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Languages of Thailand

See language map.
Kingdom of Thailand, Muang Thai or Prathet Thai. 64,865,523. Population includes 45,815,000 or 93.5% Daic languages, 1,037,650 or 2% Austro-Asiatic languages, 1,009,500 or 2% Austronesian languages, 533,500 or 1% Tibeto-Burman languages, 100,000 or 0.2% Hmong-Mien languages (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Thai. Literacy rate: 89%. Also includes Burmese, Japanese, Kayan (150), Lao, Sinhala, Tai Daeng, Tamil, Urdu, Vietnamese. Information mainly from F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; H.C. Purnell 1970; W. Smalley 1976; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981; J. Matisoff 1991, J. Matisoff et al. 1996; P. Prachakij-karacak 1995. Blind population: 210,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 22. The number of languages listed for Thailand is 74. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages

Aheu

[thm] 750 in Thailand (1996 Ferlus). Population total all countries: 2,520. The Thavung live in Sakon Nakhon Province, Song Daw District, 3 villages. The Phon Soung live about 100 km south of the Thavung. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Phon Soung, So, Sotawueng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung 
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Akha

[ahk] 60,000 in Thailand (1998). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Maehongson provinces. 250 villages. Alternate names: Kaw, Ekaw, Ko, Aka, Ikaw, Ak'a, Ahka, Khako, Kha Ko, Khao Kha Ko, Ikor, Aini, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
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Ban Khor Sign Language

[bfk]  Northeastern Thailand, a few villages. Dialects: Not related to the original sign languages of Thailand, but there is some similarity.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Bisu

[bii] 1,000 in Thailand (1987 Purnell). Southwest Chiangrai, North Lampang. Two main villages, the largest with 100 houses. Alternate names: Mbisu, Mibisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Blang

[blr] 1,200 in Thailand (1998 SIL). Chiangrai; 1,000 live outside Mae Sai near the northern border, a village of 200 to 300 is near Mae Chan. About 200 live west of Bangkok and work in gardens. Alternate names: Sen Chun, Hkawa, Kawa, K'wa, K'ala, Bulang, Pulang, Pula, Plang, Wa, Khon Doi, Kontoi.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Bulang 
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Bru, Eastern

[bru] 5,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Sakon Nakhon Province. Tri are in Kusuman District, Kok Sa-at Bru are in Phanna Nikom and Phang Khon District, about 12 villages; one village in Amnat Charoen Province. Dialects: Tri, Bru Kok Sa-At, Bru Dong Sen Keo.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Bru, Western

[brv] 20,000 in Thailand(1991). Dong Luang District of Mukdahan Province. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Bruu, B'ru, Baru.  Dialects: It is partially intelligible with Eastern Bru.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Cham, Western

[cja] 4,000 in Thailand. Ban Khrue, Bangkok, and possibly in refugee camps. Alternate names: Cambodian Cham, Tjam, Cham, New Cham.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru 
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Chiangmai Sign Language

[csd]  Chiangmai. Alternate names: Chiengmai Sign Language.  Dialects: Related to present sign languages in Laos and Viet Nam (Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). A distinct language from Thai Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 58,800 in Thailand (1984). Cities. Alternate names: Hakka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Mandarin

[cmn] 5,880 in Thailand (1984). Bangkok, provincial towns, and Kra Peninsula in the south. Dialects: Ho (Haw, Cin Haw, Yunnanese, Western Mandarin, Hui, Hui-Tze, Hwei, Panghse, Pantha, Panthe, Pathee).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Dong

[cdo]   Alternate names: Eastern Min.  Dialects: Fuzhou (Fuchow, Foochow).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Min Nan

[nan] 1,081,920 in Thailand. Population includes 1,058,400 Chaochow (18%), 17,640 Fujian (.3%), 5,880 Hainanese (.1%) (1984). Cities. Alternate names: Min Nan, Minnan.  Dialects: Chaozhou (Chaochow, Tiuchiu, Teochow, Techu), Shantou (Swatow), Hainan, Fujian (Fukien, Hokkien).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinese, Yue

[yue] 29,400 in Thailand (1984).  Alternate names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chong

[cog] 500 in Thailand. Chantaburi, four villages, Trat Province, northwest of Par. Alternate names: Shong, Xong, Chawng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong 
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Hmong Daw

