karen varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, Pwo Western

[pwo] 210,000. Irrawaddy Delta. Alternate names: Mutheit, Delta Pwo Karen, Bassein Pwo Karen, Phlong Sho.  Dialects: Bassein, Tuan Tet, Maubin.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, S'gaw

[ksw] 1,284,700 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 1,584,700. Irrawaddy delta area, Tenasserim, the Pegu range between the Irrawaddy and Sittang, the eastern hills. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: S'gaw, S'gau, S'gaw Kayin, Kanyaw, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, White Karen, Burmese Karen, Yang Khao, Pchcknya, Kyetho.  Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi). Close to Paku.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw 
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Karen, Yinbaw

[kvu] 7,300 (1983). Shan Plateau of eastern Shan State. Alternate names: Yinbaw, Yeinbaw.  Dialects: Reported to be a variety of Padaung.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Karen, Yintale

[kvy] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Bawlakhè part of Kayah State. Alternate names: Yintale, Yintalet, Yangatalet, Yangtadai, Taliak.  Dialects: Reported to be a variety of Kayah.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Karen, Zayein

[kxk] 9,300 (1983). Between the towns of Mobyè and Phekon in the southern Shan State. Alternate names: Zayein, Khaungtou, Gaungtou.  Dialects: Close to Sawntung, Padang, Banyang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Unclassified 
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Kayah, Eastern

[eky] 261,578 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 360,220. Maehongson, east of the Salween River. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Red Karen, Karenni, Kayay, Kayah.  Dialects: Distinct from but related to Bwe Karen (Bghai), forming a dialect cluster. Speakers have difficulty understanding Western Kayah of Myanmar.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Kayah, Western

[kyu] 210,000 (1987). Kayah and Karen states, west of the Pong River. Alternate names: Kayah Li, Karenni, Karennyi, Red Karen, Yang Daeng, Karieng Daeng.  Dialects: Distinct from but related to Bwe Karen, forming a dialect continuum from Thailand (Eastern Kayah) to western Kayah State.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Kayan

[pdu] 40,900 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 41,050. Kayah State, Mobyè State, town of Phekon in the southern Shan States, and hills east of Toungoo. A few villages in Thailand. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Padaung, Kayang, Padaung Karen.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Bghai, Eastern 
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Khamti

[kht] 4,235 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 13,114. Northwestern Myanmar. Also possibly in China. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Hkamti, Khampti, Khamti Shan, Khampti Shan, Khandi Shan, Kam Ti, Tai Kam Ti, Tai-Khamti.  Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Hkamti. Related to Shan. Some similarities to northern Shan. In India, related to Phakaes, Aiton, Khamjang, Turung.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Khmu

[kjg]   Alternate names: Kmhmu, Khmu', Kamu, Kammu, Khamuk, Kamhmu, Khomu, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng, Lao Terng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
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Khün

[kkh] 114,574 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 120,855. Main Kentung Valley in the center of Shan State. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Hkun, Khun Shan, Khyn, Gon Shan, Tai Khun, Khuen, Tai-Khuen.  Dialects: Close to Lü and Northern Tai or southern Shan. Lanna and Khun spoken dialects are considered close by their speakers.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Kiorr

[xko]   Alternate names: Saamtaav, Con, Col.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Lahu

[lhu] 125,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone). Shan State, Kentung area. Alternate names: Lohei, Lahuna, Launa, Museu, Mussuh, Muhso, Musso.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lahu Shi

[kds] 10,000 in Myanmar (1998). Kentung District. Alternate names: Kutsung, Kucong, Yellow Lahu, Shi, Kui, Kwi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lama

[lay] 3,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin).  Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Norra.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Lamkang

[lmk]  Betukshangreng village, 20 km from the border with southeast Manipur, India. Alternate names: "Lamgang", "Hiroi-Lamgang", Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Laopang

[lbg] 9,550 (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Laopa.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified 
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Lashi

