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Languages of Tajikistan

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Tajikistan. 7,011,556. National or official language: Tajiki. 54,019 square miles. Literacy rate: 99%. Also includes Aimaq, Armenian (6,000), Bashkir (5,412), Belarusan, Dungan, Georgian (808), Hazaragi, Kazakh (9,606), Kirghiz (64,000), Korean (13,000), Lak (861), Lithuanian (472), Northern Uzbek (873,000), Osetin (8,000), Romanian (580), Russian (237,000), Southern Pashto (4,000), Standard German, Tatar (80,000), Turkish, Turkmen (13,991), Ukrainian (41,000), Uyghur (3,581), Western Balochi (4,842). Information mainly from T. Sebeok 1963; S. Akiner 1983; B. Comrie 1987; A. Kibrik 1990. The number of languages listed for Tajikistan is 9. Of those, all are living languages.

Living languages

Arabic, Tajiki Spoken

[abh] 1,000 in Tajikistan. Villages in Vakhsh Valley of Khatlon Province, and communities in Kuliab and Leninabad cities. They mainly live in small villages. Some in Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Jugari, Bukhara Arabic, Buxara Arabic, Tajiji Arabic, Central Asian Arabic.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Farsi, Western

[pes] 50,000 in Tajikistan (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk).  Alternate names: Persian.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Parya

[paq] 1,195 in Tajikistan (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 2,495. Hissar Valley in Tajikistan and some in the upper part of the Surkhandarya Valley in Uzbekistan. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Afghana-Yi Nasfurush, Afghana-Yi Siyarui, Laghmani, Pbharya.  Dialects: It may be a dialect of Marwari, related to Panjabi, or the Laghman dialect of Southeast Pashayi of Afghanistan. Subgroups: Kalu, Jitain, Juni, Maggar, Bisiyan, Mussali, Shuiya.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified 
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Sanglechi-Ishkashimi

[sgl] 500 in Tajikistan. Ethnic population: 1,000 in Tajikistan (1990 A. E. Kibrik). Tajikistan. Dialects: Ishkashimi (Ishkashim, Eshkashmi), Zebak (Zebaki), Sanglich.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir 
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Shughni

[sgh] 40,000 in Tajikistan (1975 SIL). Population includes 20,000 Shugan, 1,500 to 2,000 Oroshor, 15,000 Rushan. Population total all countries: 60,000. Ethnic population: 73,000 (1990 A. E. Kibrik) including 50,000 Shugni, 2,000 Oroshor, 18,000 Rushan, 800 Khufi, 3,000 Bartang. Tajikistan, Gorno-Bagakhshan, Pamir Mountains. Also spoken in Afghanistan. Alternate names: Shugnan-Rushan.  Dialects: Rushani (Rushan, Roshani, Oroshani), Bartangi (Bartang), Oroshor (Roshorvi), Khufi (Khuf, Chuf), Shughni (Shugan, Shugnan, Shighni, Khugni). Khufi and Bartangi may be separate languages. Oroshani may be separate from Rushani. Not intelligible of Sarikoli (called 'Tajiki' in China).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami 
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Tajiki

[tgk] 3,344,720 in Tajikistan (1991). Population total all countries: 4,380,212. Also spoken in Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia (Asia), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Tadzhik, Tajiki Persian, Galcha.  Dialects: Four groups of small dialects; no distinct boundaries. Dialect blending into Dari Persian in Afghanistan.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian 
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Wakhi

[wbl] 7,000 in Tajikistan (1993 UBS). Ethnic population: 20,000 in Tajikistan (1990 Kibrik). Gorno-Badakhshan, Pamir Mountains. Alternate names: Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi, Guhjali, Khik.  Dialects: Western Wakhi, Central Wakhi, Eastern Wakhi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir 
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Yagnobi

[yai] 2,000 (1975 SIL). A high mountain valley of the Yagnob River. Alternate names: Yagnob.  Dialects: Western Yagnobi, Eastern Yagnobi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern 
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Yazgulyam

[yah] 4,000 (1994 UBS). Along the Yazgulyam River, Gorno-Badakhshan Ao. Alternate names: Iazgulem, Yazgulam, Yazgulyami.  Dialects: Upper Yazgulyam, Lower Yazgulyam. Little dialect difference.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami 
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