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Languages of Peru

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Republic of Peru, República del Perú. 27,544,305. National or official language: Spanish. All languages are official languages in Peru. Literacy rate: 67% to 79%. Also includes North Bolivian Quechua, Chinese (100,000). Information mainly from E. Loos 1973; M. R. Wise 1983; D. Payne 1988, 1991; SIL 1951–2003. Blind population: 30,000. Deaf population: 1,433,960. Deaf institutions: 73 or more. The number of languages listed for Peru is 108. Of those, 93 are living languages and 15 are extinct.

Living languages

Achuar-Shiwiar

[acu] 3,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 5,000. Morona, Macusari, Tigre, Huasaga, and Corrientes rivers. Also spoken in Ecuador. Alternate names: Achuar, Achual, Achuara, Achuale, Jivaro, Maina.  Dialects: Different from Shuar (Jivaro) of Ecuador.  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Aguaruna

[agr] 38,290 (2000 WCD). Almost no monolinguals. Western upper Marañon River area, Potro, Mayo, and Cahuapanas rivers. Alternate names: Aguajun, Ahuajun.  Dialects: Close to Huambisa, Achuar-Shiwiar.  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Ajyíninka Apurucayali

[cpc] 4,000 (2000 SIL). Apurucayali tributary of the Pachitea River. Alternate names: Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, "Apurucayali Campa", Ajyéninka, "Campa", "Axininka Campa".  Dialects: Not intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Amahuaca

[amc] 90 to 130 in Peru (2000 SIL). 20 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 310. Ethnic population: 500 (300 in Peru and 200 in Brazil). Perhaps 50 in the border areas have not been contacted. Widely scattered in the southeastern Amazon Basin in Ucayali and Madre de Dios states on the following rivers: Sepahua, Curiuja, Curanja, Upper Ucayali, Inuya, Mapuya, Purus, Aguaytía, Yuruá, and Las Piedras. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Amawaka, Amaguaco, Ameuhaque, Ipitineri, Sayaco.  Dialects: Closest to Cashinahua and Shipibo.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Amahuaca 
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Amarakaeri

[amr] 500 (1987 SIL). Madre de Dios and Colorado rivers. Alternate names: Amarakaire, Amaracaire, "Mashco".  Dialects: Kisambaeri. The Harakmbet languages are not Arawakan.  Classification: Harakmbet 
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Arabela

[arl] 50 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2002 SIL). Arabela River, tributary of Napo, two villages. Alternate names: Chiripuno, Chiripunu.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Asháninka

[cni] 23,750 to 28,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,000 to 30,000 (2000 SIL). Apurimac, Ene, Perene, Tambo rivers and tributaries. Alternate names: Asháninca, "Campa".  Dialects: Close to Ashéninka, Caquinte, Machiguenga.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka Pajonal

[cjo] 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2002 SIL). Central Gran Pajonal area. Alternate names: Ashéninca, Atsiri, Pajonal, "Campa".  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka Perené

[prq] 5,500 (2001 SIL). Upper Perené River (tributary of the Pachitea River). Alternate names: "Perené Campa", Ashéninca Perené.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, Pichis

[cpu] 12,000 (2001 SIL). Pichis and its tributaries except Apurucayali. Alternate names: Pichis Ashéninca, "Pichis Campa".  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, South Ucayali

[cpy] 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000 (2002 SIL). Upper Ucayali River and tributaries (Southernmost part of Ucayali Department). Dialects: Most closely related to Pajanol Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa

[cpb] 7,000 in Peru (2001 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,212. Tributaries of the Ucayali River (Pachitea, Arruya, Shahuaya, Sheshea, Cohengua, Inuya) and Yurúa River. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Ucayali Ashéninca.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Aymara, Central

[ayr] 441,743 in Peru (2000 WCD). Lake Titicaca area, Puno. Classification: Aymaran 
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Aymara, Southern

[ayc]  From Lake Titicaca toward ocean. Dialects: Some important verb forms and vocabulary differences from Central Aymara. Dialect intelligibility needs investigation in Tacna and Moquegua (Landerman 1984).  Classification: Aymaran 
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Bora