[lsi] 30,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 31,800. Htawgaw Subdivision, Kachin State. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Lachik, Lasi, Letsi, Lechi, Leqi, Lashi-Maru, Chashan, Lachikwaw, Ac'ye, Lacik, Lacid.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
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Lisu

[lis] 126,000 in Myanmar (1987). Around Lashio, in Wa State, around Myitkyina and Bhamo, around Putar towards Assam border, around Loilem area in Shan States. Alternate names: Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Li-Hsaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw-Yen, Yaw Yin, Yeh-Jeh, Central Lisu.  Dialects: Hwa Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Black Lisu, White Lisu, Lu Shi Lisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
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Lopi

[lov] 4,775 (2000 WCD). Possibly also in China. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Unclassified 
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[khb] 200,000 in Myanmar (1981). Kengtung District. Alternate names: Pai-I, Shu-Ai-I, Lue, Tai Lu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Lui

[lba] 200.  Alternate names: Loi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Mahei

[mja] 12,000.  Alternate names: Mahe, Mabe.  Dialects: Ethnic group or dialect of Hani or Akha.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha 
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Maru

[mhx] 100,000 in Myanmar (1997 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 103,500. Kachin State, eastern border area, widely dispersed, north Myanmar. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Matu, Malu, Lawng, Laungwaw, Laungaw, Langsu, Lang, Mulu, Diso, Zi, Lhao Vo.  Dialects: Dago' Lawng Bit, Zagaran Mran, Gawan Naw', Hlo'lan, Laking, Wa Khawk, Lawng Hsu. Lawng Hsu may have difficult intelligibility of the other dialects.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
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Meitei

[mni] 6,000 in Myanmar (1931).  Alternate names: Meithei, Meithe, Mithe, Mitei, Meiteiron, Manipuri, Menipuri, Kathe, Kathi, Ponna.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Meitei 
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Mizo

[lus] 12,500 in Myanmar (1983). Western Myanmar. Alternate names: Hualngo, Whelngo, Le, Lushei, Lusai, Lushai.  Dialects: Dulien, Ngente, Mizo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Moken

[mwt] 7,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone). Mergui Archipelago, Dung, and other islands in south Myanmar. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko'.  Dialects: Dung, Ja-It, L'be. Closest to Moklen. Related to Urak Lawoi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Moklen 
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Mon

[mnw] 742,900 in Myanmar (2004). Population total all countries: 850,530. Eastern delta region from east of Rangoon as far as Ye and Thailand; south Martaban, adjacent area. Also spoken in Thailand. Alternate names: Talaing, Mun, Peguan.  Dialects: Mataban-Moulmein (Central Mon, Mon Te), Pegu (Northern Mon, Mon Tang), Ye (Southern Mon, Mon Nya).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic 
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Naga, Khiamniungan

[nky]  Northwestern. Alternate names: Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Kalyokengnyu, Makware, Nokaw, Para, Ponyo, Welam.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Naga, Tase

[nst] 55,389 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 100,389. Northwestern Myanmar. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tase, Tangsa, Tasey.  Dialects: Gashan, Hkaluk, Sangche, Saukrang, Langshin, Mawrang, Myimu, Sangtai, Tulim, Longri. Some dialects are widely divergent. Close to Nocte Naga.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Konyak 
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Nga La

[hlt] 40,000 in Myanmar (2000). Population total all countries: 60,000. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Matu Chin, Thlan Tan.  Dialects: Va Lang (Warang), Tlam Tlaih. Not intelligible with Chin Haka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Norra

[nrr] 6,207 (2000 WCD). Myanmar-Tibet border. Alternate names: Nora, Noza, Nurra.  Dialects: Nora, Byabe, Kizolo. Lama (3,000) may be a dialect.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Nung

