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Languages of Philippines

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Republic of the Philippines. 86,241,697. National or official languages: Filipino, English. Literacy rate: 88% to 89%. Also includes Basque, French (698), Hindi (2,415), Indonesian (2,580), Japanese (2,899), Korean, Sindhi (20,000), Standard German (961), Vietnamese, Arabic. Information mainly from L. A. Reid 1971; SIL 1954–2003. Blind population: 1,144,500. Deaf population: 100,000 to 4,232,519 (1998). Deaf institutions: 17. The number of languages listed for Philippines is 175. Of those, 171 are living languages and 4 are extinct.

Living languages

Agta, Alabat Island

[dul] 30 (2000 Wurm). East of Quezon Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Alabat Island Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Agta, Camarines Norte

[abd] 150 (2000 Wurm). Luzon, Santa Elena and Labo, Camarines Norte. Alternate names: Manide, Agiyan.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 67% with Alabat Agta, 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern 
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Agta, Casiguran Dumagat

[dgc] 606 (2000 T. Headland). East coast of Luzon, Aurora Province. Alternate names: Casiguran Dumagat.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Paranan 83%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Agta, Central Cagayan

[agt] 779 (2000 WCD). Northeast Luzon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Agta, Dupaninan

[duo] 1,200 (1986 SIL). Northeast Luzon, from below Divilacan Bay in the south to Palaui Island in the north. Alternate names: Eastern Cagayan Agta.  Dialects: Yaga, Tanglagan, Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Barongagunay, Palaui Island, Camonayan, Valley Cove, Bolos Point, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Margarita. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity 51% between Central Cagayan Agta and Tanglagan, 66% between Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Agta, Isarog

[agk] 5 to 6 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). Mt. Isarog east of Naga City, Bicol Province, Luzon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga  Nearly extinct.
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Agta, Mt. Iraya

[atl] 150 (2000 Wurm). East of Lake Buhi, Bicol Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East, Lake Buhi East, Itbeg Rugnot.  Dialects: 54% to 86% comprehension of Naga (Central) Bicolano, 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity 85% to 90% with Bicolano; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity 93% among four dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga 
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Agta, Mt. Iriga

[agz] 1,500 (1979 SIL). East of Iriga City, west of Lake Buhi, Bicol Province, Luzon. Alternate names: San Ramon Inagta, Lake Buhi West, Mt. Iriga Negrito.  Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Iriga City Bicolano, 82% of Mt. Iraya, 72% of Central Bicolano (Naga). It is doubtful whether Naga Bicolano is adequately understandable to Mt. Iriga Agta speakers. Lexical similarity 76% with Iriga City Bicolano, 66% with Mt. Iraya, 66% with Central Bicolano (Naga).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland 
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Agta, Remontado

[agv] 2,527 (2000 WCD). Luzon; Santa Inez, Rizal Province; Paimohuan, General Nakar, Quezon Province. Alternate names: Hatang-Kayey, Sinauna.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 73% with Tagalog, 37% with Umiray Dumaget.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sinauna 
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Agta, Umiray Dumaget

[due] 3,000 (1994 SIL). Quezon Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Umirey Dumagat, Umiray Agta.  Dialects: Palaui Island Agta, Anglat Agta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Southern 
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Agutaynen

[agn] 10,384 (1990 census). Agutaya Island, five smaller surrounding islands, and the municipalities of Roxas, San Vicente, and Brooke's Point, Palawan. A few also in Taytay, Linapacan, on Mindoro, and in Manila. Alternate names: Agutaynon, Agutayno.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 52% with Cuyonon; 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian 
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Aklanon

[akl] 394,545 (1990 census). Aklan Province, northern Panay. Alternate names: Aklan, Aklano, Panay, Aklanon-Bisayan.  Dialects: 66% intelligibility of Hiligaynon. Lexical similarity 68% with Hiligaynon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan 
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Alangan

[alj] 7,694 (2000 WCD). North central Mindoro. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro 
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Alta, Northern

[aqn] 200 (2000 Wurm). Eastern Luzon, Aurora Province, Bayanihan, San Luis; Diteki, the first settlement along the road after coming through the mountains from Cabanatuan. Alternate names: Edimala, Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat.  Dialects: Not close to other languages (Lawrence Reid). Lexical similarity 34% with Southern Alta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Alta 
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Alta, Southern

[agy] 1,000 (1982 SIL). Eastern Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre and coast areas of Quezon Province, town of San Miguel, and a large community in a remote part of San Miguel, Bulacan Province. North of the Umiray Dumaget. Alternate names: Kabuluen, Kabuluwen, Kabuluwan, Kabulowan, Kaboloan, Baluga, Pugot, Ita.  Dialects: Not close to other languages. Lexical similarity 34% with Northern Alta.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Alta 
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Arta

[atz] 15 (2000 Wurm). Population includes 12 in Villa Santiago, 1 in Villa Gracia, 3 or 4 in Nagtipunan (1992 L. Reid). Quirino Province, town of Aglipay, Villa Santiago and Villa Gracia, and town of Nagtipunan. Dialects: Not linguistically close to any other language (Lawrence Reid).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Arta  Nearly extinct.
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Ata

[atm] 2 to 5 (2000 Wurm). Mabinay, Negros Oriental. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine  Nearly extinct.
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Ati

[atk] 1,500 (1980 SIL). Panay Island, small groups in all provinces. Alternate names: Inati.  Dialects: Malay, Barotac Viejo Nagpana.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Atta, Faire

[azt] 300 (2000 Wurm). Near Faire-Rizal, Cagayan Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Southern Atta.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 81% with Pudtol Atta; 60% with Isnag; 66% with Central Cagayan Agta; 82% with Pamplona Atta; 90% with Rizal Atta; 72% with Ibanag.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Atta, Pamplona

[att] 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Northwestern Cagayan Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Northern Cagayan Negrito.  Dialects: Comprehension of Ibanag North 97%, of Itawit 52%. Lexical similarity 91% with Ibanag North; 63% with Ilocano; 69% with Itawit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Atta, Pudtol

[atp] 711 (2000 WCD). Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao Province, Pudtol, on the Abulog River south of Pamplona. Dialects: Lexical similarity 86% with Pamplona Atta; 75% with Ibanag; 63% with Isnag; 81% with Faire Atta; 42% with Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Ayta, Abenlen