[boa] 2,328 in Peru (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 2,828. Northeast Yaguasyacu, Putumayo, Ampiyacu River area, five villages in Peru. Also spoken in Brazil, Colombia. Dialects: Miraña. A distinct language from Bora Muinane but related. 94% intelligibility of Miraña.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Cahuarano

[cah] 5 (1976 SIL). Nanay River. Classification: Zaparoan  Nearly extinct.
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Candoshi-Shapra

[cbu] 3,000 (1981 SIL). Morona, Pastaza, Huitoyacu, and Chapuli rivers. Alternate names: Kandoshi, Candoshi, Candoxi, Murato.  Dialects: Chapara (Shapra), Kandoashi. May be distantly related to Arawakan; probably not Jivaroan.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Capanahua

[kaq] 387 (2000 WCD). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400 (2000 W. Adelaar). Tapiche-Buncuya rivers area. Alternate names: Kapanawa.  Dialects: Pahenbaquebo. Closest language is Shipibo. Lexical similarity 50% to 60% with Shipibo.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Caquinte

[cot] 300 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 300. Poyeni, Mayapo, and Picha rivers. Along the upper Poyeni River, which flows into the Tambo; along the Yori and Agueni rivers which become the Mipaya River flowing into the Urubamba. A few speakers also live on the Sensa and Vitiricaya rivers, affluents of the Urubamba. Alternate names: Caquinte Campa, Poyenisati, "Cachomashiri".  Dialects: Closest to Asháninka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Cashibo-Cacataibo

[cbr] 5,000 (1999). Some women over 50 are monolingual. Aguaytía, San Alejandro, and Súngaro rivers. Alternate names: Caxibo, Cacibo, Cachibo, Cahivo, Managua, Hagueti.  Dialects: Cacataibo de Mariscal, Cacataibo de Sinchi Roca, Cashibo.  Classification: Panoan, Western 
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Cashinahua

[cbs] 1,600 in Peru (2003). Population total all countries: 2,000. Ethnic population: 5,000. Curanja and Purus rivers. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa, Caxinawa, Caxinawá.  Dialects: It may be closest to Sharanahua.  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Chamicuro

[ccc] 2 (2000 Adelaar). Ethnic population: 10 to 20 (2000 Adelaar). Pampa Hermosa on a tributary of Huallaga. Alternate names: Chamicura, Chamicolo.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Western Maipuran  Nearly extinct.
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Chayahuita

[cbt] 11,384 (2000 WCD). Paranapura, Cahuapanas, Sillay, and Shanusi rivers. Alternate names: Chayawita, Chawi, Tshaahui, Chayhuita, Chayabita, Shayabit, Balsapuertino, Paranapura, Cahuapa.  Dialects: Chayahuita, Cahuapana. Not intelligible with Jebero.  Classification: Cahuapanan 
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Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] 2,000 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,050. Ethnic population: 15,000 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Northeastern lower Ucayali, lower Marañon, and Huallaga rivers area. Also spoken in Brazil, Colombia. Alternate names: Cocama, Kokama, Ucayali, Xibitaoan, Huallaga, Pampadeque, Pandequebo.  Dialects: Cocamilla, Cocama. Closest to Omagua.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Culina

[cul] 400 in Peru (2002 Boyer). Primarily monolingual. Ethnic population: 400. Southeast, near Brazilian border, upper Purus and Santa Rosa rivers. Alternate names: Kulina, Kulino, Kulyna, Kurina, Kollina, Madija, Madihá.  Classification: Arauan 
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Ese Ejja

[ese] 472 in Peru (2000 WCD). Ethnic population: 400 to 500 in Peru (2000 SIL). Tambopata and Heath rivers around Maldonado. Alternate names: Ese Exa, Ese Eja, Ese'ejja, Tiatinagua, Tambopata-Guarayo, Huarayo, "Chama".  Classification: Tacanan, Tiatinagua 
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Huachipaeri

[hug] 311 (2000 WCD). Population includes 12 Sapiteri, 10 Toyeri, 20 Arasairi, 50 Manuquiari, 36 to 50 Pukirieri (Puncuri). Upper Madre de Dios and Keros rivers. Alternate names: Huachipaire, Wacipaire, "Mashco".  Dialects: Huachipaire, Sapiteri, Toyeri (Toyoeri, Tuyuneri), Arasairi. Close to Amarakaeri but they probably cannot use the same literature. The Sapiteri are integrating with the Amarakaeri. Toyeri is similar to Sapiteri. Some Kisambaeri (Amarakaeri dialect) have integrated with the Toyeri and others with the Sapiteri. Manuquiari may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Huachipaeri. Pukirieri may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Arasairi. Arasairi is distinct from Amarakaeri or Huachipaeri; similar to Sapiteri.  Classification: Harakmbet 
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Huambisa