[nun] 400 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). Population total all countries: 790. Ethnic population: 6,000 in Myanmar (2000 D. Bradley). North Myanmar. Salween (Nu) River. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Anung, Anong, Anoong, Anu, Nu, Lu, Lutzu, Lutze, Kiutze, Khanung, Kwinp'ang, Khupang, Kwingsang, Fuch'ye.  Dialects: Cholo, Gwaza, Miko. 15 or 16 dialects, mostly inherently intelligible with each other. They understand the Mutwang dialect of Rawang. They may be the same as the Nu River Drung in China. May be related to Jingpho. Lexical similarity 70% with Rawang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Palaung, Pale

[pce] 257,539 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Total Palaung and Riang in Myanmar: 250,000. Population total all countries: 267,539. Southern Shan State area near Kalaw. 10,000 square mile area. Also spoken in China, Thailand. Alternate names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Silver Palaung, Pale, Palay.  Dialects: Close to Shwe Palaung and Rumai Palaung.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
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Palaung, Rumai

[rbb] 137,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 139,000. Northern Shan State. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Rumai.  Dialects: Close to Shwe Palaung and Pale Palaung. Officially included De'ang nationality in China.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
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Palaung, Shwe

[pll] 148,000 in Myanmar (1982). Population total all countries: 150,000. Northern Shan State, centered in Nam Hsan. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Ta-Ang Palaung, Golden Palaung, Shwe.  Dialects: 15 Palaung dialects in Myanmar. Pale Palaung and Rumai are closely related, but distinct languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
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Palu

[pbz] 4,775 (2000 WCD).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified 
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Pankhu

[pkh]  Falam area, Chin Hills. Alternate names: Pankho, Panko, Pangkhu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Central 
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Parauk

[prk] 348,400 in Myanmar (1983). Population total all countries: 528,400. Shan State, upper Salween River area. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Wa, Praok, Phalok, Baraog.  Dialects: Related to Lawa and Wa in Thailand and China.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa 
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Purum

[pub] 300 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin).  Alternate names: Puram.  Dialects: Related to Chiru, Aimol, Langrong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Pyen

[pyy] 800 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). East central, 2 enclaves very near the Laos border, near the Kha River. Alternate names: Hpyin.  Dialects: Close to Phunoi, Bisu, Mpi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Ralte

[ral] 24,801 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 25,104. Also spoken in India. Dialects: Related to Tiddim, Paite, Thado, Zo.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Rawang

[raw] 62,074 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 122,610. Kachin State, highlands. Serwang is close to the Tibet border. Wadamkong is in Myanmar. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Nung Rawang, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Nung, Krangku, Taron, Kiutze, Ch'opa, Chiutse.  Dialects: Rawang, Agu, Hpungsi, Htiselwang, Matwanly, Mutwang, Serhta, Serwang, Wadamkong, Wahke, Taron, Tangsarr, Longmi (Lungmi), Zithung, Kunlang. 75 to 100 dialects, some of which are inherently unintelligible to each other's speakers. Five major divisions: Longmi, Mutwang, Serwang, Tangsarr, Kwinpang (Nung); each has 20 to 30 subdialects. Dialect continuum with Nu nationality in China. Dialects near the Tibet border are harder to understand. Kunglang in India; communication cut off in 1950s. Most dialects understand Mutwang, the central, written dialect. Related, but not the same as Drung in China.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Nungish 
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Riang

[ril] 48,819 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 51,819. Shan State, southeastern Myanmar. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Black Karen, Yanglam, Black Yang, Riang-Lang, Yin, Yang, Liang Sek, Yang Wan Kun.  Dialects: Close to Pale Palaung. May be the same as Shwe Palaung.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Riang 
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Samtao

[stu] 9,550 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 9,650. Eastern Shan State. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Samtau, Samtuan.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Sansu

[sca] 4,775 (2000 WCD).  Dialects: May not be a distinct language. In China, included with the Hani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani 
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Shan