[abp] 6,850 (1985 SIL). Luzon, Tarlac Province, Maontoc, Labnay, Maamot, San Pedro, Dalayap, Pilyen, Tangan-Tangan. Alternate names: Abenlen, Ayta Abenlen Sambal, Aburlin Negrito.  Dialects: Abenlen Ayta speakers' comprehension of Botolan Sambal is 28%, of Tina Sambal is 48%. Lexical similarity 66% with Botolan Sambal, 49% with Tina Sambal, 38% to 44% with Ilocano, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Pampangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Ambala

[abc] 1,657 (1986 SIL). A few barrios of San Marcelino, Zambales, several of Subic City, Zambales, a few of Olongapa, Zambales, a few of Castillejos, Zambales, a few of Dinalupinan, Bataan Province, Luzon. Affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Alternate names: Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal.  Dialects: Ambala Ayta speakers' comprehension of Botolan Sambal is 60%, of Ayta Indi Sambal is 54%, of Ayta Anchi Sambal is 60%, of Bataan Sambal is 70%. Lexical similarity 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Tagalog.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Bataan

[ayt] 500 (2000 Wurm). Mariveles, Bataan Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Mariveles Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Bataan Ayta.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 63% with Botolan Sambal and Tagalog.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Mag-Anchi

[sgb] 8,200 (1992 SIL). East side of mountain, Botolan Sambal area, close to Tarlac-Pampanga border, several barrios of Capas, Tarlac, several of Bamban, Tarlac, several of San Marcelino, Zambales, 2 of Castillejos, Zambales, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, several of Sapang Bato, Angeles City, central Luzon. People affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Alternate names: Mag-Anchi Sambal.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility of Ayta Indi Sambal, 65% of Ayta Ambala Sambal, 46% of Pampangan. Lexical similarity 76% with Botolan Sambal, 50% with Tagalog, 46% with Pampangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Mag-Indi

[blx] 5,000 (1998 SIL). A few barrios of Florida Blanca, several of Porac, Pampanga Province, several of San Marcelino, Zambales, Luzon. People affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Alternate names: Baloga, Mag-Indi Sambal, Indi Ayta.  Dialects: 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal, 50% of Ayta Ambala Sambal, 59% of Pampangan, 32% of Ayta Anchi Sambal. Lexical similarity 66% to 73% with Botolan Sambal, 44% with Tagalog, 73% to 81% with Ayta Anchi Sambal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Ayta, Sorsogon

[ays] 15 to 20 (2000 Wurm). Prieto Diaz, Sorsogon Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine  Nearly extinct.
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Balangao

[blw] 21,271 (2000). Eastern Bontoc Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangao 
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Balangingi

[sse] 10,000 in the Philippines (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,000. Sulu Archipelago northeast of Jolo, islands and coastal areas of Zamboanga coast peninsula and Basilan Island, western Mindanao. Some Balangingi may be on Luzon and Palawan. Northern Sama speakers are at White Beach on Luzon near Subic Bay on Luzon. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Baangingi', Bangingi Sama, Northern Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama, Sama Bangingih, Balanguingui.  Dialects: Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan), Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga'an. Most Lutangan speakers (2,000 to 3,000, Olutangga Island, western Mindanao) understand Balangingi, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility of Central Sama is 71%, of Lutangan is 83%, of Sibuco-Vitali is 85%. Lexical similarity 77% of Lutangan, 75% of Sibuco-Vitali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Bantoanon

[bno] 200,000 (2002 SIL). 500 to 1,000 monolinguals. Western Visayas (Romblon Province). Alternate names: Asiq.  Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility of Hiligaynon; 92% of Loocnon. Odionganon dialect is preferred for literature. Lexical similarity 83% with Romblomanon (Zorc 1977).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton 
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Batak

[bya] 200 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 2,041 (1990 census). North central Palawan. Alternate names: Babuyan, Tinitianes, Palawan Batak.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Bicolano, Albay

[bhk] 1,900,907 (2000). Western Albay Province and Buhi, Camarines Sur, Luzon. Dialects: Buhi (Buhi'non), Daraga, Libon, Oas, Ligao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Buhi-Daraga 
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Bicolano, Central

[bcl] 2,500,000 (1990 census). 3,519,236 includes all Bikol languages. Southern Catanduanes, Northern Sorsogon, Albay, Camarines Norte and Sur, Luzon. Naga City and Legaspi City are centers. Alternate names: Bikol.  Dialects: Naga, Legaspi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga 
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Bicolano, Iriga

[bto] 234,361 (2000). Iriga City, Baao, Nabua, Bato, Camarines Sur, Luzon. Alternate names: Rinconada Bicolano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga 
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Bicolano, Northern Catanduanes

[cts] 122,035 (2000). Luzon, Northern Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Alternate names: Pandan.  Dialects: Comprehension of Naga 68%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan 
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Bicolano, Southern Catanduanes

[bln] 85,000 (1981 SIL). Luzon, Southern Catanduanes, east of Bicol. Alternate names: Virac.  Dialects: Northern Catanduanes intelligibility 91%. Virac dialect is preferable for literature.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac 
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Binukid

[bkd] 100,000 (1987 SIL). North central Mindanao, southern Bukidnon, northeastern Cotabato, Agusan del Sur. Alternate names: Binukid Manobo, Binokid, Bukidnon.  Dialects: Literature should serve Kalabugao, Bukidnon, Minalowang, Esperanza, and Agusan del Sur. Close to Higaonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Blaan, Koronadal

[bpr] 100,000 (1981 SIL). South Cotabato Province, Mindanao. Alternate names: Koronadal Bilaan, Bilanes, Biraan, Baraan, Tagalagad.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Blaan 
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Blaan, Sarangani

[bps] 90,754 (2000 WCD). South Cotabato Province, Sarangani, Davao Del Sur Province, Mindanao. Alternate names: Bilaan, Balud, Tumanao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Blaan 
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Bolinao

[smk] 50,000 (1990). 500 monolinguals. West Pangasinan Province, Luzon. Primarily municipalities of Bolinao and Anda. Alternate names: Binobolinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Bontoc, Central

