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Languages of Mexico

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Estados Unidos Mexicanos. 104,959,594. Speakers of American Indian languages 8%. National or official language: Spanish. Literacy rate: 87% to 88%. Also includes Basque, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, English (350,000), Japanese (35,000), Tohono O'odham, Vlax Romani (5,000), Arabic (400,000), Chinese (31,000). Information mainly from S. Gudschinsky 1953, 1959; R. Longacre 1957; A. Wares 1965; D. Bartholomew 1965; C. Rensch 1966, 1968; C. H. Bradley 1968; P. Kirk 1970; E. Casad 1974; W. R. Miller 1975; S. Egland, D. Bartholomew, and S. Ramos 1983; SIL 1951–2003. Blind population: 200,000. Deaf population: 1,300,000 to 5,590,207 (1998). Deaf institutions: 30. The number of languages listed for Mexico is 298. Of those, 291 are living languages and 7 are extinct.

Living languages

Afro-Seminole Creole

[afs] 200 in Mexico (1990). Nacimiento de los Negros, Coahuila, Mexico. Alternate names: Afro-Seminole, Afro-Seminol Criollo.  Dialects: Mexico Afro-Seminole.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
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Amuzgo, Guerrero

[amu] 23,000 (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Southeastern Guerrero, Xochistlahuaca municipio, Zacoalpan, Cochoapa, Huehuetonoc, Tlacoachistlahuaca, Guadalupe Victoria, Cozoyoapan, Huistepec, and Rancho del Cura. The Santa Catarina River separates the Guerrero variety from the Oaxaca varieties. Alternate names: Nomndaa.  Dialects: 67% intelligibility of San Pedro Amuzgos Amuzgo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Amuzgo, Ipalapa

[azm] 2,000 (1992 SIL). Monolinguals over 60 (1992 SIL). Oaxaca, Putla District, about 8 to 10 miles northeast of San Pedro Amuzgos; five locations around Santa María Ipalapa. Just off the highway from Tlaxiaco to the coast. Alternate names: Amuzgo de Santa María Ipalapa.  Dialects: Not intelligible with other Amuzgo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Amuzgo, San Pedro Amuzgos

[azg] 4,000 (1990 census). Southwestern Oaxaca, Putla District, San Pedro Amuzgos. One town with outlying settlements. Alternate names: Oaxaca Amuzgo, Amuzgo de San Pedro Amuzgos.  Dialects: 76% comprehension of Amuzgo of Guerrero.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Amuzgoan 
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Chatino, Eastern Highland

[cly] 2,000 (1993 SIL). Southeastern Oaxaca, villages of Lachao Pueblo Nuevo and Santa María Yolotepec. Alternate names: Chatino de la Zona Alta Oriental, Lachao-Yolotepec Chatino, Sierra Oriental Chatino.  Dialects: One dialect. Uses lengthened word forms similar to Zenzontepec Chatino. Similar to Zacatepec, but geographically and socioeconomically separated. 87% intelligibility of Yaitepec, 83% of Nopala, 77% of Panixtlahuaca, 21% of Tataltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Nopala

[cya] 11,000 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Southeastern Oaxaca, Juquila District, Santos Reyes Nopala, Santa María Texmaxcaltepec, San María Magdalena Tiltepec, Teotepec, Cerro el Aire, Santiago Cuixtla, Atotonilco, San Gabriel Mixtepec. Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Panixtlahuaca, 73% of Yaitepec, 13% of Tataltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Tataltepec

[cta] 4,000 (1990 census). 470 monolinguals. Southeastern Oaxaca, Juquila District, extreme west lowland Chatino area, in the towns of Tataltepec de Valdez and San Pedro Tututepec, and a few speakers in nearby Spanish population centers. Alternate names: Lowland Chatino.  Dialects: 38% intelligibility of Yaitepec, 35% of Panixtlahuaca, 33% of Nopala, 27% of Zacatepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Western Highland

[ctp] 12,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Southwestern Oaxaca, Juquila District, towns of Panixtlahuaca, San Juan Quiahije, and Yaitepec; villages of Ixtapan, Tepenixtelahuaca, Ixpantepec, and Amialtepec, plus various rancherías. Alternate names: Chatino de la Zona Alta Occidental, Cha't-An, Sierra Occidental Chatino.  Dialects: Panixtlahuaca Chatino, San Juan Quiahije Chatino, Yaitepec Chatino. 71% intelligibility of Yaitepec, 66% of Nopala, 46% of Zacatepec, 32% of Tataltepec. Yaitepec has 80% intelligibility of Nopala, 78% of Panixtlahuaca, 20% of Tataltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Zacatepec

[ctz] 1,000 (1990 census). Southeastern Oaxaca, village of San Marcos Zacatepec and Juquila. Alternate names: Chatino de San Marcos Zacatepec.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Nopala, 61% of Panixtlahuaca, 57% of Yaitepec, 6% of Tataltepec. Lengthened word forms are like Zenzontepec Chatino. Similar to Lachao-Yolotepec Chatino in some respects, but geographically and socioeconomically separated.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chatino, Zenzontepec

[czn] 8,000 (1990 census). 2,000 monolinguals. Southeastern Oaxaca, Juquila District, various sectors in the municipios of Santa Cruz Zenzontepec and San Jacinto Tlacotepec, and parts of the former municipio of Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl. It does not include the adjacent Zapotec areas of Texmelucan or Zaniza. Alternate names: Northern Chatino.  Dialects: Some dialect differences in Santa María Tlapanalquiahuitl area. One of the most isolated and conservative groups in Oaxaca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Chatino 
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Chiapanec

[cip] 17 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 32. State of Chiapas, El Bosque (2), Las Margaritas (2), Ocosingo (4), Palenque (2), Sabanilla (7). Alternate names: Chiapaneco.  Dialects: Reported to be quite similar to Chorotega of Costa Rica.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chiapanec-Mangue  Nearly extinct.
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Chichimeca-Jonaz

[pei] 200 (1993 K. Olson Instituto Betania). State of Guanajuato, San Luís de la Paz, Jonáz village. Alternate names: Pame de Chichimeca-Jonaz, Meco.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Chichimec 
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Chinantec, Chiltepec

[csa] 1,000 (1994). 4,000 in Chiltepec municipio with 250 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, San José Chiltepec. Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec (closest), 20% of Usila and Ojitlán, 13% of Valle Nacional.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Comaltepec

[cco] 2,000 (1990 census). 145 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. North Oaxaca, Santiago Comaltepec, Soledad Tectitlán, La Esperanza, San Martín Soyolapan, Vista Hermosa (Quiotepec), San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán, Maninaltepec. Alternate names: Jmii'.  Dialects: 69% intelligibility of Quiotepec (closest), 7% of Tepetotutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Lalana

[cnl] 10,500 (1998). 2,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca-Veracruz border, 25 towns. Alternate names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lalana.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Tepinapa (closest, but lower in outlying areas), 43% of Ozumacín, 24% of Lealao.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Lealao

[cle] 2,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Northeastern Oaxaca, San Juan Lealao, Latani, Tres Arroyos, and La Hondura. Alternate names: Chinanteco de San Juan Lealao.  Dialects: Considered the most divergent of the Chinantec languages.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Ojitlán

[chj] 22,000 (1990 census). 2,800 monolinguals. Northern Oaxaca, San Lucas Ojitlán, including 4 towns and 15 rancherías, and Veracruz, Hidalgotitlán and Minatitlán municipios. Most speakers have been relocated because a dam flooded their land in 1991. Dialects: 49% intelligibility of Sochiapan (closest), 43% of Usila, 39% of Palantla, 31% of Chiltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Ozumacín

[chz] 5,000 (2000 SIL). 260 monolinguals (1990 census). Northeast Oaxaca, 3 towns: San Pedro Ozumacín, Ayotzintepec, Santiago Progreso. Alternate names: Chinanteco de Ayotzintepec, Juujmii.  Dialects: Ayotzintepec. Ozumacín town has slight dialect difference from others. 63% intelligibility of Palantla (closest), 22% of Lalana and Valle Nacional.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Palantla

[cpa] 12,000 (1990 census). 1,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Juan Palantla plus 13 towns. Alternate names: Chinanteco de Santiago Tlatepusco.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility of Tepetotutla (closest), 72% of Valle Nacional, 69% of Usila, 54% of Ozumacín.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Quiotepec

[chq] 8,000 (1998). 1,750 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Ixtlán District: San Juan Quiotepec, Reforma, Maninaltepec, San Pedro Yolox, Rosario Temextitlán; Oaxaca, Etla District: San Juan Bautista Atatlah. Alternate names: Highland Chinantec.  Dialects: Yolox Chinanteco. 87% intelligibility of Comaltepec (closest, lower in outlying areas), 7% of Tepetotutla. The highland Chinantec languages share a complexity of vowel length and tone extensions that Tepetotutla and Palantla do not have.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Sochiapan

[cso] 5,800 (2000 SIL). 725 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,000. North Oaxaca, Cuicatlán: San Pedro Sochiapan, Retumbadero, San Juan Zautla, Santiago Quetzalapa, San Juan Zapotitlán. Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec (closest), 56% of Chiltepec, 45% of Usila, 11% of Tepetotutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tepetotutla

[cnt] 2,000 (1990 census). North Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Tepetotutla, San Antonio del Barrio, San Pedro Tlatepusco, Santo Tomás Texas, Vega del Sol, El Naranjal. Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Quiotepec, 59% of Palantla, 48% of Yolox.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tepinapa

[cte] 8,000 (1990 census). 2,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Choapan District, Santiago Jocotepec Municipio: San Pedro Tepinapa; San Juan Petlapa Municipio: Santa María Lovani, San Juan Toavela, and Santa Isabel Cajonos. Very remote area. Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Comaltepec, 87% to 68% of Lalana, 24% of Lealao, 23% of Ozumacín.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Tlacoatzintepec

[ctl] 2,000 (1990 census). 550 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Tlacoatzintepec, San Pedro Alianza, Santiago Quetzalapa, San Juan Zapotitlán. Dialects: 85% intelligibility of Chiltepec (closest, lower in outlying areas), 84% of Usila, 74% of Sochiapan, 15% of Tepetotutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Usila

[cuc] 9,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Oaxaca, San Felipe Usila plus 12 towns, and 1 in Veracruz (Pueblo Doce). Dialects: 48% intelligibility of Tlacoatzintepec (closest), 33% of Palantla, 32% of Sochiapan, 31% of Ojitlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chinantec, Valle Nacional

[cvn] 1,000 to 2,000 (1990 census). North Oaxaca, San Juan Bautista Valle Nacional and mainly in San Mateo Yetla. Dialects: 71% intelligibility of Chiltepec (closest), 70% of Palantla, 53% of Ozumacín, 40% of Tepetotutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Chinantecan 
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Chochotec

[coz] 770 (1998). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Santa María Nativitas (428 out of 764 population), San Juan Bautista Coixtlahuaca (272 out of 3,111 population), San Martín Toxpalán (207 out of 2,462 population), San Miguel Tulancingo (72 out of 553 population). Alternate names: Chocho.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Chocho 
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Chol, Tila

[cti] 43,870 (2000 WCD). 10,000 monolinguals. Chiapas, Tila, Vicente Guerrero, Chivalito, Limar. Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Sabanilla, 82% of Tumbalá.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chol, Tumbalá

[ctu] 90,000 (1992). 30,000 monolinguals. Population includes 10,000 in Sabanilla. North central Chiapas, Tumbalá, Sabanilla, Misijá, Limar, Chivalita, Vicente Guerrero. Alternate names: Ch'ol de Sabanilla.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chontal, Highland Oaxaca

[chd] 3,600 (1990 census). Southernmost part of Oaxaca, west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, San José Chiltepec, San Lucas Ixcatepec, plus 15 towns. Alternate names: Chontal de la Sierra de Oaxaca, Tequistlatec.  Classification: Hokan, Tequistlatecan 
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Chontal, Lowland Oaxaca

[clo] 950 (1990 census). Southern Oaxaca, Tehuantepec District, San Pedro Huamelula and Santiago Astata. Alternate names: Huamelula Chontal, Chontal de la Costa de Oaxaca, Huamelulteco.  Classification: Hokan, Tequistlatecan 
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Chontal, Tabasco

[chf] 55,000 (1995 census). North central and southern Tabasco, 21 towns. Alternate names: Yocot'an.  Dialects: Tamulté de las Sábanas Chontal, Buena Vista Chontal, Miramar Chontal. Speakers of all dialects understand San Carlos Macuspana 80% to 94%.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chol-Chontal 
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Chuj, Ixtatán

[cnm] 9,500 in Mexico (1991 Schumann). Population includes 8,000 refugees. Municipio of Trinitaria, Chiapas; villages of Tziscau and Cuauhtémoc. Alternate names: Chapai, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Chujean 
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Cocopa

[coc] 200 in Mexico (1998 Peter Larson). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 200 in Mexico (1998). Baja California, El Mayor, San Poza de Aroizú (to the south of Río San Luis Colorado). Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Cocopá, Cocopah, Cucupá, Cucapá, Kwikapá, Kikimá.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Cora, El Nayar