[mww] 32,395 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Petchabun, Tak, Maehongson, Chiangmai, Nan, Chiangrai, Pitsanalok, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaengphet, Prae, Phayao, Uttaradit, Lampang. Alternate names: White Meo, White Miao, Meo Kao, White Lum, Peh Miao, Pe Miao, Chuan Miao, Bai Miao.  Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong, Miao Lai), Mong Leng, Petchabun Miao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Hmong Njua

[blu] 33,000 in Thailand (1987). Tak, Nan, Chiangmai, Maehongson, Petchabun, Chiangrai, Phayao, Phrae, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaengphet, Uthai provinces. Alternate names: Chuanqiandian Miao, Chuanchientien Miao, Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan Hmong, Tak Miao, Meo, Miao, Western Miao.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
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Iu Mien

[ium] 40,000 in Thailand (1999). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Phayao, Lampang, Kampaengphet, Nan, and Sukhothai provinces, 159 villages. Alternate names: Mien, Yao, Mian, Myen, Yiu Mien, Youmian, Highland Yao, Pan Yao.  Dialects: Chiangrai.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
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Karen, Pa'o

[blk] 743 in Thailand (2000). Maehongson. Alternate names: Taungtu, Black Karen, Pa-U, Pa'0, Pa Oh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pa'o 
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Karen, Phrae Pwo

[kjt]  Northern Thailand, eastern provinces including Phrae Province. Alternate names: Pwo Phrae, Phrae, Prae, Northeastern Pwo Karen.  Dialects: Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen languages. Lexical similarity 87% with Northern Pwo Karen of Thailand, 67% to 71% with other Pwo Karen varieties.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, Pwo Northern

[pww] 60,000 (1983 SIL). Mae Sarieng town in northwest Thailand, Mae Ngaw along the Salween River, 15 to 25 villages, Hot to Mae Sarieng (Highway 1099 which runs south to Omkoi). Alternate names: Phlong.  Dialects: Mae Ping, Omkoi (Hod), Mae Sarieng. Three dialects are intelligible with each other. The Pwo Karen of Phrae, Kanchanaburi, and Hua Hin are not intelligible with these. Lexical similarity 87% with Phrae Province Pwo Karen of Thailand, 68% to 73% with other Pwo Karen.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, Pwo Western Thailand

[kjp] 50,000 in Thailand (1998). Tak (Mae Sot south), Ulthaithani, Suphanburi, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, and Prachuapkhirikhan (Huahin District) provinces. Kanchanaburi dialect is northern, Ratchaburi-Phetchaburi dialect is southern. Alternate names: Phlou, Southern Pwo Karen.  Dialects: Kanchanaburi Pwo Karen, Ratchaburi Pwo Karen (Phetchaburi Pwo Karen).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Pwo 
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Karen, S'gaw

[ksw] 300,000 in Thailand (1987 E. Hudspith). Tak, Maehongson, Chiangmai, and Chiangrai provinces, near the Myanmar border. Alternate names: S'gaw, S'gau, S'gaw Kayin, Kanyaw, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, White Karen, Burmese Karen, Yang Khao.  Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Sgaw 
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Kayah, Eastern

[eky] 98,642 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Maehongson Province, east of the Salween River. Alternate names: Red Karen, Karennyi, Kayay, Kayah.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karen, Sgaw-Bghai, Kayah 
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Kensiu

[kns] 300 in Thailand. Southern Yala Province, Phattaloong, Satun, Narathiwat provinces, Thai-Malay border. Some in a resettlement camp in Yala. Alternate names: Kense, Kensieu, Kenseu, Kensiw, Sakai, Moniq, Monik, Maniq, Moni, Menik, Meni, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar, Mos, Mengo, Tiong, Mawas, Belubn.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Khmer, Northern

[kxm] 1,117,588 (2000 WCD). Very few are monolingual. Northeastern Thailand, mainly Surin, Sisaket, Buriram, Khorat provinces. Alternate names: Khmer Lue, Thailand Khmer.  Dialects: Buriram, Surin, Sisaket. Different from Central Khmer. Dialects are intelligible with each other. Many local varieties.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer 
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Khmu

[kjg] 31,403 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Scattered through Thailand, Chiangrai, Nan, Phayao. Alternate names: Kmhmu, Khamu, Khmu', Khamuk, Kamhmu, Kamu, Kha Khmu, Kammu, Tmooy, Mou, Luu, Pouteng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
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Khün