[bnc] 40,000 (1994 SIL). Central Mountain Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Bontok, Igorot.  Dialects: Sadanga, Guinaang Bontoc, Bayyu. Intelligibility of Ilocano 58%, Finallig 56%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok 
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Buhid

[bku] 8,000 (1991 OMF). Southern Mindoro. Alternate names: Bukil, Bangon, Batangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Butuanon

[btw] 34,547 (1990 census). Butuan City, Mindanao. Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Kamayo; 69% with Surigaonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug 
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Caluyanun

[clu] 30,000 (1994 SIL). Caluya Islands, Antique. Alternate names: Caluyanen, Caluyanhon.  Dialects: Semirara. A sample of speakers scored 69% on Hiligaynon narrative comprehension; 62% on Cuyonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West 
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Capiznon

[cps] 638,653 (2000). Northeast Panay. Alternate names: Capisano, Capiseño.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Cebuano

[ceb] 20,043,502 in the Philippines (1995 census). Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Visayas and parts of Mindanao. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Sugbuhanon, Sugbuanon, Visayan, Bisayan, Binisaya, Sebuano.  Dialects: Cebu, Boholano, Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano is sometimes considered a separate language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan 
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Chavacano

[cbk] 292,630 in the Philippines (1990 census). Population includes 155,000 Zamboangueño (1989 J. Holm), 27,841 Caviten, 3,750 Ternateño (1975 census), 5,473 Cotabato Chavacano (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Zamboanga, Basilan, Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil, Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawa, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso, Malamawi, Cotabato City, Mindanao; Cavite, Ternate, and Ermita near Manila. The 1970 census listed speakers in 60 of the 66 provinces. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Zamboangueño, Chabakano.  Dialects: Caviteño, Ternateño (Ternateño Chavacano), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Davawenyo Zamboanguenyo (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Cotobato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Zamboangueño (Chavacano). A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure.  Classification: Creole, Spanish based 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 500 to 600 in the Philippines. All ethnic Chinese are 53,273 (1990 census).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 592,200 in the Philippines. 98.7% of Chinese population in Philippines (1982).  Alternate names: Min Nan.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 9,782 in the Philippines (2000 WCD).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Cuyonon

[cyo] 123,384 (1990 census). Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. Alternate names: Cuyono, Cuyunon, Cuyo, Kuyunon, Kuyonon.  Dialects: Close to Ratagnon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan 
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Davawenyo

[daw] 147,279 (1990 census). Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Mindanao. Alternate names: Matino, Davaoeño, Davaweño.  Dialects: Synthesis of Tagalog, Cebuano, other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish words. Not a Spanish Creole. Different from Davaweño which is dialect of Chavacano. Two dialects: East Coast with 90% of speakers, and Davao City and environs (Whinnom 1956). Speakers of Lowland Davaweño have 89% intelligibility of Kamayo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo 
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English

[eng] 32,802 in the Philippines (1990 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Filipino

[fil]  Throughout the country. Alternate names: Pilipino.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog 
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Finallig

[bkb] 5,000 (1998 SIL). Central Mountain Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Southern Bontoc, Kadaklan-Barlig Bontoc, Eastern Bontoc.  Dialects: Lias, Barlig, Kadaklan. Intelligibility of Ilocano 53%; Balangao 49%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok 
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Ga'dang

[gdg] 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Paracelis, Mt. Province, Luzon; Potia, Ifugao. Alternate names: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal.  Dialects: Related to Gaddang, Itawit, Yogad, Gaddang, Ibanag, Isnag. Lexical similarity 80% with Gaddang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Gaddang 
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Gaddang

[gad] 30,000 (1984 SIL). Central Isabela, and Bagabag, Solano, and Bayombong in Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon. Alternate names: Cagayan.  Dialects: Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga'dang. Lexical similarity 80% with Ga'dang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Gaddang 
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Giangan

[bgi] 55,040 (1990 census). Davao City, Mindanao; eastern slopes of Mt. Apo, Davao del Sur. Alternate names: Bagobo, Jangan, Guanga, Gulanga, Clata, Eto, Atto.  Dialects: 69% comprehension of Tagabawa; 79% of Obo Manobo. Lexical similarity 34% with Tagabawa, 35% with Obo Manobo; 43% with Blaan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bagobo 
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Hanunoo

[hnn] 13,020 (2000 WCD). Southern Oriental Mindoro. Alternate names: Hanonoo.  Dialects: Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli, Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo 
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Higaonon

[mba] 30,000 (1996 NTM). Misamis Oriental, south of Ginoog City, north central Mindanao. Alternate names: Misamis Higaonon Manobo.  Dialects: Related to Binukid; 77% to 81% intelligibility.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Hiligaynon

[hil] 7,000,000 in the Philippines (1995). Iloilo and Capiz provinces, Panay, Negros Occidental, Visayas. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Ilonggo, Illogo, Hiligainon.  Dialects: Hiligaynon, Kawayan, Bantayan, Kari.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Ibaloi

[ibl] 111,449 (1990 census). Central and southern Benguet Province, western Nueva Vizcaya Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Ibaloy, Ibadoy, Inibaloi, Nabaloi, Benguet-Igorot, Igodor.  Dialects: Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Ibaloi-Karao 
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Ibanag

[ibg] 500,000 (1990 SIL). Isabela and Cagayan provinces, Luzon. Alternate names: Ybanag.  Dialects: North Ibanag, South Ibanag. 69% intelligibility of Itawit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Ibatan

[ivb] 1,350 (2000 SIL). Babuyan Island, north of Luzon; Northern Luzon (a few students). Alternate names: Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan 64%; Basco Ivatan 31%. Lexical similarity 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan, 74% with Basco Ivatan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Bashiic, Ivatan 
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Ifugao, Amganad

[ifa] 27,100 (2000 SIL). 8,000 monolinguals. 167,503 all Ifugao (1990 census). Central Ifugao Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Amganad.  Dialects: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao. Burnay has 81% intelligibility of Amganad. Burnay has 83% lexical similarity of Amganad.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao 
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Ifugao, Batad

[ifb] 43,000 (1987 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Batad.  Dialects: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad Ifugao, Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Batad: Ayangan 87%; Mayoyao 86% to 94%. Lexical similarity with Batad, with Ayangan 81%, with Ducligan 89%, with Mayoyao 79%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao 
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Ifugao, Mayoyao