[hub] 9,333 (2000 WCD). Morona and Santiago rivers. Alternate names: Huambiza, Wambisa.  Dialects: Close to Aguaruna and Achuar-Shiwiar.  Classification: Jivaroan 
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Huitoto, Minica

[hto] 5 in Peru (1995 SIL).  Alternate names: Minica Huitoto.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
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Huitoto, Murui

[huu] 1,000 in Peru (1995 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,900. Ampiyacu, Putumayo, and Napo rivers. None left in Brazil. Northeastern Peru, southwestern Colombia. Generally north of Amazon River between Iquitos, Peru and Leticia, Colombia on the south, to the Caquetá River on the north. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Bue, Witoto.  Dialects: Mica.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
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Huitoto, Nüpode

[hux] 100 (1991 SIL).  Alternate names: Nipode Witoto, Muinane Huitoto.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Nipode 
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Iñapari

[inp] 4 (1999 SIL). Piedras River, at the mouth of Sabaluyo, near Puerto Maldonado. Extinct in Bolivia. Alternate names: Inamari.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus  Nearly extinct.
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Iquito

[iqu] 35 (2002 SIL). 1 monolingual. Ethnic population: 500. Loreto Province, Pintoyacu, Nanay, and Chambira rivers, villages of San Antonia and Atalaya. Alternate names: Iquita, Ikito, Amacacore, Hamacore, Quiturran, Puca-Uma.  Dialects: Pintuyacu. Was close to Cahuarano.  Classification: Zaparoan  Nearly extinct.
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Isconahua

[isc] 82 (2000 WCD). Callaria River. Alternate names: Iscobaquebu.  Dialects: Most closely related to Shipibo.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central  Nearly extinct.
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Jaqaru

[jqr] 736 (2000 W. Adelaar). Population includes 725 Jaqaru, 11 Kawki. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Lima Department, Yauyos Province, Tupe village (Jaqaru) and Cachuy village (Cauqui). Alternate names: Haqearu, Haqaru, Haq'aru, Aru.  Dialects: Cauqui (Kawki, Cachuy). Lexical similarity 73% with Aymara, 79% between Kawki and Aymara.  Classification: Aymaran 
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Jebero

[jeb] Ethnic population: 2,000 to 3,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). District of Jebero. Alternate names: Xebero, Chebero, Xihuila.  Classification: Cahuapanan  Nearly extinct.
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Machiguenga

[mcb] 10,149 (2000 WCD). Urubamba, Camisea, Picha, Manu, Timpia, Tigompinia, Kompiroshiato, and Mishagua rivers. Alternate names: Matsiganga, Matsigenka, Mañaries.  Dialects: Closest to Nomatsiguenga. There are minor dialects.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Mashco Piro

[cuj] 20 to 100 (1976 SIL). All are completely monolingual. Manu Park, Dept. of Madre de Dios. Cujar, Purus, Tahuamanu, Mishagua, and Piedras rivers. Extinct in Bolivia. Alternate names: Cujareno, Cujareño, "Mashco".  Dialects: About 60% inherent intelligibility of Yine. "Mashco" is a derogatory name.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus  Nearly extinct.
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Matsés

[mcf] 2,000 in Peru (2003 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,000 to 3,500. Yaquerana. Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Mayoruna, Maxuruna, Majuruna, Mayiruna, Maxirona, Magirona, Mayuzuna.  Dialects: Different from Mayo, or Maya and Marubo of Brazil.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Muniche

[myr] 3 (1988 SIL). Town of Muniches on the Paranapura River. Alternate names: Otanave, Otanabe, Munichino, Munichi.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Nanti

[cox] 350 to 600 (2002 Michael). Headwaters of the Camisea and Timpia rivers. Alternate names: "Cogapacori", "Kogapakori".  Dialects: Language is most closely related to Machiguenga, but they have remained separate.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Nomatsiguenga