[crn] 8,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). North central Nayarit. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Cora de el Nayar.  Dialects: Jesús María Cora (El Nayar), La Mesa del Nayar Cora (Mesa del Nayar), San Francisco Cora, Presidio de los Reyes Cora. Santa Teresa Cora is distinct enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Cora, Santa Teresa

[cok] 7,000 (1993 SIL). North central Nayarit, Santa Teresa, Dolores, San Blasito. Dialects: Santa Teresa Cora, Dolores Cora, San Blasito Cora, San Juan Corapan Cora, Rosarito Cora. Difficult intelligibility of other Cora varieties.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Cuicatec, Tepeuxila

[cux] 8,500 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Northwestern Oaxaca, 16 towns. Dialects: Santa María Pápalo. 88% intelligibility of Teutila.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Cuicatec, Teutila

[cut] 10,000 (1990 census). 260 monolinguals. Teutila, Oaxaca, 8 towns. Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Tepeuxila.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Cuicatec 
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Huarijio

[var] 5,000 (1994 SIL). Nearly all are monolingual. Western Sierra Madre Mountains, west central Chihuahua, from Río Chinipas on the east to the Sonora border, to the headwaters of the Río Mayo in Sonora, more than 17 villages. Alternate names: Guarijío, Warihío, Varihío.  Dialects: Highland Huarijío, Lowland Huarijío. Intelligibility of Tarahumara is less than 50%. 'Maculai' (Macurawe, Macuyawe) is used by the upriver Huarijio to refer to the downriver Huarijio, who may have intermarried with the Mayo in the past. There are old town ruins called Macoyawi, now under Lake Mocutzari, which also refer to them.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Guarijio 
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Huastec, San Luís Potosí

[hva] 70,000 (1990 census). San Luís Potosí, 12 villages. Alternate names: Potosino Huastec.  Dialects: Intelligibility tests indicate one Huasteco language, but sociological factors require literature in the Veracruz variety.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huastec, Southeastern

[hsf] 1,749 (1990 census). Northern Veracruz, directly east of Huasteco Veracruz, including Cerro Azul on the southeastern edge, Tepetzintla on the southern edge, Tantima on the northern edge, Santa María Ixcatepec on the western edge, San Francisco Chontla, Tancoco, Amatlán Tuxpan, Galeana y Zaragoza Vieja, Tamiahua. Alternate names: Huasteco de San Francisco Chontla.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Veracruz Huastec.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huastec, Veracruz

[hus] 50,000 (1990 census). Northern Veracruz, 60 villages. Alternate names: Huasteco de Tantoyuca.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility of San Luís Potosí Huastec.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Huave, San Dionisio del Mar

[hve] 4,944 (2000 WCD). Southeastern coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán District, San Dionisio del Mar. Dialects: 98% intelligibility of Santa María del Mar Huave, 88% of San Mateo del Mar Huave.  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, San Francisco del Mar

[hue] 900 (1990 census). 30% to 40% monolingual in the old village. Ethnic population: 3,900 (1990 census). Southeastern coast, Oaxaca, Juchitán District, San Francisco del Mar, old town and new town. Dialects: 38% intelligibility of San Mateo del Mar Huave. The most divergent variety of Huave. Only fishermen were tested, and they are familiar with the other varieties.  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, San Mateo del Mar

[huv] 12,000 (1990 census). 1,800 monolinguals. Southeastern coast, Oaxaca, San Mateo del Mar. Dialects: Only very limited intelligibility of other Huave varieties; 88% of San Dionisio del Mar.  Classification: Huavean 
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Huave, Santa María del Mar

[hvv] 500 (1993 SIL). Southeastern coast, Oaxaca, Santa María del Mar. Dialects: Very limited intelligibility of other Huave, although closest to San Dionisio.  Classification: Huavean 
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Huichol

[hch] 20,000 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000. Northeastern Nayarit and northwestern Jalisco. The main centers are Guadalupe Ocotán, Nayarit, San Andrés Cohamiata, Jal., San Sebastián, Jal., Santa Catarina, Jal., Tuxpan de Bolaños, Jal. Alternate names: Vixaritari Vaniuqui, Vizaritari Vaniuki.  Dialects: San Andrés Cohamiata (Western Huichol), San Sebastián-Santa Catarina (Eastern Huichol), Coyultita. 58% cognate with El Nayar Cora, closest (Wick Miller 1984).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Corachol 
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Ixcatec

[ixc] 119 (1983 Jorge Suárez). Santa María Ixcatlán, Oaxaca is the original town, surrounded by Mixtec speakers. Dialects: Different from San Pedro Ixcatlán Mazatec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Ixcatecan 
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Jacaltec, Western

[jai] 10,300 in Mexico (1991 Schumann). Population includes 1,300 long-term residents (1990 census) and 10,000 refugees. Concepción Saravia near the municipio of Comalapa de la Frontera, and Amatenango de la Frontera, Chiapas. Alternate names: Jacalteco del Oeste.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Kanjobal-Jacaltec 
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Kanjobal, Western

[knj] 10,100 in Mexico (1991 Schumann). 100 Western Kanjobal native to Mexico; 10,000 refugees. Trinitaria, Comalapa, and Mazapa de Madero, Chiapas, and Quintana Roo. Alternate names: Acateco, Acatec, Kanjobal de San Miguel Acatán, Conob.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Kanjobal-Jacaltec 
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Kickapoo

[kic] 300 in Mexico (1992 SIL). Coahuila: Nacimiento de Kikapú, 25 miles northeast of Muzquiz. Alternate names: Kikapú, Kicapus, Kikapaux, Kicapoux, Kikabeeux, Quicapause.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Kiliwa

[klb] 24 to 32 (1994 SIL). Arroyo León (4 or 5 houses), Agua Escondida (1 house), La Parra (1 or 2 houses) southeast of Ensenada, Baja California Norte. South of the Paipai, Tipai, and Cocopa. Alternate names: Kiliwi, Quiligua.  Dialects: Linguistically distinct from Paipai, Tipai, Cocopa (A. Wares).  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Kiliwa  Nearly extinct.
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Kumiai

[dih] 220 in Mexico (1991 Garza and Lastra). Population total all countries: 295. Baja California, Rancho Nejí, in the mountains southeast of Tecate, 60 km east of Ensenada, in La Huerta de los Indios, San Antonio Nécua, San José de la Zorra, Cañon de los Encinos, and Ja'áa. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Diegueño, Tipái, Tipai', Tipéi, Cochimí, Cuchimí, Kamia, Kamiai, Quemayá, Comeya, Kumeyaai, Kamiyai, Kamiyahi, Ki-Miai, Kumia, Kumeyaay, Campo, Ko'al, Ku'ahl, Kw'aal.  Dialects: It is not clear how the above names group into different dialects. Speakers in Neji call themselves 'Kumiai', in La Huerta call themselves 'Cochimí'.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Lacandon

[lac] 1,000 (2000 SIL). 178 monolinguals (1942). Population includes 69 at Lake Metzaboc, Chiapas. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000). Southeastern Chiapas, Najá, Lacanjá San Quintín, Metzaboc, Betel. Dialects: Lacanjá, Najá.  Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Mam, Northern

[mam] 1,000 in Mexico (1980 census). Total Mam in Mexico: 28,000. Chiapas, outside of Pacayal near La Mesilla border, and in Ojo de Agua near Guadalupe. Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Mam, Todos Santos

[mvj] 10,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Cacahuatán and Tapachula, Chiapas. Alternate names: Mam de Todos Santos Cuchumatán.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Matlatzinca, Atzingo

[ocu] 50 to 100 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 642 (1990 census). State of Mexico, Ocuilan municipio, San Juan Atzingo, Santa Lucía del Progreso. Alternate names: Ocuilteco, Ocuiltec, Atzinteco, Tlahura, Tlahuica.  Dialects: Close to San Francisco Matlatzinca, but not inherently intelligible.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Matlatzincan  Nearly extinct.
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Matlatzinca, San Francisco

[mat] Ethnic population: 1,167 (2000 WCD). State of Mexico, 1 village: San Francisco de los Ranchos. Alternate names: Matlatzinca, Matlatzinca de San Francisco de los Ranchos.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Matlatzincan  Nearly extinct.
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Maya, Chan Santa Cruz

[yus] 40,000 (1990 census). East central Quintana Roo. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Maya, Yucatán

[yua] 700,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 700,000 (1990). Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatán. Also spoken in Belize. Alternate names: Peninsular Maya.  Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan, Yucatec-Lacandon 
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Mayo

[mfy] 40,000 (1995 census). 113 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1983). Southern Sonora around Navojoa along the coast (Huatabampo), and a few in northern Sinaloa (Los Mochis, Guasave, San José Ríos, north of Guamuchil). At least 100 villages. Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Yaqui.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
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Mazahua Central

[maz] 350,000 (1993 SIL). Western and northwestern State of Mexico and some in D. F. Dialects: Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo, Santa María Citendejé-Banos, San Miguel Tenoxtitlán. The Atlacomulco-Temascalcingo dialect uses different kinship terms, has phonological differences, grammatical variation among towns, and may need further adaptation of literature. 85% to 100% intelligibility among dialects.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Mazahua 
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Mazahua, Michoacán

[mmc] 15,000 to 20,000 (1993 SIL). Eastern Michoacán. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Mazahua 
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Mazatec, Ayautla

[vmy] 3,500 (1994 SIL). 2,800 are monolingual. Oaxaca, southeastern Teotitlán District, San Bartolomé Ayautla. Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Huautla, 79% of San Miguel Hualtepec, 40% of Soyaltepec, 37% of Jalapa, 24% of Ixcatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Chiquihuitlán

[maq] 2,500 (1990 census). 340 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Juan Chiquihuitlán.  Dialects: 47% intelligibility of Huautla (closest), 37% of Ayautla, 29% of Soyaltepec, 20% of Ixcatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Huautla

[mau] 72,000 (1990 census). 27,000 monolinguals. Northern Oaxaca, Huautla and vicinity. Alternate names: Mazateco de Huautla de Jimenez, Mazateco de la Sierra, Highland Mazatec.  Dialects: San Mateo, San Miguel. 90% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl (closest, lower in outlying areas), 60% of Mazatlán, 35% of Jalapa. Lexical similarity 94% with San Miguel, 93% with San Mateo, 80% with Soyaltepec, 78% with San Pedro Ixcatlán, 74% with Jalapa de Díaz.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Ixcatlán

[mzi] 11,000 (1990 census). 3,150 monolinguals. Oaxaca, towns of Chichicazapa, Nuevo Ixcatlán, San Pedro Ixcatlán. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Pedro Ixcatlán.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Huautla (closest). Different from Ixcatec. Lexical similarity 78% with Huautla, 86% with San Mateo Eloxochitlán, 85% with San Miguel Hualtepec and Soyaltepec, 82% with Jalapa de Díaz.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Jalapa de Díaz

[maj] 15,500 (1990 census). 4,600 monolinguals. Northern Oaxaca and Veracruz, 13 towns. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Felipe Jalapa de Díaz, Lowland Mazatec.  Dialects: 73% intelligibility of Huautla (closest), 62% of Ixcatlán, 51% of Soyaltepec, 46% of San Jerónimo Tecóatl, 35% of Mazatlán. Lexical similarity 82% with Ixcatlán, San Mateo Eloxochitlán, and San Miguel Hualtepec; 80% with Soyaltepec, 74% with Huautla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Mazatlán

[vmz] 13,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southern Teotitlán District, Mazatlán Villa de Flores, plus 32 towns and villages, and others in D.F. Alternate names: Mazateco de Mazatlán Villa de Flores.  Dialects: Loma Grande, Zoyaltitla. 80% intelligibility of San Jerónimo Tecóatl, 78% of Huautla, 16% of Jalapa de Díaz, 8% of Chiquihuitlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, San Jerónimo Tecóatl

[maa] 34,000 (1990 census). Population includes 8,000 in Puebla. Oaxaca, San Jerónimo Tecóatl, San Lucas Zoquiapan, Santa Cruz Acatepec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán, San Pedro Ocopetatillo, San Lorenzo, Santa Ana municipios, and a few in Puebla. 12 towns. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Jerónimo Tecóatl, Mazateco de San Antonio Eloxochitlán, Northern Highland Mazatec.  Dialects: San Jerónimo Tecóatl Mazatec, San Antonio Eloxochitlán Mazatec, San Lucas Zoquiapan Mazatec, Santa Cruz Ocopetatillo Mazatec, San Lorenzo Cuanecuiltitla Mazatec, Santa Ana Ateixtlahuaca Mazatec, San Francisco Huehuetlán Mazatec. 76% intelligibility of Huautla (closest), 26% of Jalapa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mazatec, Soyaltepec

[vmp] 23,000 (1990 census). 6,000 monolinguals. The original Soyaltepec variety may only be 900 speakers, most of whom are monolingual. Oaxaca, northwestern Tuxtepec District, part of Soyaltepec Municipio, towns of Santa María Jacatepec and San Miguel Soyaltepec, Soyaltepec Island. Alternate names: Mazateco de San Miguel Soyaltepec, Mazateco de Temascal.  Dialects: 5% intelligibility of Chiquihuitlán. A separate language from other Mazatec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Mazatecan 
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Mexican Sign Language