[kkh] 6,281 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Chiangrai, Chiangmai. May not be in Thailand. Alternate names: Hkun, Khun Shan, Gon Shan, Tai Khun, Khuen.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Kintaq

[knq]  Kedah-Perak border area, Thai border. Overlaps slightly into Southern Yala Province of Thailand. Alternate names: Kenta, Kintk, Kintaq Bong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western 
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Korean

[kor]  Bangkok. Classification: Language Isolate 
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Kuy

[kdt] 300,000 in Thailand (1992 Diffloth). Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 366,675. East central Thailand, provinces of Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon, Roi Et. Also spoken in Cambodia, Laos. Alternate names: Sui, Suai, Suay, Suoi, Soai, Suei, Cuoi, Kui Souei, Kui, Kuoy, Kuuy, Khamen-Boran.  Dialects: Chang (Suai Chang), Nheu, Kuay. In Cambodia there are four Kuy dialects, based on the use of their word for 'what': Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma'ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (one village in northern Preah Vihear); only the older people still speak the last two dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu 
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Lahu

[lhu] 32,000 in Thailand (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Maehongson, Lampang, Tak provinces, 119 known villages. There has been some migration from Myanmar and Laos. Alternate names: Lohei, Muhsur, Mussuh, Muhso, Musso, Musser.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu, Loheirn), Nyi (Red Lahu, Southern Lahu, Musseh Daeng, Luhishi, Luhushi), Shehleh.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lahu Shi

[kds] 20,000 in Thailand (1998). In refugee camps near Laos border; formerly in Chiang Kham camp, but now in camps near Pua, Nan, or elsewhere. Alternate names: Kutsung, Kucong, Kui, Kwi, Shi, Yellow Lahu, Musseh Kwi, Musseh Lyang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
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Lamet

[lbn] 100 in Thailand. Lampang, Chiangrai. Alternate names: Kha Lamet, Khamet, Kamet, Lemet.  Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Lametic 
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Lawa, Eastern

[lwl] 7,000 (1987 D. Schlatter). Northern; Chiangmai, Chiangrai, one village: Wiang Papao. Alternate names: Wiang Papao Lua, Northern Lawa.  Dialects: Phalo, Phang. Not intelligible with Western Lawa. Phalo (100) and Phang (100) are treated as distinct languages in Wurm and Hattori 1981.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Lawa 
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Lawa, Western

[lcp] 7,000 in Thailand (1987 D. Schlatter). Numerous villages in Chiangmai and Maehongson provinces of northern Thailand. Alternate names: Lava, Luwa, Lua, L'wa, Lavua, Lavüa, Mountain Lawa.  Dialects: La-Oor.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Waic, Lawa 
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Lisu

[lis] 16,000 in Thailand (1993 Johnstone). Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Maehongson, Tak, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet provinces. Some have migrated to northwest Thailand from Myanmar. Alternate names: Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Li-Hsaw, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw-Yen, Yaw Yin, Yeh-Jen, Liso.  Dialects: Lu Shi Lisu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Lisu 
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[khb] 83,000 in Thailand (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Chiangrai, Payao, Lamphun, Nan, Chiang Kham, and throughout northern Thailand. Alternate names: Lue, Tai Lue, Thai Lu, Tai Lu, Lu, Pai-I, Pai-Yi, Shui-Pai-I.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Lua'

[prb] 6,281 (2000 WCD). East of Pua District in Nan Province. Also on Laos-Thailand border. Alternate names: East Pua Pray, Pray 2.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Mal

[mlf] 3,000 to 4,000 in Thailand (1982 SIL). East of Pua District and Chiang Kam, valley near northern Laos border, Nan Province. Alternate names: T'in, Ht'in, Thin, Tin, Khatin.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Malay

[mly]  Some villages in Ranong, south Thailand. Alternate names: Bahasa Malay, Melayu.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Malay, Pattani

[mfa] 3,100,000 (1998). Population includes 2,600,000 in southern Thailand, 500,000 in Bangkok and elsewhere. Chana (Chenok) Region of Songkhla (Singgora) Province in the north, traversing southward through Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, Saiburi, Tak Bai. Alternate names: Thai Islam.  Dialects: Different from Kedah Malay and Standard Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Malay, Satun

[meo]  A few villages near Satun. Isolated. Alternate names: Kedah Malay.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Local Malay 
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Mlabri