[not] 6,500 (2003 SIL). 5,500 to 6,000 monolinguals. Departamento de Junín, between the rivers Ene and Perene, and Anapati River system in the foothills. Alternate names: "Nomatsiguenga Campa", Atiri.  Dialects: Closest to Machiguenga.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Ocaina

[oca] 54 in Peru (2000). Population total all countries: 66. Ethnic population: 150 in Peru (2000 W. Adelaar). Yaguasyacu, Ampuyacu, and Putumayo rivers, northeastern Peru. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Okaina.  Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo'tsa.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Ocaina 
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Omagua

[omg] 10 to 100 in Peru (1976 SIL). Population total all countries: 10 to 100. Ethnic population: 627 (1976). Omaguas near Iquitos. There may be none left in Brazil (1995). Also spoken in Brazil. Alternate names: Omagua-Yete, Ariana, Pariana, Anapia, Macanipa, Kambeba, Yhuata, Umaua, Cambeba, Campeba, Cambela, Cambeeba, Compeva, Canga-Peba, Agua.  Dialects: Closest to Cocama.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III  Nearly extinct.
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Orejón

[ore] 190 (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 405 (2000 WCD). Yanayacu, Sucusari, Algodon, and Putumayo rivers. Alternate names: Coto, Koto, Payagua, Mai Ja, Oregon, Orechon, Tutapi.  Dialects: Nebaji.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Southern 
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Peruvian Sign Language

[prl]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Pisabo

[pig] 513 (2000 WCD). Between the Tapíche and Blanco rivers. Alternate names: Pisagua, Pisahua.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Quechua, Ambo-Pasco

[qva] 90,000 (1998 SIL). 20% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 90,000. In province of Ambo (department of Huánuco), districts of Huacar, San Francisco de Mosca, and San Rafael. In province of Pasco (department of Pasco), districts of Chaupimarca, Huachón, Huariaca, Ninacaca, Pallanchacra, San Francisco de Asís de Yarusyacán, Simón Bolívar, Ticlacayán, Tinyahuarca, Vicco, and Yanacancha. Alternate names: San Rafael-Huariaca Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión

[qxu] 18,628 (2000 WCD). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 32,000. Arequipa Department, La Unión Province, Cotahuasi District; Apurímac Department, Antabamba Province. Alternate names: Arequipa Quechua, Cotahuasi Quechua.  Dialects: Cotahuasi, Northern Arequipa, Highland Arequipa, Antabamba (Apurimac). Closer linguistically to Cuzco than to Ayacucho. Very close to eastern Apurímac.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Ayacucho

[quy] 900,000 (2000 SIL). 300,000 monolinguals. Southwestern Ayacucho Region and Lima. Alternate names: Runasimi, Chanka.  Dialects: Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Lexical similarity 96% with Surcubamba, Puquio, and Cuzco.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Cajamarca

[qvc] 30,000 (2000 D. Coombs). Cajamarca, Chetilla, and Los Baños districts. The western dialect in the district of Chetilla. The eastern variety in Porcon and in several areas around the valley of Cajamarca. Dialects: Western Cajamarca, Eastern Cajamarca. Dialect differences are relatively minor. Lexical similarity 94% with Lambayeque (closest), 92% with Pacaraos.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima

[qvl] 7,000 (2000 SIL). 2,800 monolinguals. Northeast Lima Department: districts of Copa, Cajatambo, Huancapón, northern Manas, and northeastern Gogor and Southeast Ancash Department: districts of Pacllón, La Primavera, and Mangas (south of the Llamac River and east of the Pativilca River). Dialects: 74% intelligibility of Huamalíes Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Chachapoyas

[quk] 7,000 (2003 SIL). 100 to 300 monolinguals (2003). Ethnic population: 7,000. Chachapoyas and Luya provinces, Amazonas Department. Alternate names: Amazonas.  Dialects: Lamud (West Chachapoyas), Grenada-Mendoza (East Chachapoyas), La Jalca (South Chachapoyas), Llakwash Chachapoyas. Closest to San Martín Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Chincha

[qxc] 6,000 (2000 SIL). Northeastern Chincha Province, Ica; northwestern Castrovirreyna Province, Huancavelica; southeastern Yauyos Province, Lima. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Chiquián Ancash