[mfs] 87,000 to 100,000 mainly monolingual users (1986 T. C. Smith-Stark), out of 1,300,000 deaf persons in Mexico (1986 Gallaudet University). Used throughout Mexico, except in some American Indian areas (see Yucatec Mayan Sign Language): Mexico D.F. Guadalajara, Monterrey, Hermosillo, Morelia, Veracruz, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Puebla, Cuernavaca, Torreón, Saltillo, Toluca. Alternate names: Lenguaje de Signos Mexicano, LSM, Lenguaje de las Manos, Lenguaje Manual Mexicana.  Dialects: Influence from French Sign Language. Users of ASL have 14% intelligibility of LSM. Preliminary investigation indicates lexical similarities from 85% to 100% among regional dialects, nearly all above 90% (A. Bickford SIL 1989).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Mixe, Coatlán

[mco] 5,000 (1993 SIL). Speakers of all Mixe languages: 90,000 (1993 SIL). East central Oaxaca, including Coatlán, Camotlán, San José, Santa Isabel, Ixcuintepec. Alternate names: Southeastern Mixe.  Dialects: Coatlán Mixe, Camotlán Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Isthmus

[mir] 20,000 (1990 SIL). Northeastern Oaxaca, throughout the Municipio of San Juan Guichicovi, near the border of Veracruz, on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, 3 towns. Alternate names: Mixe del Istmo, Eastern Mixe, Guichicovi Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Juquila

[mxq] 8,000 (2002 SIL). East central Oaxaca, including the municipios of Juquila, Quetzaltepec, Ocotepec, and 1 or 2 other towns. Alternate names: South Central Mixe.  Dialects: Juquila Mixe, Ocotepec Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Mazatlán

[mzl] 19,211 (2000 WCD). Eastern Oaxaca, including 7 towns. Alternate names: East Central Mixe, Tutla Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, North Central

[neq] 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 13,000 (2002 SIL). Northeastern Oaxaca, several towns in the northeastern part of the Mixe District, including those listed as dialects. Alternate names: Mixe de Atitlán, Northeastern Mixe, Atitlán Mixe.  Dialects: Mixe de San Juan Cotzocón, Zacatepec, Puxmetecán, Olotepec, Mixistlan, Cotzocón Mixe, Atitlán Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Quetzaltepec

[pxm] 6,700 (2000 census). Northeastern Oaxaca, several towns in the northeastern part of the Mixe District, including those listed as dialects. Alternate names: Central Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Eastern Mixe 
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Mixe, Tlahuitoltepec

[mxp] 5,000 (1991 SIL). Northeastern Oaxaca. Some have moved into central Oaxaca, in the area of Albarradas Zapoteco, 3 towns. Alternate names: West Central Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Western Mixe 
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Mixe, Totontepec

[mto] 5,200 (1990 census). 870 monolinguals. Northeastern Oaxaca, north of Zacatepec, 10 towns. Alternate names: Northwestern Mixe, Ayuk.  Dialects: The most distinct of the Mixe varieties. 89% intelligibility of Acatepec, 79% of Alotepec, 72% of Tlahuitoltepec, 70% of Mixistlán.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Western Mixe 
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Mixtec, Alacatlatzala

[mim] 22,226 (2000 WCD). 60% monolingual. Over 300,000 speakers in all Mixtecan languages (1995). Eastern Guerrero, towns of Alacatlatzala, Tenaztalcingo, Ocuapa, Potoichan, and more. There are tiny communities in Acapulco, Guerrero; Cuautla, Morelos; and Culiacán, Sinaloa, also near San Quintín, Baja California. An area southwest to south of Tlapa, from 20 to 80 km from Tlapa del Comonfort. Also scattered emigration to the USA, especially New York. Alternate names: Highland Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Alacatlatzala, To'on Savi.  Dialects: Potoichan (Ocuapa), Atlamajalcingo del Monte, Tototepec, Cuatzoquitengo, Plan de Guadalupe. 65% to 85% intelligibility of Metlatonoc. Some had 70% intelligibility of Silacayoapan.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Alcozauca

[xta] 10,000 (1994 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Eastern Guerrero, near Metlatonoc, 14 villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de Alocozauca, Mixteco de Xochapa.  Dialects: Xochapa Mixtec, Petlacalancingo Mixtec. 92% intelligibility of Metlatonoc. Metlatonoc has 70% intelligibility of Xochapa. A separate language from Metlatonoc.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Amoltepec

[mbz] 6,091 (2000 WCD). 1,200 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 8,000 to 9,000. Oaxaca, western edge of Sola de Vega District, Santiago Amoltepec Municipio, and settlements (Las Cuevas, La Mesilla, El Armadillo, El Mamey, El Zapote, Colonia de Jesús, Barranca Oscura, Llano Tigre, Llano Conejo, El Cocal, El Laurel, La Tortuga). 20 villages in the southern part of Santiago Amoltepec Municipio. Alternate names: Western Sola de Vega Mixtec, Mixteco de Amoltepec.  Dialects: 63% intelligibility of Ixtayutla, 52% of Pinotepa Nacional, 46% of Yosondúa, 42% of Nuyoo, 32% of Zacatepec, 25% of San Juan Colorado, 20% of Jamiltepec, 15% of Chayuco.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Apasco-Apoala

[mip] 7,866 (1990 census). 6,728 monolinguals. Oaxaca, 40 km north northwest of Nochixtlán. Includes towns of Santa Catarina Ocotlán, San Miguel Chicagua, San Miguel Chicahuastepec, Jocotepec, Santa María Apasco, San Miguel Huautla, Nduayaco, and 2 others. Alternate names: Northern Nochixtlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Santiago Apoala, Mixteco de Chocho, Apoala Mixtec, Apasco Mixtec.  Dialects: 26% intelligibility of Southern Puebla Mixtec (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Atatláhuca

[mib] 8,300 (1995 census). 435 monolinguals. West central Oaxaca, towns of San Esteban Atatláhuca, Santa Lucía Monteverde, and Santa Catarina Yosonotú. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Esteban Atatláhuca, South Central Tlaxiaco Mixtec.  Dialects: 68% intelligibility of Yosondúa. San Agustín Tlacotepec may need separate literature (69% intelligibility of San Esteban; closest). Santa Lucía Monteverde Mixtec may also need separate literature.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ayutla

[miy] 8,500 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. Guerrero, Ayutla. Alternate names: Coastal Guerrero Mixtec, Mixteco de Ayutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Cacaloxtepec

[miu] 848 (1990 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,254. Oaxaca, town of Santiago Cacaloxtepec. Alternate names: Huajuapan Mixtec, Mixteco de Cacaloxtepec.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Silacayoapan (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chayuco

[mih] 30,000 (1977 SIL). Southwest Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Chayucu, Eastern Jamiltepec-Chayuco Mixtec.  Dialects: 69% intelligibility of Western Jamiltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chazumba

[xtb] 2,477 (1995 census). 32 monolinguals. Oaxaca, close to the Puebla border, with a few in Puebla. Near Southern Puebla Mixtec. The largest group speaking Mixtec is in Santiago Chazumba. Some other villages with speakers are San Pedro y San Pablo Tequixtepec (in Oaxaca), Zapotitlán, Petlalcingo, and Totoltepec de Guerrero (in Puebla). Alternate names: Mixteco de Chazumba, Northern Oaxaca Mixtec.  Dialects: 65% inherent intelligibility of Xayacatlán, 53% of Cacaloxtepec, 24% of Chigmecatitlán, 19% of Cuyamecalco (Coatzospan).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Chigmecatitlán

[mii] 1,600 (1990 census). Puebla, straight south of Puebla city, about halfway to Oaxaca border. Includes Santa Catarina Tlaltemplan. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santa María Chigmecatitlán, Central Puebla Mixtec.  Dialects: 23% intelligibility of Chazumba (Southern Puebla; closest). An 'island' of Mixtec surrounded by Popoloca and Nahuatl. Low intelligibility of all Mixtec; very different.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Coatzospan

[miz] 5,000 (1994 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Teotitlan Mixtec, Mixteco de San Juan Coatzospan.  Dialects: 25% intelligibility of Chazumba. Cuyamecalco is close, but inherent intelligibility is inadequate.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Cuyamecalco

[xtu] 2,600 (1994 SIL). 72 monolinguals in San Miguel. Oaxaca, Cuyamecalco, San Miguel Santa Flor. Alternate names: Mixteco de Cuyamecalco, Cuicatlán Mixtec.  Dialects: Close to San Juan Coatzospan.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Diuxi-Tilantongo

[xtd] 8,500 (1990 census). 300 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, 20 towns and villages in the Diuxi and Tilantongo area, Oaxaca City, Puebla City, Mexico City. Alternate names: Central Nochistlán Mixtec, Mixteco de Diuxi-Tilantongo.  Dialects: 37% intelligibility of Peñoles (Eastern); closer to Nuxaá.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Huitepec

[mxs] 4,000 (1990 census). 200 monolinguals. Population includes 2,000 in the town of Huitepec. Oaxaca, 60 km west of Zaachila, 25 km southwest of Peñoles, Huitepec Municipio, towns of San Antonio Huitepec, San Francisco Yucucundo, and San Francisco Infiernillo. Alternate names: Mixteco de Zaachila, Mixteco de Huitepec, Mixteco de San Antonio Huitepec.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 75% of Chalcatongo, 52% of Peñoles, 20% of Yosondúa, 8% of Tilantongo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Itundujia

[mce] 1,082 (1990 census). 33 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Putla District, 10 km southwest of Yosondúa, 40 km southeast of Putla. Most in Morelos and Guerrero villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santa Cruz Itundujia, Eastern Putla Mixtec.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Yosondúa, 59% of Chalcatongo, 25% of San Martín Peras, 15% of Amoltepec, 12% of Zacatepec, 10% of San Esteban Atatláhuca, Nuyoo, 0% of Ixtayutla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ixtayutla

[vmj] 5,500 (1990 census). 2,800 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Jamiltepec District, Santiago Ixtayutla and about 15 settlements (Nuyuku, Xiniyuva, La Humedad, Pueblo Viejo, Musko, Yukuyaa, Llano Verde, Yomuche, Carasul, Frutillo). Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Ixtayutla, Northeastern Jamiltepec Mixtec.  Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Amoltepec, 59% of Chayuco, 49% of Jamiltepec, 40% of San Juan Colorado, 30% of Zacatepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Jamiltepec

[mxt] 10,000 (1983 SIL). Southwest Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Jamiltepec, Eastern Jamiltepec-San Cristobal Mixtec.  Dialects: Intelligibility and sociolinguistic attitudes make separate literature from Chayuco advisable.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Juxtlahuaca

[vmc] 16,000 (1990 census). 5,500 monolinguals. Oaxaca, central Santiago Juxtlahuaca, towns of San Sebastián Tecomaxtlahuaca, San Miguel Tlacotepec, Santos Reyes Tepejillo, Santa María Tindú, and Santa María Yucunicoco, San Quintín valley, Baja California. Alternate names: Mixteco de Juxtlahuaca, Central Juxtlahuaca Mixtec.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility of Silacayoapan, 80% of Yucucani and San Miguel Peras, 63% of Santa Cruz Mixtepec, 48% of Coicoyán (Western Juxtlahuaca), 37% of Tezoatlán, 18% of Zacatepec, 10% of Ñumí.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Magdalena Peñasco

[xtm] 4,200 (1990 census). 1,050 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, municipios of Santa María, Magdalena Peñasco, San Cristobal Amoltepec, and San Agustín Tlacotepec. Also includes the town of San Mateo Peñasco. Dialects: San Agustín Tlacotepec, San Cristóbal Amoltepec Mixtec, San Mateo Peñasco Mixtec, Santo Domingo Heundío Mixtec, San Miguel Achiutla Mixtec. Speakers have 89% intelligibility of San Cristóbal Amoltepec, 76% of Tijaltepec and Sinicahua, 73% of San Miguel el Grande, 72% of Tlacotepec, 68% of Ocotepec, 64% of Nduaxico, 58% of Yucuañe. A distinct language, different from Santiago Amoltepec Mixtec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Metlatónoc

[mxv] 46,648 (2000 WCD). 14,000 monolinguals. Eastern Guerrero, Metlatonoc, San Rafael, and towns further south. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Rafael.  Dialects: 90% or higher intelligibility among nearby towns, but only 50% with most in the Alacatlatzala area. Alcozauca Mixtec is a separate language. Investigation needed to determine if Chilistlahuaca and Ojo de Pescado are different.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Mitlatongo

[vmm] 1,800 (1994 SIL). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, Santiago Mitlatongo, Santa Cruz Mitlatongo. Alternate names: Mixteco de Mitlatongo.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Yutanduchi, 56% of Peñoles, 54% of San Juan Tamazola, 43% of Teita, 10% of Nuxaá, 8% of Diuxi.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Mixtepec