[mra] 300 in Thailand (1982 E. R. Long). Population total all countries: 324. Laos border area. Phayao, Nan, Phrae, Utaradit, Phitsanuloke, Loey, and perhaps other provinces. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Mla, Mla Bri, Mabri, Mrabri, Yumbri, Ma Ku, Yellow Leaf, Phi Thong Luang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri 
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Mok

[mqt] 7 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest; east northeast of Chiang Mai, on Wang River. Alternate names: Amok, Hsen-Hsum.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Angkuic  Nearly extinct.
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Moken

[mwt]  West coast of south Thailand, Phuket, Phangnga, Krabi, Ranong. Alternate names: Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko'.  Dialects: Dung, Ja-It, L'be.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Moklen 
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Moklen

[mkm] 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley). West coast of south Thailand, Phuket, Phangnga. Alternate names: Chau Pok.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Moklen 
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Mon

[mnw] 107,630 in Thailand (2000 WCD). On the Myanmar border, Kanchanaburi, Pathum Thani, Rat Buri, Surat Thani, Lopburi, Khorat; north and south of Bangkok. Alternate names: Talaing, Taleng, Aleng, Mun, Peguan, Takanoon.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic 
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Mpi

[mpz] 900 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Phrae, Phayao, two villages. Alternate names: Mpi-Mi.  Dialects: Close to Pyen, Phunoi.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Nyahkur

[cbn] 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Central Thailand, Khorat, Petchabun, Chayaphum, a few villages, from north of B. Khum Chieo to south of Ban Kao, Thakhong and other rivers. Alternate names: Nyah Kur, Nyakur, Niakuol, Niakuoll, "Chaobon", "Chaodon", Lawa.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic 
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Nyaw

[nyw] 50,000 (1990 Diller). Sakorn Nakorn, Ta Bo', Nong Khai; Tha Uthen, Nakorn Panom. Alternate names: Yo, Nyo, Nyoh, Jo.  Dialects: Close to Isan (Northeastern Thai) and Luang Prabang Lao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Nyeu

[nyl] 200. Sisaket. Alternate names: Yeu, Yoe.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Yoe 
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Palaung, Pale

[pce] 5,000 in Thailand (1989).  Alternate names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Silver Palaung, Pale, Palay, Southern Ta-Ang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Palaung 
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Phai

[prt] 31,000 in Thailand (1993 Johnstone). Population total all countries: 46,000. Thung Chang District of Nan Province. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Phay, Thung Chan Pray, Kha Phay, Pray 1, Prai.  Dialects: More Pray speakers have recently come from Laos to refugee camps, which could represent additional dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Phu Thai

[pht] 156,000 in Thailand (1993). Population total all countries: 519,400. Kham Chai, Nakorn Panom, Ubon, Kalasin, Sakorn Nakorn. Also possibly in China. Also spoken in Laos, USA, Viet Nam. Alternate names: Puthai, Putai, Phuu Thai, Phutai.  Dialects: Little dialect differentiation. Close to Tai Dam and Tai Don.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Phuan

[phu] 98,605 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 204,704. Uthai Thani, Phichit, Petchabun, Lopburi, Singburi, Suphanburi, Saraburi, Nakorn Nayok, Phrachinburi, Udon, Loei, and one village south of Bangkok. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un.  Dialects: Close to Northern Tai, Tai Dam, Song, Lao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Phunoi

[pho]  Some in Chiangrai. Alternate names: Phu Noi, Punoi, Phounoy.  Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
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Pray 3

[pry] 38,808 (2000 WCD). Interspersed in Thung Chang and Pua districts among the Mal. Dialects: One dialect is more distinct. Separate from Phai and Lua.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Mal-Phrai 
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Saek

[skb] 11,000 in Thailand (1993 Johnstone). Northeastern, Nakorn Panom. Alternate names: Sek, Tai Sek.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Sek 
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Shan

[shn] 60,000 in Thailand (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Maehongson, Myuang Haeng, Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Maesai, Tak, on northwestern border. Alternate names: Sha, Tai Shan, Sam, Tai Yay, Thai Yay, Great Thai, Tai Luang, "Ngio", "Ngiow", "Ngiaw", "Ngiao", "Ngeo".  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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[sss] 58,000 in Thailand (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Nakorn Panom, Sakorn Nakorn, Nong Kai, Kalasin. Both sides of Mekong River in northeastern Thailand. 53 villages in Thailand. Alternate names: Kha So, Thro.  Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong, So Makon.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
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Tai Dam