[qxa] 10,000 (2000 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Southeast Ancash Department, Bolognesi Province, Chiquián District, Western Bolognesi west of the Pativilca River and north of the Llamac River, and eastern Ocros, those areas that border the Corpanqui Valley. Western Ocros may be included, but the dialect is somewhat different. Dialects: Possibly intelligible with Cajatambo Quechua. Some contact with Cajatambo and very little with Huamalíes. 73% intelligibility of Huamalíes.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Corongo Ancash

[qwa] 4,000 (2000 SIL). 1,700 monolinguals (2000 SIL). Northern Ancash Department, Corongo Province, Aco, Corongo, Cusca, La Pampa, and Yanac districts. Most prevalent in Aco and Cusca. Dialects: Most closely related to Huaylas and Sihuas Quechua. Some contact with Sihuas, Northern Conchucos, and Huaylas by road.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Cusco

[quz] 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). 300,000 to 500,000 monolinguals. Total Quechua speakers in Peru 3,500,000 to 4,400,000 including Quechua I 750,000, Quechua II 2,675,000 (2000 Adelaar). Ethnic population: 1,500,000. Departments of Cusco, half of Puno, and northeast Arequipa. Alternate names: Cuzco Quechua, Quechua Qosqo-Qollaw, Runasimi Qusqu Qullaw, Quechua de Cusco-Collao, Qheswa, Quechua Cusco, Quechua de Cuzco.  Dialects: Caylloma Quechua, Eastern Apurímac Quechua, Puno Quechua. Some dialect differences, but not as distinct as elsewhere. Substantial phonological and morphological differences with Ayacucho Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Eastern Apurímac

[qve] 200,000 (2002 SIL). 80,000 monolinguals (30% in towns, 60% to 70% in remote areas, especially at high altitudes). Ethnic population: 200,000. Abancay, Grau, Cotabambas, Aymaraes and Antabamba Ayamaraes, Chuquibambilla, and Anda provinces of the department of Apurímac. The province of La Unión, Arequipa. Alternate names: Quechua del Este de Apurímac, Apurímac Quechua.  Dialects: Abancay, Antabamba, Cotabambas. La Unión Quechua (Arequipa) is very similar to Antabamba.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, Huallaga Huánuco

[qub] 40,000 (1993 SIL). 66% monolingual. Northeast Huánuco Department, including the city of Huánuco. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco

[qvh] 72,440 (2000 WCD). 20,000 to 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 80,000 to 110,000. Northwest Huánuco Department. Dialects: Monzón, Huamalíes, Northern Dos de Mayo. Lexical similarity 96% with Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huaylas Ancash

[qwh] 336,332 (2000 WCD). Less than 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. Central Ancash Department, provinces of Huaraz, Carhuaz, Caraz; in the Callejón de Huaylas. Alternate names: Huaraz Quechua.  Dialects: Huaraz, Yungay, Huailas (Huaylas). Parker says it is not intelligible with Cuzco, Ayacucho, Southern Junín (Huanca), Cajamarca, Amazonas (Chachapoyas), or San Martín Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Huaylla Wanca

[qvw] 250,000 (2002 SIL). Southern Junín Department, Huancayo and Concepción provinces. Alternate names: Southern Huancayo Quechua, Huanca Huaylla Quechua.  Dialects: Waycha (Huaycha, Central Huancayo), East Waylla, West Waylla.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Jauja Wanca

[qxw] 14,550 to 31,500 (1962 census). Ethnic population: 77,727 (2000 WCD). Central Junín Department, Jauja Province. Alternate names: Shausha Wanka Quechua, Huanca Jauja Quechua.  Dialects: Considerable phonological differences with Tarma.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Lambayeque

[quf] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Lambayeque Region, Inkawasi, Kañaris, and Miracosta districts, and the communities of Penachí and Santa Lucía, and in adjacent areas of other departments (Cajamarca, Piura). Alternate names: Ferreñafe.  Dialects: Incahuasi, Cañaris. Lexical similarity 94% with Cajamarca Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha

[qvm] 83,395 (1993 census). 14,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 114,000 (1993 census). Southwest and south central Huánuco Department, districts of Obas, Aparicio Pomares, Cahuac, Chavinillo, Chacabamba, Jacas Chico, Rondos, San Francisco de Asis, Jivia, Baños, Queropalca, Jesús, San Miguel de Cauri, Yarumayo, Margos, and Chaulán. Dialects: Literature can be adapted from Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo. Lexical similarity 90% with Panao, 85% with Corongo (Ancash), Sihuas, Monzón, Tarma, Ulcumayo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Napo Lowland

[qvo] 8,000 in Peru. Population total all countries: 12,000. Napo River Region. Also communities on the Putumayo. Some were moved to Madre de Dios. Also spoken in Colombia, Ecuador. Alternate names: Runa Shimi, Santa Rosa Quechua, Santarrosino, Quixo, Kicho, Quijo, Napo, Yumbo, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo Kichua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, North Junín

[qvn] 60,000 (1998). 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census). Northern Junín Department, districts of Junín, Carhuamayo, Ondores, San Pedro de Cajas, southeast of Pasco. Alternate names: Tarma-Junín Quechua, Junín Quechua.  Dialects: There are two dialects in Tarma Province which differ from the town of Junín. Lexical similarity 97% with Cajatambo, 96% with La Unión Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash

[qxn] 250,000 (2002 SIL). 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census). East Ancash Department, Pomabamba to San Luis, and Huacrachuco in northwest Huánuco Department. May include a small part of the northern Marañon area. Alternate names: Conchucos Quechua, Northern Conchucos Quechua.  Dialects: Related to Southern Conchucos, Huamalíes, Sihuas.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Pacaraos

[qvp] 250 (1984 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 900. East central Lima Department, Pacaraos village. Dialects: Divergent lexically, morphologically, and phonologically from other Quechua. By its archaic features it occupies an important position relative to the reconstruction of Proto-Quechua. Lexical similarity 94% with Huarí, Cajatambo, Tarma, and Carás Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quechua, Panao Huánuco

[qxh] 50,000 (2002 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. East central Huánuco Department. Alternate names: Pachitea Quechua.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 98% with La Unión, 96% with Cajatambo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Puno

[qxp] 500,000. 100,000 monolinguals (2002). Puno Department and adjacent areas: northeast Arequipa, highland area of Moquegua. Alternate names: Quechua Qollaw, Quechua Collao.  Dialects: North Bolivian Quechua, Cailloma Quechua. Mutually intelligible with Cusco Quechua and North Bolivian Quechua: possibly sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, San Martín

[qvs] 15,000 (2000 SIL). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,982 (2000 WCD). Loreto Department, San Martín Region, Sisa, Lamas, and other districts, and along parts of the Ucayali River. Lamas town is "the cradle of the culture" and 22 km from Tarapota. Alternate names: Ucayali, Lamista, Lamisto, Lama, Lamano, Motilón.  Dialects: Several minor dialects.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco

[qxt] 10,000 (1993 SIL). Pasco Department, southeastern part of District Daniel Carrion. Dialects: Probably a dialect of Chaupihuaranga Quecha.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Sihuas Ancash

[qws] 6,500 (2002 SIL). 3,000 monolinguals. Ancash Department, Sihuas Province, districts west of Sihuas River and north of Rupac River: southern Quiches, Alfonso Ugarte, Huayllabamba, Sihuas, and western Ragash. Dialects: Most closely related to Northern Conchucos and Corongo Quechuas. Intelligibility testing has been conducted with these two language groups and initial results show intelligibility of Corongo Quechua to be on the high end of marginal. Intelligibility of Northern Conchucos appears to be lower.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash

[qxo] 250,000 (1994 census). 80,000 monolinguals. East Ancash Department, Chavín to San Luis to Llamellín in East Ancash Department, and Huacaybamba, Huacrachuco, San Buenaventura, and Pinra in northwest Huánuco Department. Includes much of southern Marañon. Alternate names: Conchucos Quechua, Southern Conchucos Quechua.  Dialects: Related to Northern Conchucos, Huamalíes, Huaylas.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Southern Pastaza

[qup] 1,553 (2000 WCD). 20% monolinguals. Northern jungle, Anatico Lake, Pastaza and Huasaga rivers, along the Ñucuray River and Manchari. Alternate names: Inga.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Quechua, Yanahuanca Pasco