[mix] 12,000 in Mexico (1990 census). 2,600 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, San Juan Mixtepec, about 2000 located in Tlaxiaco (district head), San Quintín valley, Baja California. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Eastern Juxtlahuaca Mixtec, Mixteco de San Juan Mixtepec.  Dialects: Distinct from other Mixtec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Northern Tlaxiaco

[xtn] 14,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Juan Ñumí and Santiago Nundichi municipios; Teposcolula District, San Antonino Monte Verde and San Sebastián Nicananduta municipios. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Ñumí, Ñumí Mixtec.  Dialects: Monte Verde Mixtec, Yosoñama.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Northwest Oaxaca

[mxa] 2,500 (1990 census). 2,195 monolinguals. Northwest Oaxaca, towns of Santos Reyes Yucuná, Guadalupe Portezuelo, and San Simón Zahuatlán. Alternate names: Mixteco del Noroeste de Oaxaca, Mixteco de Yucuná.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Ocotepec

[mie] 5,000 to 8,000 (1982 SIL). West central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santo Tomás Ocotepec, Ocotepec Mixtec.  Dialects: Santa Catarina Yosonotu. 80% intelligibility of Ñumí (Northwestern Tlaxiaco).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Peñoles

[mil] 13,417 in Mexico (2000 WCD). 2,000 monolinguals (1990 census). West central Oaxaca. Santa María Peñoles municipio, Monteflor, San Mateo Tepantepec, Estetla and Cholula agencias; Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipio; and Huazolotipac agencia in Huitepec municipio, Zaachila District, and San Mateo Sindihui town. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Eastern Mixtec, Mixteco de San Mateo Tepantepec.  Dialects: Santa María Peñoles (Peñoles), Santiago Tlazoyaltepec (Tlazoyaltepec), San Mateo Tepantepec (Tepantepec). 14% intelligibility of Chalcatongo. Nuxaá has 30% intelligibility of Peñoles.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Pinotepa Nacional

[mio] 20,000 (1990 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Oaxaca, around Jamiltepec. Alternate names: Western Jamiltepec Mixtec, Coastal Mixtec, Lowland Jicaltepec Mixtec, Mixteco de Pinotepa Nacional.  Dialects: Investigation needed to determine how different Huazolititlán and Don Luís Pinotepa are.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Juan Colorado

[mjc] 13,500 (1990 census). 3,100 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Colorado.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Juan Teita

[xtj] 550 to 650 (2002 SIL). Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, 30 km southeast of Tlaxiaco, town of San Juan Teita. Alternate names: Teita Mixtec.  Dialects: Santa Maria Tataltepec. May be closest to Diuxi Mixtec, but not close enough to any other Mixtec for adequate comprehension.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Miguel el Grande

[mig] 14,453 (1990 census). 226 monolinguals in Chalcatongo, 800 in other dialects. Population includes 4,453 in Chalcatongo. West central Oaxaca. Dialects: San Pedro Molinos, Santa María Yosoyúa, Santa Catarina Ticuá, San Miguel Chalcatongo. 86% intelligibility of Yosondúa (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, San Miguel Piedras

[xtp] 448 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,123 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. Dialects: 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 29% of Soyaltepec, Yosondúa, 18% of Peñoles, 15% of Chalcatongo, 13% of Tilantongo, 11% of Chicahua.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Santa Lucía Monteverde

[mdv] 4,000 (2001 Williams). 203 monolinguals (1995 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 census). West central Oaxaca, northeastern Putla District, town of Santa Lucía Monteverde. Dialects: Intelligibility is 83% of San Esteban Atatláhuca; people had difficulty understanding written materials in it. Santa Catarina Yosonotu Mixtec may be closer to this than to Atatláhuca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Santa María Zacatepec

[mza] 6,000 (1992 SIL). Less than 20% monolingual. Population includes 3,000 in Zacatepec and 3,000 in surrounding rancherías and villages. Oaxaca, 45 km south of Putla, on paved road from Tlaxiaco to Pinotepa Nacional. Towns of Tapanco, Nejapa, Atotonilco, San Miguel, San Juan Viejo, Rancho de la Virgen, Las Palmas. Alternate names: Zacatepec Mixtec, Mixteco de Santa María Zacatepec, Southern Putla Mixtec, "Tacuate", Tu'un Va'a.  Dialects: 64% intelligibility of Ixtayutla, 63% of Jicaltepec (Pinotepa Nacional Mixtec), 40% to 50% of Metlatonoc, 25% to 30% of Yoloxochitl.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Silacayoapan

[mks] 18,717 in Mexico (2000 WCD). 1,500 monolinguals (1990 census). Oaxaca, including towns of Santo Domingo Tonala (5,704 in 1990 census) and San Jorge Nuchita (3,052), and Tijuana. Also spoken in USA. Dialects: San Simón Zahuatlán. 70% intelligibility of Metlatonoc, 68% of Santa María Peras. Cuatzoquitengo may need separate literature; testing incomplete; also Guadalupe Portezuelo (65% intelligibility of Silacayoapan).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Sindihui

[xts] 138 (1990 census). West central Oaxaca. Dialects: Distinct from Yutanduchi.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Sinicahua

[xti] 1,300 (1990 census). 400 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, San Antonio Sinicahua, Siniyucu, and settlements of Sinicahua Municipio. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Antonio Sinicahua.  Dialects: Speakers have 75% intelligibility of Yosoyúa, 73% of Ocotepec, 72% of San Miguel el Grande, and 51% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southeastern Nochixtlán

[mxy] 7,000 (1990 census). 4,075 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, 30 km along highway 190, starting 20 km southeast of Nochixtlán, four turn-offs from highway 190. Well-graded gravel road. Main towns are Santo Domingo Nuxaá, San Andrés Nuxiño, Santa Inez Zaragoza. Also Ojo de Agua Nuxaá, El Oro, La Herradura, La Unión Zaragoza, Reforma, La Paz, and other hamlets. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santo Domingo Nuxaá, Mixteco de Nuxaá, Mixteco del Sureste de Nochixtlán.  Dialects: 60% to 70% intelligibility of Peñoles Mixtec. Speakers understand little of San Miguel Piedras or San Pedro Tidaá Mixtec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southern Puebla

[mit] 1,330 (1990 census). 386 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southwestern Puebla, town of Zapotitlán Palmas. Alternate names: Mixteco del Sur de Puebla, Acatlán Mixtec.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility of Cacaloxtepec (Huajuapan; closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Southwestern Tlaxiaco

[meh] 6,000 (1990 census). 1,000 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Nuyoo, Nuyoo Mixtec, Southeastern Ocotepec Mixtec.  Dialects: Nuyoo, Yucuhiti. 54% intelligibility of Atatláhuca (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Soyaltepec

[vmq] 322 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 926 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Teposcolula District, villages of San Bartolo Soyaltepec and Guadalupe Gabilera. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Bartolo Soyaltepec.  Dialects: 28% intelligibility of Tilantongo, 25% of Ñumí, 23% of Apoala.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tacahua

[xtt] 585 (1990 census). 78 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tlaxiaco District, east of Yosondúa, southeast of San Miguel el Grande. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santa Cruz Tacahua.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tamazola

[vmx] 2,500 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Nochixtlán, San Juan Tamazola. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Juan Tamazola.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tezoatlán

[mxb] 6,200 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Tezoatlán area, southwest of Huajuapan, about 40 to 50 km off the highway by gravel road; 25 miles south of Cacaloxtepec; towns of Yucuquimi de Ocampo, San Andrés Yutatío, Yucuñuti de Benito Juárez, San Juan Diquiyú, San Marcos de Garzón, San Martín del Río, Santa Catarina Yotandu, San Isidro de Zaragoza, San Valentín. Alternate names: Mixteco de Tezoatlán de Segura y Luna.  Dialects: Tezoatlán, Yucu Ñuti. Speakers in each town speak a little differently. 70% to 80% intelligibility of Silacayoapan and Atenango.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tidaá

[mtx] 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 900 (1990 census). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Tidaá, North Central Nochixtlán Mixtec.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Peñoles (Eastern); closest. Nuxaá is close.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tijaltepec

[xtl] 3,559 (2000 WCD). 800 monolinguals. Oaxaca, southeastern Tlaxiaco District, towns of San Pablo Tijaltepec, Santa María Yosoyúa, and all their communities. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Pablo Tijaltepec.  Dialects: Speakers have 89% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande and Yosoyúa, 82% of San Mateo Peñasco, 81% of Sinicahua and 66% of Teita.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tlazoyaltepec

[mqh]  West central Oaxaca,Santiago Tlazoyaltepec municipio. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Tlazoyaltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Tututepec

[mtu] 817 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 30,046 (1990 census). Oaxaca, 10 km north of coastal highway, on dirt road that turns off pavement 40 km southeast of Jamiltepec. Includes San Pedro Tututepec, Santa María Acatepec, Santa Cruz Tututepec, other towns and villages. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Pedro Tututepec.  Dialects: Santa María Acatepec. 61% intelligibility of Ixtayutla (closest), 50% of Pinotepa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Western Juxtlahuaca

[jmx] 25,000 (1992 SIL). 7,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Population includes 7,000 in San Martín Peras, 2,000 in Santa Cruz Yucucani, 2,000 in San José Yoxocaño. Oaxaca-Guerrero border due west of Juxtlahuaca. In Oaxaca: San Martín Peras. Other municipios: Río Frijol, Santa Cruz Yucucani, San José Yoxocaño (all towns in these municipios). In Guerrero: Malvabisco, Rancho Limón, Río Aguacate, Boca de Mamey. Alternate names: Mixteco del Oeste de Juxtlahuaca, Coicoyán Mixtec.  Dialects: San Martín Peras, Coicoyán, San Juan Piñas. 82% intelligibility of Metlatonoc, 80% of Silacayoapan, 65% of Juxtlahuaca, 19% of Cuatzoquitengo, 16% of Zacatepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yoloxochitl

[xty] 2,540 (1994 SIL). Southeastern Guerrero, San Luís Acatlán Municipio, just south of Tlapanec, and about halfway between Metlatonoc and Ayutla Mixtec; town of Yoloxochitl and possibly a few speakers in Cuanacastitlán. Dialects: Metlatonoc has 35% intelligibility of Yoloxochitl, and Ayutla has 30% intelligibility of it.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yosondúa

[mpm] 5,000 (1990 census). 240 monolinguals. Oaxaca. Alternate names: Mixteco de Santiago Yosondúa, Southern Tlaxiaco Mixtec.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility of San Miguel el Grande and Chalcatongo (closest). San Mateo Sindihui has 19% intelligibility of Yosondúa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yucuañe

[mvg] 515 (1990 census). 88 monolinguals. Oaxaca, northeastern Tlaxiaco District, 30 km southeast of Tlaxiaco, town of San Bartolomé Yucuañe. Many work in D.F. and USA. Alternate names: Mixteco de San Bartolomé Yucuañe.  Dialects: May be closest to Diuxi Mixtec, but not close enough to any other Mixtec for adequate comprehension. Speakers have 87% intelligibility of San Cristobal Amoltepec, 86% of Yosoyúa, 85% of Magdalena Peñasco, 64% of Teita, 60% of Nduaxico (Northern Tlaxiaco Mixtec), 56% of Tlacotepec. 2 dialects in different halves of San Agustín Tlacotepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mixtec, Yutanduchi

[mab] 1,800 (1990 census). 38 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Nochixtlán District, Yutanduchi de Guerrero. Alternate names: Southern Nochixtlan Mixtec, Mixteco de Yutanduchi.  Dialects: 49% intelligibility of Estetla (Eastern), 48% of San Juan Tamazola, 20% of Yosondúa and Soyaltepec, 36% to 18% of Peñoles, 15% of Chalcatongo, 13% of Tilantongo.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Mixtec-Cuicatec, Mixtec 
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Mocho

[mhc] 168 (1990 census). Chiapas, on border of Guatemala and Mexico (area of Tuzantán and Motozintla). Alternate names: Motozintleco.  Dialects: Motozintleco, Tuzanteco. Not intelligible with Mam dialects (Paul Townsend SIL 1973). Tuzanteco and Mocho are two distinct dialects of the same language (Terrence Kaufman 1967).  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Kanjobalan, Mocho 
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Nahuatl, Central

[nhn] 40,000 (1980 census). 1,000 monolinguals (1990 census). Speakers of all Nahuatl varieties: 1,376,898. Ethnic population: 63,000 (1986). States of Tlaxcala and Puebla. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Centro, Central Aztec, Tlaxcala-Puebla Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Central Huasteca

[nch] 200,000 (2000 census). States of Hidalgo, Veracruz, and San Louis Potosi. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Central Puebla

[ncx] 16,000 (1998 SIL). 1,430 monolinguals. Population includes 800 in Teopantlán, 600 in Huatlatlauca. South of Puebla City (97" 08' 56 W Long, 17" 10' 27 N Lat), Teopantlán, Tepatlaxco de Hidalgo, Tochimilco, Atoyatempan, Huatlathauca, Huehuetlán (near Molcaxac). Alternate names: Central Puebla Aztec, Southwestern Puebla Nahuatl, Náhuatl del Suroeste de Puebla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Coatepec