[blt] 700 in Thailand (2004). Loei Province, village of Ban Na Pa Nat. Alternate names: Jinping Dai, Tai Noir, Thai Den, Black Tai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Tai Nüa

[tdd]  Also possibly in northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Man, Dehong Dai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
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Thai

[tha] 20,182,571 in Thailand (2000 WCD). Population includes 400,000 Khorat (1984). 4,704,000 mother-tongue Thai speakers who are ethnic Chinese, or 80% of the Chinese (1984). Population total all countries: 20,229,987. Central Thailand, centered in Bangkok. Khorat dialect in Ratchasima. Also spoken in Singapore, United Arab Emirates, USA. Alternate names: Central Tai, Standard Thai, Thaiklang, Siamese.  Dialects: Khorat Thai (Korat, Thaikorat).  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai Sign Language

[tsq] 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 Charles B. Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school, where they get the opportunity to learn this language. Major regional centers and Bangkok. Dialects: The first deaf school was established in 1951, with influence from Gallaudet University in the USA. It uses a combination of indigenous signs and American Sign Language. Before 1950 Chiangmai and Bangkok had their own separate but related sign languages, and probably other 'urban' areas had their own sign languages, related to present sign languages in parts of Laos and Viet Nam, including Haiphong. The signs used at the deaf school at Tak are reported to be very different.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Thai Song

[soa] 32,307 (2000 WCD). Kanchanaburi, Phetburi, Pitsanulok, Nakorn Sawaan, Nakorn Pathom, Suphanburi. Alternate names: Lao Song, Lao Song Dam, Song.  Dialects: Only slight dialect differences. Close to Tai Dam.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai, Northeastern

[tts] 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). Population includes at least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller ANU). Northeastern; 17 provinces. Kalerng is in Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. Alternate names: Isan, Isaan, Issan, Thai Isaan.  Dialects: Northern Isan, Central Isan (Kalerng, Kaleung, Kaloeng), Southern Isan. Korat. The Korat dialect is quite different, and may be a separate language.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
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Thai, Northern

[nod] 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Population total all countries: 6,009,396. Chiangmai, Chiangrai, Lamphun, Lampang, Maehongson, Hot, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit, Tak provinces. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Lanna, Lan Na, Lanatai, "Yuan", Phyap, Phayap, Payap, Kammüang, Kammyang, Myang, Kam Mu'ang, Mu'ang, Khon Mung, Khon Myang, Tai Nya, La Nya, Northern Thai, Western Laotian.  Dialects: Nan, Bandu, Tai Wang. The Nan dialect is more distinct.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
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Thai, Southern

[sou] 5,000,000 (1990 Diller). Population includes 1,500,000 to 3,000,000 or more Muslim Tai (2001). Chumphon, Nakorn Srithammarat; 14 provinces total. Muslim Tai in provinces of Chumporn, Nakorn Srithammarat, Phattalung, Songkhla, Ranong, Phanga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Satun. Alternate names: Pak Thai, Pak Tai, Paktay, Dambro.  Dialects: Tak Bai (Tai Tak Bai), Thai Malay (Tai Islam). A group of dialects more distantly related to other Tai languages. The border dialects are quite distinct from others.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Southern 
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Tonga

[tnz] Ethnic population: 300 (2000 D. Bradley). Two areas in the south. Also spoken in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Mos.  Dialects: Satun. Probably close to Kensiu.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga 
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Ugong

[ugo] 80 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 500. Kanchanaburi, Uthai Thani, Suphanburi. None in Myanmar. Alternate names: Lawa, 'Ugong, Gong, Ugawng.  Dialects: Kok Chiang, Suphanburi. Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern 
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Urak Lawoi'

[urk] 3,000 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Phuket and Langta islands, west coast of southern Thailand. Not in Malaysia. Alternate names: Orak Lawoi', Lawta, Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi.  Dialects: Aboriginal Malays who speak a unique Malay language.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Malayan, Para-Malay 
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Yong

[yno] 12,561 (2000 WCD). Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Lamphun. May also be in Muang Yong, northern Myanmar. Alternate names: Nyong.  Dialects: Phonology similar to Lü.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Unclassified 
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Yoy

[yoy] 5,000 in Thailand (1990 Diller). Population total all countries: 6,000. Sakorn Nakorn. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Yoi, Yooi, Yooy, Dioi, Jui.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
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