[qur] 20,500 (1972 census). 8,200 monolinguals. Western Pasco Department, sparsely populated high country, and more densely populated valleys, districts of Yanahuanca, Villcabamba, Tapoc, Chacayan, Paucar, San Pedro de Pillao, Goyllarisquizqa, Chinche. Alternate names: Daniel Carrion.  Dialects: Many related Quechua dialects intersect here: Junín, Ambo-Pasco, Santa Ana de Tusi, Cajatambo, Dos de Mayo. Further intelligibility studies may be needed.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua I 
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Quechua, Yauyos

[qux] 6,500 (2003 SIL). Lima Department, Yauyos Province; Ica Department, northern section of Chincha Province; Huancavelica Department, northeastern corner of Castrovirreyna Province. Dialects: San Pedro de Huacarpana, Apurí, Madean-Viñac (Madeán), Azángaro-Huangáscar-Chocos (Huangáscar), Cacra-Hongos, Tana-Lincha (Lincha), Tomás-Alis (Alis), Huancaya-Vitis, Laraos. Not a single language, but a cover term for a highly differentiated linguistic area with many one-village varieties.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, A 
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Quichua, Northern Pastaza

[qvz] 2,000 in Peru. Alamos, Tigre River. Alternate names: Tigre Quechua, Alama, Bobonaza.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
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Resígaro

[rgr] 14 (1976 SIL). Northeastern Peru, Loreto Department, in Bora and Ocaina villages. Alternate names: Resígero.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland  Nearly extinct.
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Secoya

[sey] 144 in Peru. Northern Peru, Boca de Angusilla and Santa Marta, a small river off the Napo River near the Ecuador border. Alternate names: Angotero, Encabellao.  Dialects: Angotero, Piojé.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
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Sharanahua

[mcd] 450 in Peru (2000 SIL). 70% monolinguals. Population includes 200 to 300 Mastanahua. Population total all countries: 950. Upper Purus River area. Also spoken in Brazil. Dialects: Marinahua (Marinawa), Chandinahua, Mastanahua. Close to Yaminahua, Chitonahua, Yora.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Shipibo-Conibo

[shp] 26,000 (2003 SIL). Northeastern middle Ucayali River area, Painaco, Requena, Sur Bolognesi, Pisqui (on the other side of Contamana). Dialects: Shipibo (Alto Ucayali), Conibo (Coniba), Pisquibo, Shetebo (Setebo, Setibo, Xitibo, Manoita), Shipibo del Madre de Dios.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Spanish

[spa] 20,000,000 in Peru (1995).  Alternate names: Español, Castellano.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali

[spq]  Loreto and Ucayali river areas. Alternate names: Jungle Spanish.  Dialects: Some other speakers have limited comprehension of colloquial standard Spanish.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Taushiro

[trr] 1 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 20. Off the Tigre River, Aucayacu River, tributary of the Ahuaruna River. Alternate names: Pinchi, Pinche.  Dialects: Possibly Zaparoan. Ruhlen says it is related to Candoshi.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Ticuna

[tca] 8,000 in Peru (2000 SIL). Northeastern Amazon River Region, from Chimbote in Peru to San Antonio do Iça in Brazil. Alternate names: Tikuna, Tukuna.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Urarina

[ura] 3,000 (2002 SIL). Urarinas District, Pucayacu, Chambira, and Urituyacu rivers. Alternate names: Shimacu, Simacu, Itucali.  Dialects: There are several dialects with minor differences. Ruhlen and others classify it as Andean.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Yagua

[yad] 5,692 in Peru (2000 WCD). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Loreto, northeastern Amazon River Region, from Iquitos to the Brazil border. Some go to urban centers like Iquitos for economic reasons. Some occasionally go into Brazil. Also spoken in Colombia. Alternate names: Nijyamïï Nikyejaada, Yahua, Llagua, Yava, Yegua.  Dialects: 2 dialects.  Classification: Peba-Yaguan 
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Yaminahua

[yaa] 750 in Peru (2003 SIL). Population includes 400 Yaminahua (1998 SIL), 200 Mastanahua (1981 SIL), 150 Chitonahua. Population total all countries: 1,244. Huacapishtea and Mapuya. Chitonahua at the headwaters of the Embira River. Also spoken in Bolivia, Brazil. Alternate names: Yaminawa, Jaminawá, Yuminahua, Yamanawa.  Dialects: Yaminahua, Chitonahua (Morunahua, Moronahua, Foredafa, Horudahua, Horunahua). Closest to Sharanahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yanesha'