[ifu] 40,000 (1998 SIL). Ifugao Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Mayoyao, Mayaoyaw.  Dialects: 86% to 94% intelligibility of Batad. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity 79% with Batad Ifugao, 85% with Ayangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao 
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Ifugao, Tuwali

[ifk] 30,000 (2000 SIL). Southern Ifugao Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan, Gilipanes, Tuwali.  Dialects: Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao, 78% of Batad. Hapao has 88% intelligibility of Kiangan, Hungduan has 85% of Kiangan. Lexical similarity 80% with Amganad Ifugao, 72% with Batad Ifugao, 78% with Hapao, 86% with Hungduan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugao 
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Ilocano

[ilo] 8,000,000 in the Philippines (1991 UBS). Northwestern Luzon, La Union and Ilocos provinces, Cagayan Valley, Babuyan, Mindoro, Mindanao. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Iloko, Ilokano.  Dialects: There is a Pidgin Ilocano used in northern Luzon highlands.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Ilocano 
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Ilongot

[ilk] 50,786 (1990 census). Eastern Nueva Vizcaya, Western Quirino, Luzon. Alternate names: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Lingotes.  Dialects: Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot 
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Inabaknon

[abx] 21,400 (2000 M. Jacobson SIL). 4,000 monolinguals (almost all children). Population includes 13,400 on Capul, 8,000 elsewhere. Capul Island in the San Bernardino Strait, Northwest Samar and in communities along the western Samar coast facing the island; Manila. Alternate names: Abaknon, Capul, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama, Abaknon Sama.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon 
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Inonhan

[loc] 85,829 (2000 WCD). Southern Tablas Island, Romblon Province, Mindoro Oriental and Mindoro Occidental. Alternate names: Loocnon, Looknon, "Unhan".  Dialects: Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon, Alcantaranon. Lexical similarity with 70% Odionganon (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon, 86% with Caluyanun.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central 
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Iraya

[iry] 10,000 (1991 OMF). Northern Mindoro. Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro 
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Isinai

[inn] 5,524 (1990 census). Luzon: Bambang, Dupax, and Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya. Alternate names: Insinai, Isinay, Isnay, Inmeas.  Dialects: Not close to other languages. Lexical similarity 47% with Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai 
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Isnag

[isd] 30,000 (1994 SIL). Northern Apayao, Luzon. Alternate names: Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg, Isneg, Maragat.  Dialects: Bayag, Dibagat-Kabugao, Calanasan, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Intelligibility testing: Calanasan: 94% of Dibagat, 88% of Ilocano; Talifugu-Ripang: 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Isnag 
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Itawit

[itv] 134,126 (1990 census). Population includes 119,584 Itawit, 14,542 Malaweg. Luzon, southern Cagayan. Alternate names: Itawis, Tawit, Itawes.  Dialects: Malaweg (Malaueg), Itawis. Related to Ibanag. 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag; 68% of Ilocano. Lexical similarity 53% with Ilocano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Itneg, Adasen

[tiu] 4,000 (NTM). Luzon, northeastern Abra Province. Alternate names: Adasen, Addasen Tinguian, Addasen.  Dialects: Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag 74%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Isnag 
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Itneg, Banao

[bjx] 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in the Malibcong dialect area. Eastern Abra Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Banao, Timggian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Malibcong Banao, Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg. Lexical similarity Banao of Malibcong 58% with Ilocano, 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga, 73% with Limos Kalinga. Banao Pikek (Daguioman) 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit Itneg of Boliney, 79% with Masadiit Itneg of Sallapadan, 78% with Banao of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Itneg, Binongan

[itb] 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,405 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census). Ba-ay Valley and Licuan Abra Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Tinguian, Tingguian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Ilocano, 79% with Masadiit Itneg.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Inlaod

[iti] 9,000 (2003 SIL). Northern Luzon, southwest of Binongan Itneg, northwest of Masadiit Itneg; Abra Province, a few barangays of Penarubia, Lagangilang, Danglas, and Langiden. Alternate names: Tinguian, Tinggian, Inlaod.  Dialects: Lexical similarity Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75% to 77% with Binongan Itneg, 75% to 76% with Masadiit of Sallapadan, 74% to 75% with Moyadan Itneg. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Maeng

[itt] 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000. Luzon, southern Abra Province, Luba, Tubo, Villavisciosa municipalities. Alternate names: Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg.  Dialects: Lexical similarity Tubo 60% with Ilocano, 68% with Northern Kankanaey; Villavisciosa 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Masadiit

[tis] 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in province of Abra. Luzon, Abra Province, Sallapadan and Bucloc, Boliney. Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity 62% with Ilocano, 70% with Guinaang Kalinga, 86% with Binongan Itneg.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg 
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Itneg, Moyadan

[ity] 12,000 (2003 SIL). Luzon, Abra Province. Alternate names: Tinggian, Tinguian.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 68% with Ilocano, 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan, 80% with Masadiit Boliney, 76% with Binongan, 75% with Inlaod Danglas, 74% with Inlaod Langiden, 73% with Maeng of Tubo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic 
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Ivatan

[ivv] 35,000 (1998 SIL). Population includes 3,448 Itbayatan (1996 census). Batanes Islands. Many relocated on Mindanao near boundary of Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; some in Manila, Luzon, Palawan, other countries. Dialects: Itbayaten, Basco Ivatan, Southern Ivatan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Bashiic, Ivatan 
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I-Wak

[iwk] 3,261 (2000 WCD). Reported to live in the following villages: Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng, Domolpos, Bujasjas, Kayo-ko, Salaksak (in Kayapa), extreme eastern Itogon, Benguet Province, Luzon. I-wak people also live in Capintalan in Nueva Ecija, but speak only Kallahan. Alternate names: Iwaak.  Dialects: Related to Karao, Ibaloi, Kallahan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Iwaak 
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Kagayanen

[cgc] 25,000 (2000 SIL). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,000. Palawan Province, Cagayan Island, between Negros and Palawan, and communities on the coast of Palawan, and in Coron Municipality in the Busuanga Region of northern Palawan. Also clusters in Iloilo Province, Silay, Negros and Manila. Alternate names: Cagayano Cillo, Cagayancillo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Kalagan