[naz] 1,400 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. State of Mexico, Coatepec Costales, Tlacultlapa, Texcalco, Tonalapa, Maxela, Machito de las Flores, Chilacachapa, Miacacsingo, Los Sabinos, and Acapetlahuaya, all west of Iguala, Guerrero. The language has strongest usage in Coatepec Costales and Chilacachapa. Alternate names: Náhuatl de Coatepec, Coatepec Aztec.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility of Santa Catarina (Morelos), 48% of Atliaca (Guerrero), 35% of Copalillo Guerrero, 28% of Zongolica (Orizaba).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Durango

[nln] 1,000 (1990 census). Southern Durango, Mezquital Municipio, San Pedro de la Jicoras and San Juan de Buenaventura. San Pedro is 30-minute walk from the nearest air strip, one-day trail from nearest highway. Alternate names: Mexicanero, Durango Aztec, Náhuat de Durango.  Dialects: Vocabulary and phonological differences between San Pedro Jicoras and San Agustín Buenaventura. 76% intelligibility of Michoacán Nahuatl (closest).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Eastern Huasteca

[nhe] 410,000 (1991 SIL). Huautla, Hidalgo is the center; also in Puebla and Veracruz. 1,500 villages. Alternate names: Eastern Huasteca Aztec, Náhuatl de Hidalgo, Náhuatl de la Huasteca Oriental.  Dialects: Southeastern Huasteca Nahuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern and Western Huasteca Nahuatl. Survey of other dialects needed. Southeastern Huasteca Nahuatl may need separate materials.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Guerrero

[ngu] 150,000 (1998 SIL). Balsas River, Guerrero. Alternate names: Guerrero Aztec, Náhuatl de Guerrero.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Highland Puebla

[azz] 125,000 (1983). Northeast Puebla. Alternate names: Náhuat de la Sierra de Puebla, Sierra Puebla Náhuatl, Sierra Aztec, Zacapoaxtla Náhuat, Mejicano de Zacapoaxtla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Huaxcaleca

[nhq] 7,000 (1990 census). 55 monolinguals. Puebla, towns of Chichiquila and Chilchotla. Alternate names: Huaxcaleca Aztec, Náhuatl de Chichiquila.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Highland Puebla Nahuatl, 85% on Orizaba Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Cosoleacaque

[nhk] 5,144 (1990 census). 12 monolinguals. Veracruz, Cosoleacaque, Oteapan, Jáltipan de Morelos, Hidalgotitlán, Soconusco. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Istmo-Cosoleacaque, Cosoleacaque Aztec.  Dialects: 84% intelligibility of Pajapan, 83% of Mecayapan, 46% on Xoteapan. Not intelligible with Pipil of El Salvador.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Mecayapan

[nhx] 20,000 (1994 SIL). Southern Veracruz, Mecayapan Municipio, Mecayapan and Tatahuicapan towns. Alternate names: Isthmus Aztec-Mecayapan, Náhuat de Mecayapan.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Pipil of El Salvador.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Isthmus-Pajapan

[nhp] 7,000 (1990 census). 500 monolinguals. Veracruz, towns of Pajapan, San Juan Volador, Santanón, Sayultepec, Jicacal. Alternate names: Náhuat de Pajapan.  Dialects: 83% intelligibility of Mecayapan (Isthmus Nahuatl), 94% of Oteapan (Cosoleacaque).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Michoacán

[ncl] 3,000 (1990 census). Michoacán near the coast around Pómaro. Alternate names: Nahual de Michoacán, Michoacan Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Morelos

[nhm] 15,000 (1990 census). 300 monolinguals. Morelos, towns of Cuentepec, Santa Catarina Tepoztlán, Tetela del Volcán, Hueyapan, Temixco, Xocotitlán, Tepetlapa, Puente de Ixtla. Alternate names: Náhuatl de Cuentepec.  Dialects: 72% inherent intelligibility of Cuaohueyalta (Northern Puebla), 69% of Atliaca (Guerrero), 54% of Macuilocatl (Western Huasteca), 40% of Yahualica (Eastern Huasteca), 36% of Pómaro (Michoacán), 34% of Tetelcingo, 27% of Chilac (Southeast Puebla), 19% of Tatóscac (Highland Puebla), 0% of Mecayapan (Isthmus). Dialects in Canoa, Tlaxcala, and northern Puebla need to be compared with this.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Northern Oaxaca

[nhy] 9,000 (1990 census). 1,400 monolinguals. Northwestern Oaxaca, near Southeast Puebla Náhuatl, towns of Santa María Teopoxco, San Antonio Nanahuatipan, San Gabriel Casa Blanca, Teotitlán del Camino, San Martín Toxpalan, Ignacio Zaragosa, Apixtepec, El Manzano de Mazatlán, Cosolapa, Tesonapa (one of the last 2 towns is in Veracruz). In Puebla: Coxcatlán. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Norte de Oaxaca.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Orizaba Nahuatl, 76% of Southeast Puebla and Canoa, 75% of North Puebla, 48% of Tatóscac.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Northern Puebla

[ncj] 60,000 (1990 census). Naupan, northern Puebla. Alternate names: North Puebla Aztec, Náhuatl del Norte de Puebla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Ometepec

[nht] 433 (1990 census). Southern Guerrero, Arcelia, Acatepec, Quetzalapa de Azoyú, Rancho de Cuananchinicha, and El Carmen; and some in Oaxaca, Juxtlahuaca District, Cruz Alta and San Vicente Piñas towns; and Putla District, Concepción Guerrero town. Alternate names: Ometepec Aztec.  Dialects: May be 3 languages.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Orizaba

[nlv] 120,000 (1991 SIL). Veracruz, Orizaba area. Alternate names: Orizaba Aztec, Náhuatl de la Sierra de Zongolica.  Dialects: Ixhuatlancillo Nahuatl. 79% intelligibility of closest Nahuatl (Morelos).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Santa María la Alta

[nhz] 2,472 (2000 WCD). 9 monolinguals. Puebla, Santa María la Alta, Atenayuca. A pocket northwest of Tehuacán, off the Puebla-Tehuacán highway. Alternate names: Náhuatl de Santa María la Alta.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Pómaro (Michoacán), 53% of Huatlatlauca, Puebla; 50% of Zautla (Highland Puebla), Chilac (Southeastern Puebla); 40% of Zongolica (Orizaba); 33% of Mecayapan, Veracruz (Isthmus); 30% of Canoa, Puebla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Southeastern Puebla

[nhs] 130,000 (1991 SIL). Southeast Puebla, Tehuacán Region, Chilac and San Sebastián Zinacatepec area. Alternate names: Náhuatl del Sureste de Puebla, Tehuacán Náhuatl.  Dialects: Approximately 60% intelligibility of Morelos Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Temascaltepec

[nhv] 311 (1990 census). State of Mexico, towns of San Mateo Almomoloa, Santa Ana, La Comunidad, and Potrero de San José, southwest of Toluca. Alternate names: Temascaltepec Aztec, Almomoloya Náhuatl.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility of Coatepec, Guerrero; 45% of Pómaro, Michoacán; 40% of Santa Catarina, Morelos; 10% of Tlaxpanaloya, Puebla.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tenango

[nhi] 1,977 (2000 WCD). North of Puebla City, just south of Zacatlán, Puebla, 8 km on a road which branches to the east. 6 towns: San Miguel Tenango, Yehuala, Cuacuila, Tetelatzingo, Zonotla, Zoquitla. Alternate names: San Miguel Tenango Náhuatl, Tenango Aztec.  Dialects: Close to Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl, but first-language speakers of both discovered many differences over a 2-day period. About 50% to 60% intelligibility of Sierra Nahuatl and Northern Puebla Nahuatl, about 80% to 90% of Southeastern Puebla Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tetelcingo

[nhg] 3,500 (1990 census). State of Morelos, town of Tetelcingo. Alternate names: Tetelcingo Aztec.  Dialects: Distinct from Morelos Nahuatl.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tlalitzlipa

[nhj] 108 (1990 census). Near Zacatlán, Puebla, 1 village. Dialects: 77% inherent intelligibility of Tlaxpanaloya (North Puebla), 58% of Macuilocatl (Western Huasteca Nahuatl), 41% of Tatóscac (Highland Puebla).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tlamacazapa

[nuz] 1,548 (1990 census). 12 monolinguals. Tlamacazapa, 1 hour from Taxco on a good road. Dialects: Different from Morelos Nahuatl and Guerrero Nahuatl. 79% inherent intelligibility of Guerrero.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Western Huasteca

[nhw] 400,000 (1991 SIL). Tamazunchale, San Luis Potosí is the center; also in Hidalgo. 1,500 villages. Alternate names: Western Huasteca Aztec, Náhuatl de Tamazunchale, Náhuatl de la Huasteca Occidental.  Dialects: Western Huasteca Náhuatl. 85% intelligibility between Eastern and Western Huasteca Nahuatl. Separate literature needed for 100,000 speakers of a Central dialect.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Opata

[opt] 15. Population includes 11 in Distrito Federal, 4 in State of Mexico (1993 Instituto Nacional Indigenista). Sonora: Nacori, Bacahora, Suaqui, Sahuaripa, Arivechi, Onavas, Tecoripa is the traditional area. Alternate names: Endeve.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita  Nearly extinct.
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Otomi, Eastern Highland

[otm] 20,000 (1990 census). 4,700 monolinguals. Vicinity of Huehuetla and San Bartolo, Hidalgo; Tlachichilco and Ixhuatlán, Veracruz. Alternate names: Eastern Otomi, Otomí de la Sierra, Yuhu, Otomí de Huehuetla, Otomí del Oriente, Sierra Oriental Otomi.  Dialects: 81% intelligibility of Tenango (closest), 50% of Mezquital.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Estado de México

[ots] 10,000 (1990 census). 400 monolinguals. State of Mexico. Alternate names: Hñatho, Otomí del Estado de México, Otomí de San Felipe Santiago, State of Mexico Otomi.  Dialects: San Felipe Santiago Otomí. 73% intelligibility of Mezquital Otomi (closest), lower in outlying areas.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Ixtenco

[otz] 736 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 5,356 (1990 census). Tlaxcala, San Juan Bautista Ixtenco. Alternate names: Southeastern Otomí.  Dialects: 41% intelligibility of Estado De México Otomi (closest), 23% of Mezquital, and Eastern Highland Otomi, 22% of Tenango Otomi.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Mezquital

[ote] 100,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population includes 100 in North Carolina, USA. Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo. Some in Florida, USA. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Hñahñu, Otomí del Valle del Mezquital.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Querétaro

[otq] 33,000 (1990 census). Amealco Municipio: towns of San Ildefonso, Santiago Mexquititlán; Acambay Municipio; Tolimán Municipio. Alternate names: Hñohño, Otomí de Querétaro, Western Otomi, Northwestern Otomi.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility of Mezquital (closest), lower in outlying areas.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Temoaya

[ott] 37,000 (1990 census). 850 monolinguals. State of Mexico Temoyaya Municipio and 16 barrios, including San Pedro Arriba, San Pedro Abajo, Enthavi, Solalpan, and Jiquipilco el Viejo. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Tenango

[otn] 10,000 (1990 census). San Nicolás, Hidalgo, and Puebla. Alternate names: Otomí de Tenango.  Dialects: 53% intelligibility of Eastern Highland Otomi (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Texcatepec

[otx] 12,000 (1990 census). 3,000 monolinguals. Northwestern Veracruz, Texcatepec Municipio: Texcatepec, Ayotuxtla, Zontecomatlán Municipio: Hueytepec, Amajac, Tzicatlán. Alternate names: Northeastern Otomí, Otomí de Texcatepec.  Dialects: 70% to 79% intelligibility of Eastern Otomi, 57% of Ixmiquilpan, 44% of Tolimán, 40% of San Felipe, 20% of Ixtenco.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Otomi, Tilapa

[otl] 400 (1990 census). Santiago Tilapa town between Mexico, D. F. and Toluca, State of Mexico. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Otomian, Otomi 
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Paipai

[ppi] 300 (1990 census). Santa Catarina (about 300 people), and some near Valle de la Trinidad in Los Pocitos, Estado Valle de la Trinidad (1 or 2 houses), and Rancho Aguascalientes or La Palmita (2 to 3 families), Ensenada, Baja California Norte, south of the Diegueño. Alternate names: Akwa'ala.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Pai 
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Pame, Central

[pbs] 4,350 (1990 census). San Luis Potosí, Santa María Acapulco. Alternate names: Pame del Centro, Pame de Santa María Acapulco, Chichimeca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Pame, Northern

[pmq] 5,616 (2000 WCD). San Luis Potosí, north of Río Verde to the border with Tamaulipas. Includes Alaquines, Morales, Pasito de San Francisco, Las Crucitas, La Palma, Santa Catarina, Tamasopo, Rayón, Cuesta Blanca. Most speakers are in a natural corridor from the base of the Sierra del Mezquital along La Cañada River. Alternate names: Pame del Norte.  Dialects: 10% to 15% intelligibility of Santa María Acapulco; 87% intelligibility of Alaquines by La Palma speakers.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Pima Bajo

