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Languages of Mongolia

Mongolian People's Republic, Bügd Nayramdakh Mongol Ard Uls. 2,751,314. National or official language: Halh Mongolian. Literacy rate: 89% to 90%. Also includes Japanese, Korean. Information mainly from T. Sebeok 1967; N. Poppe 1970. Blind population: 10,000 to 40,000 visually handicapped (1997). Deaf population: 10,000 to 147,330. The number of languages listed for Mongolia is 13. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages

Buriat, Mongolia

[bxm] 64,900 (1995). Northeast, especially bordering Buryat ASSR. Alternate names: Buryat, Buriat-Mongolian, Northern Mongolian, Mongolian Buriat, Bur:aad.  Dialects: Khori, Aga. Buriat in Mongolia is a variety of Khori and differs considerably from Buriat of China and Russia. The language has been influenced by Standard (Halh) Mongolian.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 35,000 in Mongolia (1993 Johnstone). Population includes 2,000 Qotong. Northwestern Mongolia, Uvs Aimag. Alternate names: Hoton, Qotong, Hui-Zu, Hui, Xui, Northern Chinese, Mandarin, Hytad.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Darkhat

[drh] 20,350 (2000). Hövsgöl Aimag, north Mongolia, around Lake Khubsugul. Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
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Daur

[dta]   Alternate names: Dagur, Daguor, Dawar, Dawo'er, Tahur, Tahuerh.  Dialects: Buteha (Bataxan), Haila'er (Hailar), Qiqiha'er (Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar).  Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Dagur 
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Evenki

[evn] 1,000 in Mongolia (1995 M. Krauss). Selenge Aimag, north Mongolia. Alternate names: Khamnigan, Tungus, Solon.  Classification: Altaic, Tungus, Northern, Evenki 
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Kalmyk-Oirat

[xal] 205,500 in Mongolia. Population includes 139,000 Oirat, 55,100 Dorbot, 11,400 Torgut.  Alternate names: Oirat, Western Mongol.  Dialects: Jakhachin, Bayit, Mingat, Olot (Ööld, Elyut, Eleuth), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Uriankhai, Khoton (Hoton).  Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat 
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Kazakh

[kaz] 182,000 in Mongolia (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Bayan-Olgiy Aimag, northwest Mongolia, mining communities east of the capital, and in far east around Choibalsan. Alternate names: Kazakhi, Qazaq, Qazaqi, Kazax, Kaisak, Kosach.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian 
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Mongolian Sign Language

[msr] Unknown number of users out of 10,000 to 147,330 deaf (1998).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Mongolian, Halh

[khk] 2,329,000 in Mongolia (1995). Population includes 32,300 Dariganga. Population total all countries: 2,337,095. Buryat ASSR of Russia and Issyk-Kul Oblast of Kyrgyzstan. Also spoken in Kyrgyzstan, Russia (Asia), Taiwan. Alternate names: Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol, Central Mongolian.  Dialects: Halh (Khalkha), Dariganga, Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper 
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Mongolian, Peripheral

[mvf]   Alternate names: Southern-Eastern Mongolian.  Dialects: Ujumchin (Uzemchin, Ujumuchin), Jostu (Kharchin, Kharachin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos.  Classification: Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper 
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Russian

[rus] 4,000 in Mongolia (1993 Johnstone).  Alternate names: Russki.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
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Tuvin

[tyv] 27,000 in Mongolia (1993 Johnstone). Hövsgöl and Hovd Aimags, north and west Mongolia. Alternate names: Uriankhai, Uryankhai-Monchak, Tuvinian, Tuva, Tuba, Tannu-Tuva, Soyon, Soyod, Soyot, Tuvan, Tuvia, Diba, Kök, Mungak, Tuva-Uriankhai, Tuwa-Uriankhai.  Dialects: Kokchulutan, Khöwsögöl Uigur.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Northern 
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Uyghur

[uig] 1,000 in Mongolia (1982). Hövsgöl Aimag, north Mongolia. Alternate names: Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uighuir, Uiguir.  Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Eastern 
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