[kqe] 21,402 (1990 census). Along east and west shores of Davao Gulf in Davao del Sur and Davao Oriental. Dialects: Isamal, Piso, Tumuaong, Lactan. Piso dialect may be the prestige dialect. Piso has 91% intelligibility of Kagan; 65% intelligibility of Tagakaulu, 92% intelligibility of Mansaka. Piso has 72% lexical similarity with Kagan, 74% lexical similarity with Mansaka; 83% lexical similarity with Sangab Mandaya.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalagan, Kagan

[kll] 6,000 (1981 SIL). Davao City, Mindanao. Alternate names: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan.  Dialects: Related to Kalagan; 82% intelligibility of Piso dialect.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalagan, Tagakaulu

[klg] 71,356 (2000 WCD). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Southern Mindanao, Sarangani Province and Davao Del Sur. Alternate names: Tagakaolo.  Dialects: Related to Mandaya, Kalagan, and Kamayo. About 85% intelligibility of Mansaka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western 
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Kalinga, Butbut

[kyb] 8,000 (1998). Luzon, Butbut, Tinglayan, Kalinga-Apayao Province. Alternate names: Butbut.  Dialects: 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga; 44% of Ilocano; 70% of Guinaang, 47% of Tanudan, 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga. Lexical similarity 82% with Bangan Kalinga, 78% of Guinaang and Tanudan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Limos

[kmk] 20,000 (1977 SIL). Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao Province. Alternate names: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Lower Tanudan

[kml] 11,243 (1998 SIL). Under 10% monolinguals. Luzon, southern Kalinga Province. Alternate names: Lower Tanudan.  Dialects: Minangali, Tinaloctoc, Pinangol. Intelligibility of Limos Kalinga 79%, Guinaang 66%. Lexical similarity 97% with Pangul, 80% with Madukayang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Lubuagan

[knb] 14,003 (2000 WCD). Ethnic population: 15,000. Eastern Abra and Kalinga-Apayao provinces, Luzon. Dialects: Guinaang, Balbalasang, Lubuagan, Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg). Intelligibility of Balbalasang 81%, Sumadel 82%, Limos 70%. Lexical similarity 81% with Balbalasang and Limos.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Mabaka Valley

[kkg]  Luzon, southeastern Kalinga-Apayao Province. Alternate names: Mabaka Itneg, Kal-Uwan, Mabaka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Madukayang

[kmd] 1,500 (1990 SIL). Southern Mountain Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Majukayong.  Dialects: 83% intelligibility of Limos and Balangao, 86% of Mangali. Lexical similarity 80% with Tanudan Kalinga, 68% with Limos, 65% with Balangao, 80% with Mangali.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Southern

[ksc] 13,000 (2000 SIL). 58% are monolingual. Kalinga Province, Luzon. 13 villages. Some are in Tabuk, the provincial capital. Alternate names: Tinglayan Kalinga.  Dialects: Mallango, Sumadel, Bangad, Tinglayan. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga 63%, Mangali 51%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kalinga, Upper Tanudan

[kgh] 3,000 (1991 SIL). Luzon, Kalinga-Apayao Province, southern end of the Tanudan Valley. Alternate names: Upper Tanudan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga 
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Kallahan, Kayapa

[kak] 15,000 (1991 UBS). Western Nueva Vizcaya, northeastern Pangasinan, western Ifugao, Luzon. Alternate names: Kayapa, Kalangoya, Kalanguya, Kalkali, Ikalahan, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Akab.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan 
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Kallahan, Keley-I

[ify] 8,000 (2000 SIL). Napayo, Kiangan Ifugao Province, northwest of Aritao, Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon. Alternate names: Antipolo Ifugao, Keleyqiq Ifugao, Keley-I, Hanalulo, Keley-I Kalanguya.  Dialects: Bayninan, Ya-Tuka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan 
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Kallahan, Tinoc

[tne]  Tinoc, a barrio of Hungduan in Luzon. Alternate names: Tinoc Kalangoya.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Akab 95%, Tinoc 89%.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Kallahan 
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Kamayo

[kyk] 7,565 (2000 WCD). Surigao del Sur between Marihatag and Lingig, Mindanao. Dialects: North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Intelligibility of Surigaonon 92%, of Butuanon 87%, of Mansaka 82%. Lexical similarity 66% with Surigaonon, 70% with Butuanon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern 
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Kankanaey

[kne] 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,279 (1990 census). Northern Benguet Province, southwestern Mountain Province, southeastern Ilocos Sur, northeastern La Union, Luzon. Alternate names: Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay.  Dialects: Mankayan-Buguias, Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay 
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Kankanay, Northern

[xnn] 70,000 (1987 SIL). Western Mountain Province, southeastern Ilocos Sur, Luzon. Alternate names: Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay 
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Karao

[kyj] 1,400 (1998 SIL). Karao and Ekip, Bokod, eastern Benguet Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Karaw.  Dialects: Limited comprehension testing showed Kayapa Kallahan 85%; Ilocano 78%. Lexical similarity 90% with Ibaloi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic, Benguet, Ibaloi-Karao 
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Karolanos

[kyn] 15,131 (2000 WCD). Mid-central Negros, Kabankalan. Dialects: Close to Magahat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Kasiguranin

[ksn] 10,000 (1975 SIL). Casiguran, Aurora Province, Luzon. Alternate names: Casiguranin.  Dialects: 82% intelligibility of Paranan. Lexical similarity 52% with Tagalog, 75% with Paranan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Kinaray-A

[krj] 377,529 (1994 SIL). Iloilo and Antique provinces, western Panay. Alternate names: Hinaray-A, Kiniray-A, Karay-A, Antiqueño, Hamtiknon, Sulud, Ati, Panayano.  Dialects: Pandan, Hamtik, Anini-Y, Pototan, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Guimaras Island (Gimaras). Antique has 67% comprehension of Tagalog; 61% of Hiligaynon; Iloilo has 78% of Hiligaynon; 85% of Antique.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan 
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Magahat

[mtw] 7,565 (2000 WCD). Southwestern Negros, Mt. Arniyo near Bayawan, upper Tayaban, Bayawan (Tolong), Tanjag, Santa Catalina, and Siaton provinces. Alternate names: Bukidnon, Ata-Man.  Dialects: Close to Karolanos. Reported to include a heavy mixture of Cebuano and Hiligaynon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Maguindanao