[shn] 3,200,000 in Myanmar (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population includes 350,000 Tai Mao (1990 A. Diller ANU). Population total all countries: 3,260,000. Shan States, southeast Myanmar. Kokant Shan is in the Kokant area in northern Wa State in the Shan States. Tai Mao is on the Burma-Yunnan border, centered at Mu'ang Mao Long or Namkham, Myanmar. Also spoken in China, Thailand. Alternate names: Sha, Tai Shan, Sam, Thai Yai, Tai Yai, Great Thai, Tai Luang, Mau, "Ngio", "Ngiow", "Ngiaw", "Ngiao", "Ngeo".  Dialects: Kokant Shan, Tai Mao (Mao, Maw, Mau, Tai Long, Northern Shan). Burmese Shan is spoken with regional dialect differences, but dialects are close linguistically. Tai-Khae (Khe) may be a dialect. Low intelligibility of Lü.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Tai Loi

[tlq] 1,432 in Myanmar (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,932. Namkham, in the northeast corner near the Laos and Chinese borders. Doi is across the border in Laos. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Loi, Tailoi, Wakut, Monglwe.  Dialects: Tai Loi, Doi. Closest to Pale Palaung, but with a lot of sound changes, also separating it from Palaung in China.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic 
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Tai Nüa

[tdd] 72,400 in Myanmar (1983). Also possibly in northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Tai Neua, Chinese Shan, Tai Kong.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Taman

[tcl] 10,000.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho 
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Taungyo

[tco] 40,000 (2000 D. Bradley). East central; vicinity of Taunggyi, Shan State southward to Tavoy, Tenasserim State. Alternate names: Taru, Tavoya, Tavoyan, Dawe, Dawai, Tawe-Tavoy, Toru.  Dialects: Related to Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Tavoyan

[tvn] 400,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Southeast. Dialects: One of the better known varieties of nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Wa

[wbm] 558,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone). Population total all countries: 838,000. Shan State, upper Salween River area. Kentung Wa are in or around Kentung City in southern Wa area. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: K'awa, Kawa, Va, Vo, Wa Pwi, Wakut.  Dialects: Wa Lon, Wu, Kentung Wa, Son, En, La. Related to Lawa and Parauk in Thailand and China. Kentung Wa is more closely related to Lawa than are the northern dialects. En and Son are very different from each other. Son, En, and La may be separate languages.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Wa 
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Welaung

[weu] 9,550 (2000 WCD).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Wewaw

[wea] 23,874 (2000 WCD). Toungoo District. Alternate names: Wewau.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw 
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Yangbye

[ybd] 810,300 (1983).  Alternate names: Yanbe, Yangye, Yanbye.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern 
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Yinchia

[yin] 4,000 (1974 Hackett). Shan State south. Alternate names: Striped Karen, Yinnet, Black Riang, Ranei.  Dialects: Related to Riang Lang and Wa. Not Karen.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Riang 
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Yos

[yos] 3,400 (1983).  Alternate names: Yo, Yote.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Zaiwa

[atb] 30,000 in Myanmar (1997). Kachin State, Sedan, Kentung. Alternate names: Zi, Tsaiwa, Atsi, Atshi, Atzi, Azi, Aci.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Northern 
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Zome

[zom] 30,000 in Myanmar. Population total all countries: 39,112. Chin State, Tiddim, Chin Hills. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Zorni, Zomi, Zou, Zo, Kuki Chin.  Dialects: Paite Chin, Zome, and Simte are almost identical.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Northern 
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Zyphe

[zyp] 17,000 in Myanmar (1994). Population total all countries: 20,000. Chin State, Thantlang Township. Also spoken in India. Alternate names: Zophei, Zoptei.  Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Close to Mara Chin. Myanmar and India varieties reported intelligible to each other's speakers (Davis 01).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin-Naga, Kuki-Chin, Southern 
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Extinct languages

Pali

[pli] Extinct.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified 
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