[pia] 1,000 (1989 SIL). Central Sonora-Chihuahua border, scattered. Alternate names: Nebome, Mountain Pima, Lower Piman.  Dialects: Chihuahua Pima Bajo (Lower Piman), Sonora Pima Bajo. Sonora, Pima Bajo and Pima of the USA are close. Lexical similarity 85% with Pima (Tohono O'odham) of USA and Northern Tepehuán.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 40,000 in Mexico (1996). Chihuahua (Cuauhtemoc, Virginias, Buenos Aires, Capulín), Durango (Nuevo Ideal, Canatlán), Campeche (Chávez, Progreso, Yalnon), Zacatecas (La Honda, La Batea). Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Popoloca, Coyotepec

[pbf] 500 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000. State of Puebla, west of Tehuacán city, east of Ahuatempan, towns of Coyotepec and San Mateo (2 miles from Coyotepec). Dialects: San Vicente Coyotepec Popoloca, San Mateo Zoyamazalco Popoloca. 41% intelligibility of Otlaltepec, 23% of Atzingo, 15% of Tlacoyalco Northern Popoloca. San Mateo may be intelligible with Coyotepec, San Felipe, or may be a separate language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, Mezontla

[pbe] 2,000 (1993 SIL). State of Puebla, 1 town. Alternate names: Los Reyes Metzontla Popoloca, Southern Popoloca.  Dialects: 52% intelligibility of Atzingo Popoloca, 35% of Tlacoyalco (Northern Popoloca), 11% of Otlaltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Felipe Otlaltepec

[pow] 3,000 (2000 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,585 (2000 WCD). State of Puebla, 3 towns: San Felipe Otlaltepec (5,000), Santa María Nativitas (500), Huejonapan (500). Alternate names: Popoloca de San Felipe Otlaltepec, Western Popoloca, Popoloca del Poniente.  Dialects: Santa María Nativitas, Huejonapan.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Juan Atzingo

[poe] 5,000 (1991 SIL). San Juan Atzingo, Puebla: 1 town. Alternate names: Atzingo Popoloca, Eastern Popoloca, Southern Popoloca, Ngigua, Popoloca del Oriente, Popoloca de San Juan Atzingo.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Metzontla Popoloca (closest), 26% of San Felipe Popoloca.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Luís Temalacayuca

[pps] 4,729 (1994 SIL). San Luís Temalacayuca, Puebla. Alternate names: Popoloca de San Luis Temalacayuca.  Dialects: San Luís has 84% intelligibility of San Marcos, 22% of Atzingo, 8% of Otlaltepec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, San Marcos Tlalcoyalco

[pls] 5,000 (1993 SIL). San Marcos Tlacoyalco, Puebla. Alternate names: Northern Popoloca, Popoloca de San Marcos Tlalcoyalco.  Dialects: San Luis has 90% intelligibility of San Marcos.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoloca, Santa Inés Ahuatempan

[pca] 4,000 to 5,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals. State of Puebla, west of Coyotepec and Tehuacán city, 2 towns. Alternate names: Ngigua, Popoloca de Santa Inés Ahuatempan.  Dialects: Ahuatempan Popoloca, Todos Santos Almolonga Popoloca. 75% intelligibility of San Felipe Popoloca (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Popolocan, Chocho-Popolocan, Popolocan 
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Popoluca, Highland

[poi] 30,000 (1991 SIL). Soteapan, Veracruz. Alternate names: Highland Popoluca, Popoluca de la Sierra.  Dialects: Closer to Zoque than to Mixe.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque 
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Popoluca, Oluta

[plo] 102 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1990 census). Southeastern Veracruz, Oluta, inland, west of Texistepec. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Veracruz Mixe 
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Popoluca, Sayula

[pos] 4,000 (1990 census). 14 monolinguals. Sayula, Veracruz. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Mixe, Veracruz Mixe 
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Popoluca, Texistepec

[poq] 427 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 15,779 (1990 census). Southeastern Veracruz, Texistepec, east of Oluta. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque 
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Purepecha

[tsz] 120,000 (1990 census). Michoacán. Alternate names: Tarasco, Tarascan, Phorhépecha, Porhé.  Dialects: Several varieties do not have functional intelligibility of each other.  Classification: Tarascan 
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Purepecha, Western Highland

[pua]  Michoacán, western mountains, Zamora on the northern edge, Los Reyes de Salgado on the southwestern corner, Paracho on the eastern edge, including Pamatácuaro. Alternate names: Western Highland Purépecha, Purépecha del Oeste de las Sierras, Tarasco, Tarascan, Sierra Occidental Purépecha.  Dialects: All Purépecha varieties lack functional intelligibility of some other Purépecha: the western mountain variety has 60% intelligibility of Pátzcuaro.  Classification: Tarascan 
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Seri

[sei] 800 (2000 SIL). The population was 215 in 1951. Sonora coast, 2 villages. Classification: Hokan, Salinan-Seri 
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Spanish

[spa] 86,211,000 in Mexico (1995).  Alternate names: Español, Castellano.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Tacanec

[mtz] 1,200 in Mexico (1990 census). Buenos Aires, hills above Motozintla, and Mazapa, eastern Chiapas. Alternate names: Tacaneco, Tacana Mam, Mame.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Tarahumara, Central

[tar] 55,000 (2000 SIL). 10,000 are monolingual. Southwestern Chihuahua. Most live west and south of Chihuahua, from Cuautemoc, southwest to Creel, down the River Urique, east up the Sinforosa Canyon, southeast to Chinantu, north to Balleza. Many have migrated to Chihuahua City for jobs. Alternate names: Tarahumara del Centro, Samachique Tarahumara.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Lowland

[tac] 15,000 (1990 census). Chihuahua. Alternate names: Western Tarahumara, Tarahumara del Poniente, Ralámuli de la Tarahumara Baja, Rocoroibo, Baja Tarahumara.  Dialects: Closest to Tai Dam.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Northern

[thh] 300 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1993 SIL). Chihuahua, towns of Santa Rosa Ariseachi, Agua Caliente Ariseachi, Bilaguchi, Tomochi, La Nopalera. Alternate names: Tarahumara del Norte, Ariseachi Tarahumara.  Dialects: 45% intelligibility of Central Tarahumara, 25% of Tarahumara Baja.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Southeastern

[tcu]  Chinatú, Chihuahua. Alternate names: Tarahumara del Sureste, Tarahumara de Chinatú.  Dialects: Chinatú Tarahumara.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tarahumara, Southwestern

[twr] 100 (1983 SIL). Chihuahua, town of Tubare. Alternate names: Tarahumara del Suroeste, Tubare.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tarahumaran, Tarahumara 
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Tectitec

[ttc] 1,000 in Mexico. Amatenango de la Frontera and Mazapa de Madero, Chiapas. Alternate names: Teco, Tectitán Mame.  Classification: Mayan, Quichean-Mamean, Greater Mamean, Mamean 
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Tepehua, Huehuetla

[tee] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Northeastern Hidalgo, Huehuetla, and half the town of Mecapalapa in Puebla. Alternate names: Tepehua de Hidalgo, Tepehua de Huehuetla.  Dialects: 70% intelligibility of Pisa Flores (closest).  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehua, Pisaflores

[tpp] 4,000 (1990 census). Veracruz, towns of Pisaflores, Ixhuatlán de Madero, and one other town. Not in Puebla. Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Huehuetla (closest), 40% or less of Tlachichilco.  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehua, Tlachichilco

[tpt] 3,000 (1990 SIL). Tlachichilco, Veracruz. Dialects: 37% intelligibility of Pisa Flores (closest).  Classification: Totonacan, Tepehua 
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Tepehuan, Northern

[ntp] 8,000 (1990 census). Southern Chihuahua, Baborigame area. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Norte.  Dialects: Related to Pima Bajo, Tohono O'odham, Southern Tepehuán.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
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Tepehuan, Southeastern

[stp] 9,937 (2000 WCD). Southeastern Durango, Mezquital Municipio. Santa María Ocotán is the cultural and religious center. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Sureste, Tepehuano.  Dialects: 78% intelligibility of Southwestern Tepehuán.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tepehuan, Southwestern

[tla] 8,187 (2000 WCD). Southwestern Durango, Lajas, Taxicaringa, Teneraca. Alternate names: Tepehuán del Suroeste.  Dialects: 55% intelligibility of Southeastern Tepehuán.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tlapanec, Acatepec

[tpx] 33,000 (1994 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. Acatepec, Guerrero, Zapotitlán Tablas Municipio: Huitzapula, Ayotoxtla, Excalerilla, Huiztlatzala; Acatepec Municipio: Acatepec, Apetzuca, Tenamazapa, Barranca Pobre, Mezcalapa, Metlapilapa, Tres Cruces, El Salto, Zochitepec, Caxitepec; Platanillo municipio: Nanzintla, Teocuitlapa. Alternate names: Western Tlapanec, Me'pa, Me'phaa, Me'pa Wí'ìn.  Dialects: Acatepec, Zapotitlán Tablas, Platanillo. 83% intelligibility of Malinaltepec, 79% of Tlacoapa.  Classification: Subtiaba-Tlapanec 
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Tlapanec, Azoyú

[tpc] 682. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,000 in the Municipio. East and a little south of Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Azoyú, Maxnadi, Toxnene, Zapotitlán del Puente, San Isidro del Puente, El Carrizo. Alternate names: Tlapaneco de Azoyú, Me'phaa, Tsíndíí.  Dialects: 50% intelligible of Malinaltepec.  Classification: Subtiaba-Tlapanec 
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Tlapanec, Malinaltepec

[tcf] 33,000 (1994 SIL). 6,000 monolinguals (1994 SIL). East and a little south of Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Alternate names: Me'phaa, Mi'pha, Eastern Tlapanec, Tlapaneco de Malinaltepec, Mañuwíìn.  Dialects: Malinaltepec (Huizapula), Huizapula-Zapotitlán Tablas (Águàá-Xìrágáá), Zilacayotitlán (Tsírà'khàmájíín). Malinaltepec speakers have 50% intelligibility of Tlacoapa. Speakers define 8 varieties of Tlapanec. Linguistically closest to Subtiaba of Nicaragua (extinct). It may be distantly related to Tol of Honduras.  Classification: Subtiaba-Tlapanec 
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Tlapanec, Tlacoapa

[tpl] 3,461 (2000 WCD). East and a little south of Chilpancingo, Guerrero. Alternate names: Mínguíín, Tlapaneco de Tlacoapa.  Dialects: Malinaltepec speakers have 50% intelligibility of Tlacoapa.  Classification: Subtiaba-Tlapanec 
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Tojolabal

[toj] 36,000 (1990 census). 7,700 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 36,000. Chiapas, Margaritas, and Altamirano. Alternate names: Chañabal, Comiteco.  Classification: Mayan, Kanjobalan-Chujean, Chujean 
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Totonac, Coyutla

[toc] 48,062 (2000 WCD). Speakers of all Totonac languages: 196,003 (1980 census). Puebla, foot of the mountains north of the 'Sierra Totonaca' and the Olintla River. Alternate names: Totonaco de Coyutla.  Dialects: Cerro Grande Totonac. Closest to Highland Totonac with many similarities to Papantla.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán

[tlp] 15,108 (2000 WCD). Veracruz, highlands, in the middle of the main highlands dialect. Alternate names: Totonaco de Filomena Mata-Coahuitlán, Santo Domingo Totonac.  Dialects: 93% intelligibility of speakers in Nonacatlán. Linguistically between Highland and Northern Totonac.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Highland

[tos] 120,000 (1982 SIL). Zacatlán, Puebla area, and Veracruz. Alternate names: Totonaco de la Sierra, Sierra Totonac.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Ozumatlán

[tqt] 4,000 (1990 census). Puebla, Ozumatlán, Tepetzintla, Tlapehuala, San Agustín. Alternate names: Totonaco de Ozumatlán.  Dialects: 79% intelligibility of Highland Totonac, 75% of Northern Totonac, 67% of Zihuateutla, Puebla, 43% of Papantla.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Papantla

[top] 80,000 (1982 SIL). Veracruz. Alternate names: Lowland Totonaca, Totonaco de Papantla.  Dialects: 40% intelligibility of Highland Totonac (closest).  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Patla-Chicontla

[tot] 6,000 (1990 census). 20% to 30% are monolingual. Northeastern Puebla, Patla, Chicontla, Tecpatlán, and 2 other villages. Alternate names: Totonaco de Patla y Chicontla.  Dialects: It is difficult for speakers to understand Northern Totonac materials.  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Xicotepec de Juárez

[too] 3,000 (2000 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 13,733 (2000 WCD). Northeastern Puebla, Xicotepec de Juárez, and Veracruz; 30 towns. Alternate names: Northern Totonac, Totonaco de Villa Juárez.  Dialects: Zihuateutla Totonac. 87% intelligibility of Ozumatlán (closest).  Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Totonac, Yecuatla

[tlc] 500 (1994 SIL). Near southern coast, Veracruz, towns of Yecuatla (293 speakers out of 11,541 population) and Misantla (126 speakers out of 50,000 population). Classification: Totonacan, Totonac 
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Triqui, Chicahuaxtla