[mdh] 1,000,000 (1999 WA). Population includes 766,565 Magindanaon (1990 census), 241,000 Iranun (1981 SIL). Maguindanao, North Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, and Zamboanga del Sur provinces; Iranun also in Bukidnon, Mindanao. Alternate names: Magindanaon, Magindanaw.  Dialects: Laya, Ilud, Biwangan, Sibugay, Iranun (Ilanon, Illanon, Ilanum, Iranon), Tagakawanan. 84% intelligibility of Iranun, 60% of Maranao. Iranun has 98% intelligibility of Maguindanao; 96% of Illanun of Sabah, Malaysia and 95% of Maranao. Subdialects of Iranun: Iranun and Isebanganen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Magindanao 
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Malaynon

[mlz] 8,500 (1973 SIL). Malay, northwest Aklan Province, lowland, Panay. Dialects: Lexical similarity 93% with Aklanon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan 
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Mamanwa

[mmn] 5,152 (1990 census). Agusan del Norte and Surigao provinces, Mindanao. Alternate names: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa 
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Mandaya, Cataelano

[mst] 19,000 (1980 census). 34,317 all Mandaya (1990 census). Town of Cateel, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Cateelenyo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Mandaya, Karaga

[mry] 3,000 (1982 SIL). Lamiyawan area, Davao Oriental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Carraga Mandaya, Manay Mandayan, Mangaragan Mandaya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 89% with Mansaka.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Caraga 
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Mandaya, Sangab

[myt] 7,565 (2000 WCD). Head of Carraga River, Banlalaysan area, highland, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Alternate names: Sangab.  Dialects: 77% intelligibility of Mansaka. Lexical similarity 83% with Tumuwaong (Kalagan), 79% with Boston, 72% with Boso.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Manobo, Agusan

[msm] 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,408 all Manobo (1990 census). Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Surigao del Sur, Mindanao. Alternate names: Agusan.  Dialects: Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon. Omayamnon has 80% lexical similarity with the other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Ata

[atd] 26,653 (2000 WCD). Mindanao, northwestern Davao. Alternate names: Atao Manobo, Ata of Davao, Langilan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa 
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Manobo, Cinamiguin

[mkx] 60,000 (1973 SIL). Camiguin Island, north of Mindanao. Alternate names: Cinamiguin, Kinamigin, Kamigin.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, North 
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Manobo, Cotabato

[mta] 30,000 (2002 SIL). 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Sultan Kudarat Province, Mindanao. Alternate names: Dulangan Manobo.  Dialects: Tasaday, Blit.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Manobo, Dibabawon

[mbd] 10,000 (1978 SIL). Manguagan, Davao del Norte, Mindanao. Alternate names: Mandaya, Dibabaon, Debabaon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Ilianen

[mbi] 14,609 (2000 WCD). Few monolinguals. Northern Cotabato, Mindanao. Being pushed more north and east up to Obo Manobo country. Alternate names: Ilianen.  Dialects: Livunganen, Puleniyan, Arkan Valley.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, West 
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Manobo, Matigsalug

[mbt] 30,000 (2002 SIL). 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Davao del Norte, southeast Bukidnon, Mindanao. Alternate names: Matig-Salug Manobo.  Dialects: Kulamanen, Tigwa, Tala Ingod, Matig-Salud. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility of Matigsalug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility of Matigsalug.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa 
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Manobo, Obo

[obo] 93,341 (2000 WCD). 35,000 monolinguals. Northeastern slope of Mt. Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato, Mindanao. Alternate names: Obo Bagobo, Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo.  Dialects: Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matig-Salug Manobo; closest), 60% of Tagabawa, 13% of Ilianen Manobo. Lexical similarity 63% with Tagabawa and Ilianen Manobo; lexical similarity 35% with Cebuano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo 
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Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan

[mqk] 7,565 (2000 WCD). Southern Surigao del Sur. Alternate names: Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan 81% intelligibility. Lexical similarity 82% with Dibabawon Manobo, 76% with Sagunto Agusan Manobo and San Miguel Calatugan Agusan Manobo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, East 
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Manobo, Sarangani

[mbs] 35,000 (1987 SIL). Southern and eastern Davao, Mindanao. Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Manobo, Western Bukidnon

[mbb] 19,034 (2000 WCD). Mindanao, southern Bukidnon Province. Dialects: Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, Central, West 
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Mansaka

[msk] 57,761 (2000 WCD). Eastern Davao and Davao Oriental provinces, Mindanao. Alternate names: Mandaya Mansaka.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Karaga Mandaya, 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso (Kalagan).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern, Mandayan 
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Mapun

[sjm] 40,588 in the Philippines (2000 WCD). Cagayan de Sulu and Palawan islands. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Sama Mapun, Jama Mapun, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Kagayan, Bajau Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Cagayano.  Dialects: 59% intelligibility of Central Sama.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw 
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Maranao

[mrw] 776,169 (1990 census). Mindanao, Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur provinces. Alternate names: Ranao, Maranaw.  Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Iranun (see Magindanaon); 52% of Maguindanao.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon 
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Masbatenyo

[msb] 350,000 (2002 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals, mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. Masbate Province, three islands. Alternate names: Minasbate, Masbateño.  Dialects: Related to Hiligaynon and Capiznon. Lexical similarity 79% with Capiznon, 76% with Hiligaynon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Molbog

[pwm] 6,680 in the Philippines (1990 census). Balabac Island, southern Palawan. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Molbog Palawan.  Dialects: Brooke's Point Palawano has 27% intelligibility; South Palawano 55% intelligibility. Lexical similarity 69% with Quezon Palawano (Central).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Palawano, Brooke's Point

[plw] 14,367 (2000 WCD). Southeastern Palawan. Alternate names: Palawan, Brooke's Point Palawan, Palaweño, Palawanun.  Dialects: South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Of Quezon Palawano (Central) 76% intelligibility, of Southwest Palawano 68%, of South Palawano 87% intelligibility. Lexical similarity 82% with Quezon Palawano (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano, 83% with South Palawano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Palawano, Central

