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Languages of Paraguay

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Republic of Paraguay, República del Paraguay. 6,191,368. 50,000 speakers of American Indian languages not counting Paraguayan Guaraní (Adelaar 1991). National or official languages: Paraguayan Guaraní, Spanish. Literacy rate: 81% to 90%. Also includes Greek (2,473), Italian (26,000), Japanese (12,000), Korean (6,000), Portuguese (636,000), Ukrainian (26,000), Chinese (7,500). Information mainly from SIL 1969–2002. Blind population: 4,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 316,214. Deaf institutions: 3. The number of languages listed for Paraguay is 22. Of those, 20 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers, and 1 is extinct.

Living languages

Aché

[guq] 1,500 (2002). Eastern, Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Chopa Pou, Cerro Moroti, and Puerto Barra reservations, and Tupa Renda. Alternate names: "Guaiaqui", "Guayakí", "Guoyagui", Guayaki-Ache, Axe.  Dialects: Reported to be four dialects, one of which is nearly extinct.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Ayoreo

[ayo] 3,000 in Paraguay (1991). Population total all countries: 3,771. Chaco and northern Alto Paraguay departments. Also spoken in Bolivia. Alternate names: Morotoco, Moro, Ayoré, Pyeta Yovai.  Dialects: Tsiracua.  Classification: Zamucoan 
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Chamacoco

[ceg] 1,800 (1991 SIL). Northeastern Chaco, eastern Alto Paraguay Department, Puerto Bahia Negra, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza, Dos Estrellas, Potrerito, Fuerte Olimpo, along the Paraguay River. There may be some in Brazil. Alternate names: Ishiro, Jeywo.  Dialects: Chamacoco Bravo (Tomaraho, Tomaraxa), Ebitoso (Ishiro).  Classification: Zamucoan 
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Chiripá

[nhd] 7,000 in Paraguay (1991). Population total all countries: 11,900. Eastern Paraguay. Also spoken in Argentina, Brazil. Alternate names: Tsiripá, Txiripá, Ava, Ava Guaraní, Apytare, Nhandeva, Ñandeva.  Dialects: Apapocuva. Close to Paraguayan Guaraní.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Chorote, Iyo'wujwa

[crq] 500 in Paraguay (1991 SIL). 100% monolingual. Pilcomayo, Boquerón, Chaco. Alternate names: Manjuy, Manjui, Choroti.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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German, Standard

[deu] 166,000 in Paraguay. Population includes 19,000 who are also first-language speakers of Plautdietsch.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German 
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Guana

[gva] 55 (2002 Adelaar). Ethnic population: 406 to 3,000 (2000 Adelaar). Boquerón, Salado River, south of Chamacoco, north of Sanapaná, Loma Plata. Alternate names: Kaskihá, Cashquiha.  Dialects: Layana (Niguecactemigi), Echoaldi (Echonoana, Chararana). Close to Sanapaná.  Classification: Mascoian 
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Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian

[gui] 304 in Paraguay (2000 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 1,006 to 1,707 (2000 W. Adelaar). Chaco. Alternate names: Guasurango, Guarayo, "Chawuncu", "Chiriguano".  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Mbyá

[gun] 8,000 in Paraguay (2000 Dooley). Departamentos de Caaguazú, Guairá, Caazapá, San Pedro, Concepción, Canindeyú, Itapúa, and other scattered locations. Alternate names: Mbyá, Mbua.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Paraguayan

[gug] 4,648,000 in Paraguay (1995). Population total all countries: 4,848,000. Also spoken in Argentina. Alternate names: Avañe'e.  Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One speaker of Chiripá indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish loanwords, used by 90% of the population in and around Asunción. Lexical similarity 80% with Chiriguano and 75% lexical similarity with Mbyá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Lengua

[leg] 6,705 (2000 Adelaar). Ethnic population: 8,485 (2000 Adelaar). Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón. Alternate names: Enxet.  Dialects: Northern Lengua (Eenthlit, Vowak, Lengua Norte), Southern Lengua (Lengua Sur). Differences between the two dialects are reported to be mainly phonological and orthographic. Southern Lengua are seminomadic.  Classification: Mascoian 
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Maca

[mca] 1,500 (2000 Chief Andrés Chemhey). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000). Southwestern, Presidente Hayes Department, Colonia Juan Belaieff Island in Paraguay River west of Asunción. Many were taken to Asunción. Alternate names: Towolhi, Maka, Mak'á, Maká, Macá, Enimaca, Enimaga.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Maskoy Pidgin

[mhh]  Puerto Victoria. Classification: Pidgin, Mascoian based 
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Nivaclé

[cag] 18,000 in Paraguay (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 18,200. Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón. Also spoken in Argentina. Alternate names: "Chulupí", "Churupí", "Chulupie", "Chulupe", Nivaklé, Ashlushlay, Axluslay.  Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Mataguayo languages in Paraguay are less similar than Mascoi languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984).  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Pai Tavytera

[pta] 10,000 to 12,000 (1991 SIL). Eastern, Colonia Juan Carlos. Alternate names: Pai, Tavytera, Ava.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 70% with Kaiwá of Brazil.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani I 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 38,000 in Paraguay. Population includes 19,000 who speak Plautdietsch and Standard German both as first language. Chaco and eastern Paraguay; towns of Filadelfia, Menno Colony, Loma Plata, Neuland. Alternate names: Low German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Sanapaná

[sap] 6,900 (1991 SIL). Population includes 2,900 Sanapana and 4,000 Angaite. Chaco. Sanapana are north of Angaite and Lengua; Boquerón, Presidente Hayes Department, Galbán River. Large concentrations at Salazar Ranch, La Patria, and Esperanza. Angaite are in the southeast Chaco, Presidente Hayes Department, Boquerón, San Carlos. Alternate names: Quiativis, Quilyacmoc, Lanapsua, Saapa, Sanam.  Dialects: Sanapana, Angaite (Angate, Enlit, Covavitis, Covahloc). Lexical similarity 85% with Northern Lengua.  Classification: Mascoian 
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Spanish

[spa] 186,880 in Paraguay (2000 WCD). Mainly Asunción, urban areas. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Tapieté

[tpj] 33 in Paraguay (1991 Adelaar). Population total all countries: 203. Ethnic population: 513 to 1,519 (2000 Adelaar). Chaco, northwestern border area, Laguna Negra reservation. Also spoken in Argentina, Bolivia. Alternate names: Guasurango, Guasurangue, Tirumbae, Yanaigua, Ñanagua, Nandeva.  Dialects: Linguistically between Chiriguano and Paraguayan Guaraní.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani I 
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Toba

[tob] 700 in Paraguay (1991 SIL). 60 km northwest of Asunción, Franciscan mission. Alternate names: Toba-Qom, Qom.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan 
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Toba-Maskoy

[tmf] 2,500 (1991 SIL). Reserve of 30,000 hectares near Puerto Victoria and Puerto Guaraní, eastern Chaco. Alternate names: Toba of Paraguay, Quilyilhrayrom, Cabanatit, Machicui, Enenlhit.  Classification: Mascoian 
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Extinct languages

Emok

[emo] Extinct. Ethnic population: 630 (1981 census). Near Asunción. Eastern Chaco. Alternate names: Toba-Emok, Toba, Paraguayan Toba.  Classification: Mascoian 
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