[trs] 6,000 (1982). Tlaxiaco area, Oaxaca. Alternate names: Triqui de San Andrés Chicahuaxtla, Chicahuaxtla Trique.  Dialects: Laguna. 74% intelligibility of Copala. Lexical similarity 100% with Laguna, 87% with Itunyoso, 78% with Sabana.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Triqui, Copala

[trc] 15,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, San Juan Copala, San Quintín valley, Baja California. Alternate names: Triqui de San Juan Copala, Copala Trique.  Dialects: 56% intelligibility of Chicahuaxtla.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Triqui, San Martín Itunyoso

[trq] 2,000 (1983). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Triqui de San Martín Itunyoso, San Martín Itunyoso Trique.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 87% with Laguna, Chicahuaxtla; 84% with Sabana, San Miguel.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Mixtecan, Trique 
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Tzeltal, Bachajón

[tzb] 100,000 (1993 SIL). 50,000 are monolingual. Speakers of all Tzeltal varieties: 215,145 (1980 census). East central Chiapas, Chilon and Ocosingo municipalities. Alternate names: Lowland Tzeltal, Tzeltal de Ocosingo.  Dialects: Amatenango del Valle.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzeltal, Oxchuc

[tzh] 90,000 (2000 S. Hoffman REF). 50,000 are monolingual. East central Chiapas, Oxchuc area. Alternate names: Highland Tzeltal, Tenejapa, Chanal, Cancuc, Tenango.  Dialects: Chanal Cancuc, Tenango.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Chamula

[tzc] 130,000 (1990 census). Speakers of all Tzotzil languages: 265,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas, San Juan Chamula, Huitiupan, Simojovel, San Juan del Bosque, San Cristóbal Las Casas, Bochil, Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacan, Ocozocoautla, Ixtapa (Nibak), Jitotol, Teopisca, Amatan, Ishuatan. Alternate names: Chamula.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Chenalhó

[tze] 35,000 (1990 census). Chenalhó Region, Chiapas. Alternate names: Chenaló.  Dialects: San Pedro Chenalhó, San Pablo Chalchihuitan, Santa Catarina Pantelho, San Miguel Mitontic. Partially intelligible with San Andrés Larrainzar Chamula.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Huixtán

[tzu] 20,000 (1990 census). Huixtán Region, Chiapas. Alternate names: Huixteco, Tzotzil de Huixtán.  Dialects: Huixtán, Angel Albino Corzo, La Concordia, Villa Corzo.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, San Andrés Larrainzar

[tzs] 50,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas. Alternate names: Tzotzil de San Andrés Larrainzar.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Venustiano Carranza

[tzo] 4,226 (1990 census). 58 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 60,000 (1990 census). Central Chiapas, Venustiano Carranza Municipio, towns of Venustiano Carranza, El Puerto, and El Paraiso de Grijalva. Alternate names: San Bartolomé Venustiano Carranza Tzotzil.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Chenalhó Tzotzil, 65% of Zinacantán, 57% of Chamula, 56% of Huixtán.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Tzotzil, Zinacantán

[tzz] 25,000 (1990 census). West central Chiapas. Alternate names: Zinacanteco Tzotzil.  Classification: Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Tzeltalan 
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Yaqui

[yaq] 16,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 16,406. Sonora. Also spoken in USA. Dialects: Partially intelligible with Mayo.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
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Yucatec Maya Sign Language

[msd] 16 deaf people out of a village of 500 in the primary location (1999 H. Smith). All use sign (1989 Sacks), including hearing people in the village. Concentrated population in south central Yucatán and in smaller groups in the same region, and a sizeable concentration in northern Quintana Roo (1999 H. Smith). Chican, formerly called 'Nohya', Yucatán. An isolated village plus other villages (at least 2 in Oxkutzcab, 4 in Xyatil, 1 in Carillo Puerto) throughout a wide portion of the lowland Mayan Region. Kinil is also mentioned (1997 H. Smith). Alternate names: Nohya Sign Language.  Dialects: Dialects of Yucatán and Quintana Roo probably differ, but users have no contact with each other. There is a report of a person in Guatemala who uses related signs. Not intelligible with Mexican Sign Language used elsewhere in Mexico, or other sign languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Zapotec, Aloápam

[zaq] 2,100 (2004). Northern Oaxaca, San Miguel Aloápam, San Isidro Aloápam. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Aloápam.  Dialects: Distinct from Teococuilco Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Amatlán

[zpo] 6,000 (2000 SIL). 30% are monolingual. Southern Oaxaca, east of Miahuatlán, 3 towns. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Noreste de Miahuatlán, Zapoteco de San Cristóbal Amatlán, Dizhe.  Dialects: Closest to Loxicha.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Asunción Mixtepec

[zoo] 100 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,476 (1990 census). Southwest of Oaxaca City in central Oaxaca, Asunción Mixtepec and another town. Alternate names: North Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Mixtepec.  Dialects: 22% intelligibility of Ayoquesco (closest), and 3% of San Pedro el Alto.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec  Nearly extinct.
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Zapotec, Ayoquesco

[zaf] 876 (1990 census). 9 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Santa María Ayoquesco, Santa Cruz Nexila, San Andrés Zabache, and San Martín Lachila. Alternate names: Western Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Ayoquesco.  Dialects: Closest to Ocotlán Zapotec (23% intelligibility).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Cajonos

[zad] 5,000 in Mexico (1993 SIL). Northern Oaxaca, towns of San Pedro Cajonos, San Francisco Cajonos, San Mateo Cajonos, San Miguel Cajonos, San Pablo Yaganiza, Xagacía. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Pedro Cajonos, Southern Villa Alta Zapotec.  Dialects: Cajonos Zapotec, Yaganiza-Xagacía Zapotec. Yaganiza and Xagacía are similar. Major differences between those two towns and the other four towns; adaptation of literature will probably be needed. 73% intelligibility of San Pedro Cajonos with Zoogocho (closest other Zapotec).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Chichicapan

[zpv] 4,000 (1993 SIL). Central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Baltazar Chichicapan, Eastern Ocotlán Zapotec.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Ocotlán Zapotec (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Choapan

[zpc] 24,000 (1991 SIL). North central Oaxaca and Veracruz, including Comaltepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Choapan.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility of Zoogocho (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Coatecas Altas

[zca] 5,000 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Ejutla, Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Juan Coatecas Altas.  Dialects: Closest to San Gregorio Ozolotepec (83% intelligibility) and Miahuatlán (Cuitla).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Coatlán

[zps] 500 (1992 SIL). Southern Oaxaca near Chatino Region, about 7 towns, but mainly in Santo Domingo Coatlán. Alternate names: Western Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santa María Coatlán, San Miguel Zapotec.  Dialects: 54% intelligibility of Loxicha (closest), 51% of San Gregorio Ozolotepec, 44% of Cuixtla, 29% of Logueche, 16% of San Juan Mixtepec, 1% of Santa Catalina Quierí.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, El Alto

[zpp] 900 (1990 census). 29 monolinguals. Western Oaxaca, San Pedro el Alto, San Antonino el Alto, San Andrés el Alto. Alternate names: South Central Zimatlan Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro el Alto.  Dialects: 20% intelligibility of Totomachapan (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Elotepec

[zte] 200 (1990 census). Western Oaxaca, west of Zimatlán, 1 village. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Juan Elotepec, Papabuco.  Dialects: 68% intelligibility of Santa María Zaniza (closest), 10% of Texmelucan.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Guevea de Humboldt

[zpg] 7,000 (1977 SIL). Eastern Oaxaca. Alternate names: Northern Isthmus Zapotec, Zapoteco de Guevea de Humboldt.  Dialects: 49% intelligibility of Lachiguiri (Northwestern Tehuantepec; closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Güilá

[ztu] 9,500 (1990 census). 2,300 monolinguals. San Pablo Güilá and San Dionisio Ocotepec municipios, Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Pablo Güilá, Zapoteco de San Dionisio Ocotepec.  Dialects: San Dionisio has 80% inherent intelligibility of Mitla. Güilá has 83% inherent intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía, 80% of Chichicapan, 69% of Tilquiapan, 41% of Mitla, 35% of Ocotlán, 5% of Santa María Albarradas.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Isthmus

[zai] 85,000 (1990 census). Tehuantepec and Juchitán, Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Istmo.  Dialects: 18% intelligibility of Santa María Petapa (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lachiguiri

[zpa] 5,000 (1977 SIL). Oaxaca, north of Isthmus, 15 km southwest of Guevea de Humboldt. Includes towns in neighboring municipios, such as Santa María Totolapilla, Jalapa, and Magdalena. Alternate names: Northwestern Tehuantepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santiago Lachiguiri.  Dialects: 62% intelligibility in Lachixila (Northeastern Yautepec) and Juchitán (Isthmus; closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lachirioag

[ztc] 2,000 (1999 SIL). Oaxaca, San Cristóbal Lachiruáj. Alternate names: Lachiruaj Zapotec, San Cristóbal Lachiruaj Zapotec.  Dialects: Closest to Villa Alta Zapotec and Yalálag Zapotec. Distinct from Yatee.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Lachixío

[zpl] 6,500 (1990 census). 50% are monolingual. Western Oaxaca, eastern Sola de Vega, towns of Santa Marma Lachixío, San Vicente Lachixío. Alternate names: Eastern Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de Lachixío, Dialu.  Dialects: Southwestern Zimatlán dialect speakers need separate literature. 73% intelligibility of San Pedro el Alto, 80% of San Miguel Mixtepec and San Mateo Mixtepec, 99% of San Vicente Lachixío.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Loxicha

[ztp] 50,000 (1990 census). In many towns perhaps 70% of the men and 90% of the women are monolingual. Oaxaca, 120 km south of Oaxaca city, west of highway 175, halfway between Miahuatlán and Pochutla. Includes Candelaria Loxicha, Buena Vista, and San Bartolomé Loxicha. Alternate names: Western Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de Loxicha, Copalita Zapotec.  Dialects: San Agustín Loxicha Zapotec, Candelaria Loxicha Zapotec. Distinct from San Baltázar Loxicha and Santa Catarina Loxicha.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mazaltepec

[zpy] 2,200 (1990 census). 24 monolinguals. Western Oaxaca Valley, Etla District, 20 km northwest of Oaxaca city; Santo Tomás Mazaltepec, San Pedro y San Pablo Etla, and a few in San Andrés Zautla. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santo Tomás Mazaltepec, Etla Zapotec.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía, none of other Zapotec varieties.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Miahuatlán

[zam] 80,000 (1982 SIL). South central Oaxaca, Cuixtla. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Miahuatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mitla

[zaw] 19,500 (1983 SIL). Less than 1% monolingual. Population includes 4,500 in Matatlán (1983 SIL). Mitla Valley, Oaxaca. Alternate names: East Central Tlacolula Zapotec, East Valley Zapotec, Didxsaj.  Dialects: Santiago Matatlán Zapotec (Matatlán Zapotec). 75% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Mixtepec

[zpm] 7,000 (1991 SIL). Southern Oaxaca. Alternate names: Eastern Miahuatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Mixtepec.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Santiago Lapaguía (closest). A separate language from San Agustín Mixtepec Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Ocotlán

[zac] 15,000 (1993 SIL). Ocotlán, central Oaxaca around Santiago Apóstol. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Poniente de Ocotlán, Ocotlán Oeste Zapotec.  Dialects: 67% intelligibility of Tilquiapan (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Ozolotepec

[zao] 6,500 (1990 census). People in the towns of San Marcial, San Gregorio, San Esteban, and Santo Domingo are monolingual. Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, east side of highway 175, about halfway between Miahuatlán and coast. The majority of towns with 'Ozolotepec' in the name are included, however, not San Francisco Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Ozolotepec.  Dialects: San Marcial Ozolotepec Zapotec, San Gregorio Ozolotepec Zapotec. 87% intelligibility of Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán), 84% of Candelaria Loxicha (Northeastern Pochutla). Cuixtla literature not acceptable here.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Petapa

[zpe] 8,000 (1990 census). 220 monolinguals. Oaxaca, north of the Isthmus, Juchitán District, Santa María Petapa and Santo Domingo Petapa. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa María Petapa.  Dialects: 55% intelligibility of Guevea (closest), 34% of Lachiguiri.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Quiavicuzas

[zpj] 4,000 (1990 census). 180 monolinguals. Oaxaca, northeast corner of Yautepec District, 45 km northeast of Pan American highway, 75 km east of Mitla. San Carlos Yautepec Municipio: Santiago Quiavicuzas; Nejapa de Madero Municipio: San Juan Lachixila, Corral de Piedra, Carrizal; Guevea de Humboldt Municipio: Guadalupe Guevea. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Quiavicuzas, Zapoteco de San Juan Lachixila O, Northeastern Yautepec Zapotec.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Lachiguiri (Northwestern Tehuantepec; closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Quioquitani-Quierí

[ztq] 4,000 (1991 SIL). Yautepec, Oaxaca, Quioquitani and Quierí municipios, and including Leapi. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Quioquitani Y Quierí.  Dialects: Quioquitani Zapotec (Santa Catarina Quioquitani Zapotec), Quierí Zapotec (Santa Catarina Quierí Zapotec). Closest to Eastern Miahuatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Rincón