[plc] 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,549 all Palawano (1990 census). Central Palawan. Alternate names: Quezon Palawano, Palawanen, Palaweño.  Dialects: Of Brooke's Point Palawano 95% intelligibility, of Southwest Palawano 46% intelligibility. Lexical similarity 82% with Brooke's Point Palawano, 78% of Southwest Palawano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Palawano, Southwest

[plv] 3,000 (1985 UBS). Southwest Palawan from Rizal to the north to the southern tip of Palawan, from Canipaan to Canduaga. Dialects: Intelligibility of Quezon Palawano (Central) 75%, Brooke's Point 76% intelligibility. Lexical similarity 85% with Brooke's Point Palawano, 78% with Quezon Palawano (Central).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Pampangan

[pam] 1,897,378 (1990 census). Pampanga, Tarlac, and Bataan provinces, Luzon. Alternate names: Pampango, Pampangueño, Kapampangan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Pampangan 
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Pangasinan

[pag] 1,164,586 (1990 census). Pangasinan Province, Luzon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Pangasinic 
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Paranan

[agp] 15,789 (2000 WCD). Population includes 13,220 Lowland Paranan, 1,000 to 2,000 Palanan Agta. East coast, Isabela Province, Luzon; surrounded by hills. Isolated. Alternate names: Palanenyo, Planan.  Dialects: Palanan Dumagat (Palanan Valley Agta, Palanan Valley Dumagat). Intelligibility of Casiguran Dumagat 76%. Palanan Dumagat intelligibility of Paranan 98%, of Casiguran Dumagat 94%. Lexical similarity 85% with Palanan Dumagat, 87% with Casiguran Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Philippine Sign Language

[psp] 100,000 deaf persons (1986 Gallaudet Univ).  Alternate names: Local Sign Language, Filipino Sign Language, FSL.  Dialects: Reported to be very similar to ASL.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Porohanon

[prh] 23,000. Camotes Islands. Alternate names: Camotes.  Dialects: Barely intelligible with Cebuano (J. Wolff 1967). Closer to Masbatenyo and Hiligaynon. Lexical similarity 87% with Cebuano (J. Wolff 1967).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral 
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Ratagnon

[btn] 2 to 3 (2000 Wurm). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Southern tip of western Mindoro. Alternate names: Datagnon, Latagnun, Latan, Lactan, Aradigi.  Dialects: Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Close to Cuyonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan  Nearly extinct.
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Romblomanon

[rol] 200,000 (1987 SIL). Romblon and Sibuyan Islands, parts of eastern Tablas Island, north of Panay. Alternate names: Romblon.  Dialects: Sibuyan, Romblon, Basiq. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Aklanon, 73% of Hiligaynon, 94% of Romblon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon 
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Sama, Central

[sml] 90,027 in the Philippines (2000 WCD). Sulu Province. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Siasi Sama, Central Sinama, Samal, Sinama.  Dialects: Dilaut-Badjao. 59% intelligibility of Tausug; 79% of Balangingi.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Sama, Pangutaran

[slm] 35,171 (2000 WCD). West central Sulu, Pangutaran Island, west of Jolo, Mindanao. Also southern Palawan, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. Reported that there are also 145 in Sabah, Malaysia, Look Banga village of 620, Lahad Datu. Alternate names: Siyama.  Dialects: 65% intelligibility of Central Sama.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama 
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Sama, Southern

[ssb] 120,000 in the Philippines (2000). 5,000 to 10,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 140,000. Archipelago northeast of Borneo, southern Sulu. Tawi-Tawi Island group includes Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, Sibutu, and other major islands. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Sinama, Sinama Tawi-Tawi, Sama Sibutu', Sama Tawi-Tawi.  Dialects: Sibutu' (Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian, Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan, Sapa-Sapa. Sibutu intelligibility: 77% of Sama Central; 89% of Simunul. Simunul intelligibility: 77% of Sama Central; 80% of Sibutu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama 
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Sambal, Botolan

[sbl] 32,867 (2000 SIL). Central Luzon, Zambales Province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities. People were affected by Mt. Pinatubo eruption. Alternate names: Aeta Negrito, Botolan Zambal, Ayta Hambali.  Dialects: Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. The Ayta Hambali use some words like Ayta Mag-anchi among themselves.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Sambal, Tinà

[xsb] 70,000 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 70,000. Luzon, northern Zambales Province, 5 towns, 2 villages in Pangasinan Province, and village of Panitian, Quezon on Palawan Island. Alternate names: Tina, Sambali.  Dialects: Santa Cruz, Masinloc, Iba. 70% intelligibility of Botolan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Central Luzon, Sambalic 
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Sangil

[snl] 15,000 (1996 SIL). Balut Island, Sarangani Island, Mindanao. Alternate names: Sangiré, Sanggil.  Dialects: Sarangani, Mindanao. Lexical similarity 90% with Sangir.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Sangiric, Northern 
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Sangir

[sxn] 55,000 in the Philippines (1981 SIL). Balut and Sarangani islands off of Mindanao. Alternate names: Sangihé, Sangirese.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sulawesi, Sangiric, Northern 
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Sorsogon, Masbate

[bks] 85,000 (1975 census). Luzon, Sorsogon, Casiguran and Juban, Sorsogon Province. Alternate names: Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan 
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Sorsogon, Waray

[srv] 185,000 (1975 census). Southern Sorsogon Province. Alternate names: Southern Sorsogon, Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat.  Dialects: Comprehension of Masbaten: 63% to 91%; Central Bicolano (Naga): 71% to 82%; Tagalog 85% to 91%. Close to Waray-Waray.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat 
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Spanish

[spa] 2,658 in the Philippines (1990 census). Mainly in Manila. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Subanen, Central

[syb] 140,011 (2000 WCD). Eastern Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao, Sulu Archipelago. Alternate names: Sindangan Subanun.  Dialects: Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). 71% intelligibility of Lapuyan. Lexical similarity 79% with Siocon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern 
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Subanen, Northern

[stb] 10,000 (1985 SIL). Tuboy: Sergio Osmeña, Mutia; Zamboanga del Norte; Salog: Misamis Occidental, Mindanao. Alternate names: Tuboy Subanon.  Dialects: Dapitan, Salog (Salug), Dikayu. 63% intelligibility of Sindanga, 40% of Lapuyan. Lexical similarity 87% of Sindanga.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern 
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Subanon, Kolibugan