[ame] 9,831 (2000 WCD). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Central and eastern Pasco Region and Junín, western jungle, headwaters of the Pachitea and Perene rivers. Alternate names: Amuesha, Amuese, Amueixa, Amoishe, Amagues, Amage, Omage, Amajo, Lorenzo, Amuetamo, Amaje.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Western Maipuran 
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Yine

[pib] 4,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000 to 5,000. Departments of Ucayali and Cusco, east central Urubamba River area; Department of Ucayali and Loreto, along the Ucayali River (Conatmana and Pucallpa); Department of Madre de Dios, Madre de Dios River. Alternate names: "Piro", Pirro, Pira, "Simirinche", Simiranch, Contaquiro.  Dialects: Machinere in Brazil is different enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Yora

[mts] 350 to 400 (1998 SIL). Manu Park, Panagua River. Some are outside of the Park on the Mishagua River. There may be more in Brazil. Alternate names: Yura, Yoranahua, Manu Park Panoan, Parquenahua, Nahua.  Dialects: Close to Yaminahua and Sharanahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yora 
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Extinct languages

Abishira

[ash] Extinct. Puerto Elvira on Lake Vacacocha on the Napo River. Alternate names: Abiquira, Auishiri, Agouisiri, Avirxiri, Abigira, Ixignor, Vacacocha, Tequraca.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Aguano

[aga] Extinct. Ethnic population: 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga who did not use Aguano but were members of the ethnic group (1959). Lower Huallaga and upper Samiria rivers, the right bank tributary of the Marañon River. Alternate names: Uguano, Aguanu, Awano, Santa Crucino.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Andoa

[anb] Extinct. Pastaza River. None in Ecuador. Alternate names: Shimigae, Semigae, Gae, Gaye.  Dialects: A distinct language from Záparo (Kayapwe) of Ecuador, which is now extinct in Peru.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Atsahuaca

[atc] Extinct. Carama River, tributary of Tambopata, and Chaspa River, tributary of Inambari. Alternate names: Yamiaca.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Aushiri

[avs] Extinct. Tributaries of the right bank of the Napo River, Escuelacocha. Alternate names: Auxira.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Cholón

[cht] Extinct. Valley of the Huallaga River from Tingo María to Valle. Alternate names: Tinganeses, Seeptsa.  Dialects: Ruhlen says it is Andean. Adelaar says it is in the Hibito-Cholon family.  Classification: Hibito-Cholon 
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Hibito

[hib] Extinct. Bobonaje River, tributary of Jelache, tributary of Huayabamba, coming into Huallaga on the west side. Alternate names: Jibito, Chibito, Zibito, Ibito, Xibita.  Classification: Hibito-Cholon 
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Nocamán

[nom] Extinct. Headwaters of the Inuya River, Amueya River, Tamaya River. Alternate names: Nocomán.  Dialects: May have been a dialect of Cashibo.  Classification: Panoan, Western 
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Omurano

[omu] Extinct.  Alternate names: Humurana, Roamaina, Numurana, Umurano, Mayna.  Classification: Zaparoan 
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Panobo

[pno] Extinct. Along the Ucayali River and mixed with the Shetebo. Alternate names: Manoa, Pano, Pana, Pelado, Wariapano, Huariapano.  Classification: Panoan, Unclassified 
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Puquina

[puq] Extinct. South shore of Lake Titicaca, town of Puquina. Classification: Unclassified 
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Quechua, Classical

[qwc] Extinct. Central Peru. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Remo

[rem] Extinct. Between the Tapiche and Calleria rivers. If they exist, they are in Brazil at the headwaters of the Moa River; but there is no evidence of their existence in Brazil. Alternate names: Rheno.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Sensi

[sni] Extinct. Right bank of the Ucayali River. Alternate names: Senti, Tenti, Mananahua.  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Yameo

[yme] Extinct. Marañon and Amazon rivers from the mouth of the Tigre to the Nanay River. Classification: Peba-Yaguan 
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