[zar] 29,246 (2000 WCD). Northern Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Rincón, Zapoteco de Yagallo, Northern Villa Alta Zapotec.  Dialects: 64% intelligibility of Choapan (closest). Temaxcalapan may not be part of this language.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Agustín Mixtepec

[ztm] 59 (1994 SIL). Oaxaca, Miahuatlán, town of San Agustín Mixtepec. Dialects: Distinct from San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec  Nearly extinct.
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Zapotec, San Baltazar Loxicha

[zpx] 1,500 (1990 census). 19 monolinguals. Oaxaca, 115 km south of Oaxaca city. San Baltázar Loxicha and Santa Catarina Loxicha. Alternate names: Northwestern Pochutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Baltázar Loxicha, San Baltázar Loxicha Zapotec.  Dialects: 71% intelligibility of Santa María Coatlán (closest), 63% of Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán), 46.5% of San Vicente Coatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Juan Guelavía

[zab] 28,000 in Mexico (1990 census). Population total all countries: 28,500. Central Oaxaca. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Western Tlacolula Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Juan Guelavía.  Dialects: Jalieza Zapotec, Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec, San Martín Tilcajete Zapotec. 20% intelligibility of Zegache (closest). Jalieza has 99% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía. Teotitlán del Valle has 100% intelligibility of San Juan Guelavía, but San Juan Guelavía only 59% of Teotitlán del Valle.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Pedro Quiatoni

[zpf] 14,821 (2000 WCD). Central Oaxaca, San Pedro Quiatoni, Salinas, Unión Juárez, and nearby settlements. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Pedro Quiatoni, Quiatoni Zapotec, Eastern Tlacolula Zapotec.  Dialects: 76% intelligibility of Mitla; closest.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, San Vicente Coatlán

[zpt] 2,430 (1990 census). 584 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Ejutla District, 90 km south of Oaxaca city. San Vicente Coatlán, a municipio town. Alternate names: Southern Ejutla Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Vicente Coatlán, Coatlán Zapotec.  Dialects: 75% intelligibility of San Baltázar Loxicha (closest, Northwestern Pochutla), 45% of Santa María Coatlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa Catarina Albarradas

[ztn] 1,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Santa Catarina Albarradas. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Albarradas.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Santo Domingo Albarradas; Santo Domingo 52% of Santa Catarina. Differences in phonology and grammar between them.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa Inés Yatzechi

[zpn] 2,235 (1990 census). Central Oaxaca, Zimatlán District, 40 km south of Oaxaca city, west of Ocotlán de Morelos. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Zegache, Zapoteco de Santa Inés Yatzechi, Southeastern Zimatlán Zapotec.  Dialects: Zaachila. 75% intelligibility of San Antonino Ocotlán (closest). Zaachila may need some separate literature. San Miguel Tilquiapan may be a dialect.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santa María Quiegolani

[zpi] 3,000 (1990 census). Central Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa María Quiegolani, Quiegolani Zapotec, Western Yautepec Zapotec.  Dialects: 60% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santiago Lapaguía

[ztl] 4,200 (1983 SIL). Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including four towns: Lapaguía (700, monolingual), San Felipe Lachillo (500, settled from Lapaguía), La Merced del Potrero (2,500, bilingual), San Juan Guivini (500, monolingual). Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santiago Lapaguía.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of San Juan Mixtepec Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santiago Xanica

[zpr] 2,500 (1990 census). Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including four towns: Santiago Xanica, Santa María Coixtepec, San Andrés Lovene, San Antonio Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Xanica Zapotec.  Dialects: 72% intelligibility of San Gregorio Ozolotepec, 70% of Cuixtla (Central Miahuatlán).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Santo Domingo Albarradas

[zas] 5,500 (1980 census). Population includes 1,500 to 2,000 in Santo Domingo (1993 SIL). All Zapotec languages: 422,937. Central Oaxaca, Santa María Albarradas, Santo Domingo Albarradas, San Miguel Albarradas. Alternate names: Albarradas Zapotec, Zapoteco de Santo Domingo Albarradas.  Dialects: 39% intelligibility of Mitla (closest). Santa Catarina Albarradas may need separate literature.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Sierra de Juárez

[zaa] 4,000 (1990 census). 150 monolinguals. Northern Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Atepec, Ixtlán Zapoteco.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Southeastern Ixtlán

[zpd] 6,000 (1992 SIL). Northern Oaxaca, Santa María Yavesía (center), Carrizal, Latuvi, Benito Juárez, Ixtlán de Juárez, Santa Catarina Lachatao, Llano Grande, La Trinidad, Nevería, San Miguel Amatlán, Capulalpan de Morelos, Santiago Xiacui, Natividad, Guelatao de Juárez. Alternate names: Zapoteco del Sureste de Ixtlán, Yavesía Zapotec, Latuvi Zapotec.  Dialects: 63% intelligibility of Atepec (Sierra de Juárez), 43% of Teococuilco.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Southern Rincon

[zsr] 12,000 (1990 census). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Rincón Sur.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tabaa

[zat] 2,000 (1992 SIL). Oaxaca. Alternate names: Central Villa Alta Zapotec, Zapoteco de Tabaa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tejalapan

[ztt] 124 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,656. Oaxaca, Etla District, town of San Felipe Tejalapan. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Felipe Tejalapan, Zapoteco de Tejalápam.  Dialects: Distinct from Santo Tomás Mazaltepec Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Texmelucan

[zpz] 4,100 (1992 SIL). Western Oaxaca. Alternate names: Central Sola de Vega Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Lorenzo Texmelucan, Papabuco.  Dialects: Closest to Western Sola de Vega (Zaniza).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tilquiapan

[zts] 2,700 (1990 census). 900 monolinguals. Central Oaxaca, Ocotlán, San Miguel Tilquiapan town. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiapan.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Santa Inés Yatzechi, 65% of Chichicapan, 59% of Ocotlán, 45% of San Juan Guelavía.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Tlacolulita

[zpk] 135 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 904 (1990 census). Eastern Oaxaca, Asunción Tlacolulita and San Juan Alotepec. Alternate names: Southeastern Yautepec Zapotec, Zapoteco de Asunción Tlacolulita.  Dialects: 15% intelligibility of Lachixila (closest), 10% on Mitla and San Juan Guelavía, 0% on Lachiguiri, Juchitán, Guevea de Humboldt, Petapa, San Juan Mixtepec, and Quiegolani.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Totomachapan

[zph] 259 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,009 (1990 census). Western Oaxaca, 2 towns. Alternate names: Western Zimatlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de San Pedro Totomachapan.  Dialects: No intelligibility of other Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Xadani

[zax] 338 (1990 census). Oaxaca, Pochutla District, San Miguel del Puerto Municipio, Santa María Xadani, 16 towns or villages. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa María Xadani, Eastern Pochutla Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Xanaguía

[ztg] 2,500 (1990 census). 35% monolingual, mainly older women. Oaxaca, southeastern Miahuatlán, including three towns: Santa Catarina Xanaguía, San Francisco Ozolotepec, and San José Ozolotepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa Catarina Xanaguía, Diidz Zë.  Dialects: A few phonological and lexical differences between San Francisco and San José.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yalálag

[zpu] 5,000 in Mexico (1990 census). 2,000 are in Yalálag, others are in D.F, Oaxaca City, Veracruz. Also in Los Angeles, California, USA. Oaxaca. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Yalálag.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yareni

[zae] 6,000 (1982 SIL). Northern Oaxaca. Alternate names: Western Ixtlán Zapotec, Zapoteco de Teococuilco de Marcos Pérez, Zapoteco de Santa Ana Yareni, Etla Zapotec.  Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Sierra de Juárez Zapotec. Different from Aloapam Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yatee

[zty] 3,000 (1999 SIL). Oaxaca, San Francisco Yatee, 4 towns. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Yatee.  Dialects: Closest to Villa Alta Zapotec and Yalálag Zapotec. Distinct from Lachiruaj.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yatzachi

[zav] 2,500 in Mexico (1990 census). Villages of Yatzachi el Bajo, Yatzachi el Alto, Xoochixtepec, Yohueche, Zoochina, Zoochila, Yalina, north central Oaxaca. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Yatzachi, Villa Alta Zapotec.  Dialects: 90% intelligibility of Zoogocho on narrative, 85% of Cajonos (Southern Villa Alta) and Yalálag, and somewhat intelligible with Solaga and Tabaa.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Yautepec

[zpb] 314 (1990 census). Eastern Oaxaca, San Bartolo Yautepec. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Bartolo Yautepec, Northwestern Yautepec Zapotec.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility of Tlacolulita (closest), no intelligibility of other Zapotec.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zaachila

[ztx] 550 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,000 or more (1990 census). Oaxaca, 15 km south of the city of Oaxaca, past Xoxo, town of Zaachila (416 speakers out of 10,601 population) and San Raymundo Jalpan (116 speakers out of 1,270 population). A few in San Bartolo Coyotepec, San Pablo Cuatro Venados, and Santa María Coyotepec. Alternate names: San Raymundo Jalpan Zapotec.  Dialects: 85% intelligibility of Zegache, 75% of Tilquiapan, 72% of San Juan Guelavía, 10% of Ocotlán.  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zaniza

[zpw] 770 (1990 census). 4 monolinguals. Western Oaxaca, Santa María Zaniza, Santiago Textitlán, Santiago Xochiltepec, El Frijol, Buenavista. Alternate names: Zapoteco de Santa María Zaniza, Western Sola de Vega Zapotec, Papabuco.  Dialects: 10% intelligibility of Texmelucan (closest).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zapotec, Zoogocho

[zpq] 1,000 in Mexico (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,400. Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua, and Oaxaca City, Oaxaca, and Mexico City. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Zapoteco de San Bartolomé Zoogocho.  Dialects: Zoogocho, Yalina, Tabehua. 57% intelligibility of Comaltepec (Choapan; closest). Zoogocho is the market town, so most Yatzachi people go there weekly, but Zoogocho people do not understand Yatzachi as well (80%).  Classification: Oto-Manguean, Zapotecan, Zapotec 
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Zoque, Chimalapa

[zoh] 4,500 (1990 census). 15 monolinguals. Oaxaca, Santa María Chimalapa and San Miguel Chimalapa. Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Oaxaca Zoque 
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Zoque, Copainalá

[zoc] 10,000 (1990 census). Copainalá, Chiapas. Alternate names: Zoque de Copainalá.  Dialects: Ocotepec, Ostuacán. 83% intelligibility of Francisco León (closest).  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Francisco León

[zos] 20,000 (1990 census). Mezcalapa, Chiapas. Alternate names: Zoque de Francisco León, Santa Magdalena Zoque.  Dialects: Chapultenango, San Pedro Yaspac. Close to Copainalá.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Rayón

[zor] 2,000 to 2,300 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 10,400 (1990 census). Northwest Chiapas, Rayón and Tapilula. Alternate names: Zoque de Rayón.  Dialects: Distinct from other Zoque.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Chiapas Zoque 
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Zoque, Tabasco

[zoq] 40 (1971 García de León). Ethnic population: 367 (1960 census). Municipio of Jalapa de Méndez, Ayapa, Tabasco. Alternate names: Zoque de Tabasco, Zoque de Ayapanec.  Classification: Mixe-Zoque, Zoque, Veracruz Zoque  Nearly extinct.
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Extinct languages

Chicomuceltec

[cob] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,500 in Mexico. Chiapas, towns of Mazapa de Madero, Amatenango, and Chicomuselo. Also spoken in Guatemala. Alternate names: Cac'chiquel Mam, Cakchiquel Mam, Chicomulcelteco.  Classification: Mayan, Huastecan 
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Cochimi

[coj] Extinct. Baja California Norte, north of Loreto to the northern part of the peninsula. Alternate names: Cochimtee, Cochetimi, Cochima, Cadegomo, Cadegomeño, Didiu, Laimon, Laymonem, Laymon-Cochimi, San Javier, San Xavier, San Joaquín, San Francesco Saverio Mission, San Francisco Xavier de Viggé-Biaundo Mission.  Dialects: Troike (1970) regards it as two distinct languages. Kumiai (Tipai) in La Huerta now call themselves 'Cochimí'.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Cochimi 
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Nahuatl, Classical

[nci] Extinct. Central Mexico, Tenochtitlán, Aztec Empire. Alternate names: Classical Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Nahuatl, Tabasco

[nhc] Extinct. State of Tabasco, towns of Cupilco and Tecominoacan. Alternate names: Tabasco Aztec.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Aztecan, General Aztec, Aztec 
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Pame, Southern

[pmz] Extinct. Jiliapan. Classification: Oto-Manguean, Otopamean, Pamean 
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Tepecano

[tep] Extinct. Northwestern Jalisco near Bolaños. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman, Southern Tepehuan 
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Tubar

[tbu] Extinct. Chihuahua, where the Río San Ignacio (Verde) and Río Urique meet in the southwest near the Sinaloa and Sonora borders. Alternate names: Tubare.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tubar 
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