[skn] 20,000 (1998 SIL). Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula, southern Zamboanga del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur provinces. Alternate names: Kolibugan, Calibugan, Kalibugan.  Dialects: Close to Western Subanon, but there are limitations on inherent intelligibility between the two. Lexical and grammatical differences.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Kalibugan 
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Subanon, Western

[suc] 75,000 (1997 SIL). Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula. Alternate names: Siocon.  Dialects: Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity 89% between Siocon and Western Kolibugan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Kalibugan 
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Subanun, Lapuyan

[laa] 25,000 (1978 SIL). Subpeninsulas of eastern Zamboanga del Sur, Mindanao. Alternate names: Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen.  Dialects: Lapuyan Subanun speakers understand Sindangan (85%), but not vice versa.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Subanun, Eastern 
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Sulod

[srg] 14,000 (1980 SIL). Tapaz, Capiz Province; Lambunao, Iloilo Province; Valderrama, Antique Province, Panay. Alternate names: Bukidnon, Mondo.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Surigaonon

[sul] 344,974 (1990 census). Surigao, Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid, Lanusa. Dialects: Jaun-Jaun, Cantilan (Kantilan), Naturalis, Surigaonon. Lexical similarity 82% with Dibabawon Manobo, 81% with Agusan Manobo, 69% with Butuanon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Surigao 
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Tadyawan

[tdy] 4,146 (2000 WCD). East central Mindoro. Alternate names: Pula, Tadianan, Balaban.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Bashiic-Central Luzon-Northern Mindoro, Northern Mindoro 
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Tagabawa

[bgs] 43,000 (1998 SIL). Mindanao, Davao City, slopes of Mt. Apo. Alternate names: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo.  Dialects: 45% comprehension of Tigwa Manobo; low comprehension of Cebuano. Lexical similarity 62% with Sarangani Manobo; 34% with Bagobo (Giangan).  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Southern Philippine, Manobo, South 
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Tagalog

[tgl] 14,486,888 in the Philippines (1995 census). Population total all countries: 15,900,098. Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. Also spoken in Canada, Guam, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, USA. Dialects: Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog 
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Tagbanwa

[tbw] 10,000 (2002 SIL). 5% monolinguals. Palawan, in scattered communities ranging from about 120 km south to 60 km north of Puerto Princesa, on both sides of the island. Alternate names: Tagbanua, Apurawnon, Aborlan Tagbanwa.  Dialects: Intelligibility of Quezon Palawano (Central) 66%, of Cuyonon 77%. Lexical similarity 65% with Quezon Palawano, 71% with Batak, 54% with Cuyonon.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Palawano 
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Tagbanwa, Calamian

[tbk] 8,472 (1990 census). Coron Island, north of Palawan, northern Palawan and Busuanga. Baras is on eastern coast of Palawan opposite Dumaran Island. Alternate names: Kalamian, Calamiano, Kalamianon, Karamiananen.  Dialects: Baras. Baras has 94% intelligibility of Calamian. Lexical similarity 80% between Calamian and Baras.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian 
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Tagbanwa, Central

[tgt] 2,000 (1985 SIL). Northern Palawan. Dialects: Intelligibility of Tagbanwa (Lamane) 29%, 56% of Calamian Tagbanwa, 61% of Cuyonon. Lexical similarity 56% with Tagbanwa (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa, 48% with Cuyonon, 40% with Tagalog.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Kalamian 
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Tausug

[tsg] 900,000 in the Philippines (2000 SIL). 250,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,022,000. Jolo, Sulu Archipelago. Palawan Island, Basilan Island, Zamboanga City and environs. Also spoken in Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Taw Sug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Moro Joloano, Jolohano, Sinug Tausug.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug 
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Tawbuid, Eastern

[bnj] 7,187 (2000 WCD). Central Mindoro. Alternate names: Bangon, Batangan, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron, Suri, Barangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid.  Dialects: Western Tawbuid is different enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Tawbuid, Western

[twb] 6,809 (2000 WCD). Central Mindoro; Occidental Mindor, mainly Sablayan and Calintaan municipalities; Oriental Mindoro, Bongabon Municipality. Alternate names: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid.  Dialects: Different enough from Eastern Tawbuid to need separate literature. Closest to Buhid.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid 
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Tboli

[tbl] 95,323 (2000 WCD). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000 to 120,000. South Cotabato Province, Southwestern Mindanao. Alternate names: Tiboli, T'boli, "Tagabili".  Dialects: Central Tboli, Western Tboli, Southern Tboli.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Bilic, Tboli 
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Tiruray

[tiy] 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Upi, Cotabato, Mindanao. Alternate names: Tirurai, Teduray.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Mindanao, Tiruray 
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Waray-Waray

[war] 2,437,688 (1990 census). Northern and eastern Samar-Leyte. Alternate names: Samareño, Samaran, Samar-Leyte, Waray, Binisaya.  Dialects: Waray, Samar-Leyte, Northern Samar. Several dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray 
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Yakan

[yka] 105,545 in the Philippines (1990 census). 33% monolinguals. Population includes 86,926 in Basilan Province. Population total all countries: 116,332. Sulu Archipelago, Basilan Island and small surrounding islands, Sakol Island, east coast of Zamboanga peninsula, western Mindanao. They live more concentrated away from the coast. Also spoken in Malaysia (Sabah). Alternate names: Yacan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sama-Bajaw, Yakan 
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Yogad

[yog] 16,043 (1990 census). Echague and several nearby towns, Isabela Province, Luzon. Dialects: Related to Ibanag and Gaddang. Lexical similarity 52% with Ilocano, 66% with Itawit, 63% with Ibanag.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Extinct languages

Agta, Dicamay

[duy] Extinct. Luzon, Isabela Province, near Jones. Alternate names: Dicamay Dumagat.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Dumagat, Northern 
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Agta, Villa Viciosa

[dyg] Extinct. Luzon, Abra Province. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Philippine, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Ibanagic, Ibanag 
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Ayta, Tayabas

[ayy] Extinct. Tayabas, Quezon Province, Luzon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Meso Philippine, Central Philippine 
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Katabaga

[ktq] Extinct. Bondoc Peninsula, Luzon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified 
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