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Languages of Tanzania

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United Republic of Tanzania. Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania. Formerly German East Africa, Tanganyika. 36,588,225. National or official languages: Swahili, English. Literacy rate: 80% to 85%. Also includes Rundi (150,000), Konkani, Panjabi, Urdu, Chinese, people from Europe (70,000), Rwanda (25,000), Mozambique. Information mainly from F. Huntingford 1953; B. Taylor 1962; R. Willis 1966; W. Whiteley 1969; E. Polomé and C. Hill 1980; F. Rottland 1981; D. Nurse 1982; G. Dimmendaal 1989. Blind population: 40,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 7. The number of languages listed for Tanzania is 128. Of those, 127 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

Living languages

Aasáx

[aas] 350 (1999 Jeff Carr). Northern Tanzania in the central Maasai Steppe. Landenai, Ndovu Okutu, Lolbeni villages, and Lemelebo, Landrobo, Naitomani, and Kilili districts are reported to have speakers. Alternate names: Asax, Asá, Aasá, Assa, Asak, "Ndorobo", "Dorobo", Lamanik, Il Konono.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Alagwa

[wbj] 30,000 (2001 Kiessling). Dodoma Region, Kondoa District. Alternate names: Alagwaisi, Alagwase, Alawa, Chasi, Asi, Wasi, Kialagwa.  Dialects: Related to Iraqw, but not inherently intelligible. Also close to Burunge and Gorowa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Arabic, Omani Spoken

[acx] Ethnic population: 195,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone). Zanzibar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Arabic, Standard

[arb]  Middle East, north Africa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic 
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Aramanik

[aam] 3,000 (2002). Masaai Steppe, Arusha Region. Alternate names: Laramanik, "Ndorobo", "Dorobo".  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Asu

[asa] 500,000 (2000). 5% monolingual. Northeastern, Kilimanjaro Region, Pare Mountains, Mwanga and Same districts. Alternate names: Chiasu, Chasu, Athu, Casu, Pare.  Dialects: Related to Taveta.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Bembe

[bmb]  Kigoma Region, Kigoma Vijinini District. On the shore of Lake Tanganyika, from Kigoma town north to the Gombe National Park. Alternate names: Ibembe, Beembe, Ebembe, Kibembe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bena

[bez] 670,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Southwest central, Iringa Region, Njombe District. Alternate names: Ekibena, Kibena.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 71% with Pangwa, 65% with Hehe, 55% with Sangu, 53% with Kinga, 51% with Wanji, 47% with Kisi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Bende

[bdp] 27,000 (1999). Rukwa Region, Mpanda District, Kabungu, Karema, and Mwese divisions. Alternate names: Kibende, Si'bende.  Dialects: Tongwe and Bende may be dialects of one language. Lexical similarity 74% with Sumbwa, 72% with Nyamwezi, 70% with Sukuma Hu, 67% with Ha, 71% with Rundi, 60% with Hangaza, 58% with Nyankore and 65% with Holoholo and 90% with Tongwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Bondei

[bou] 80,000 (1987). Northeastern Tanzania, Tanga Region, Usambara Mountains, inland from Tanga. Alternate names: Kibondei, Bonde.  Dialects: It has been influenced linguistically by Doe and Kwere, and it has influenced them. Lexical similarity 75% with Shambala and Zigula, 73% with Ngulu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Bungu

[wun] 36,000 (1987). Chunya District of Mbeya Region. Alternate names: Wungu, Echiungu, Kibungu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Burunge

[bds] 13,000 (2002). Kondoa District of Dodoma Region, southeast of the Langi, Goima, Chambalo, and Mirambu villages. Alternate names: Bulunge, Mbulugwe, Burungi.  Dialects: Close to Alagwa, Gorowa, Iraqw.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Cutchi-Swahili

[ccl]  Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Mwanza, Arusha. Alternate names: Asian Swahili.  Classification: Creole, Swahili based 
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Datooga

[tcc] 87,798 (2000 WCD). Singida and Mbulu regions. The Barabaig are mainly in the northern volcanic highlands near Mt. Hanang. Alternate names: Datoga, Datog, Tatoga, Tatog, Taturu, "Mangati".  Dialects: Bajuta, Gisamjanga (Kisamajeng, Gisamjang), Barabayiiga (Barabaig, Barabayga, Barabaik, Barbaig), Tsimajeega (Isimijeega), Rootigaanga (Rotigenga, Rotigeenga), Buraadiiga (Buradiga, Bureadiga), Bianjiida (Biyanjiida, Utatu). Sabaot is probably the closest language linguistically. Barabaik and Kisamajeng are very close and are completely inherently intelligible. There are several other dialects or ethnic groups: Darorajega, Gidang'odiga, Bisiyeda, Daragwajega, Salawajega, Ghumbiega, Mangatiga. Lexical similarity 50% with Kalenjin and Omotik of Kenya.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Tatoga 
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Dhaiso

[dhs] 5,000 (1999). Bwiti and Magati villages at the base of the eastern Usambara Mountains on the northern side, Muheza District, Tanga Region. Alternate names: Kidhaiso, Daiso, Daisu, Kiseguju.  Dialects: Related to Kamba of Kenya. Lexical similarity 32% with Digo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kikuyu-Kamba (E.20) 
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Digo

[dig] 88,000 in Tanzania (1987). Northeastern coast area around Tanga. Alternate names: Kidigo, Chidigo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.40), Mijikenda 
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Doe

[doe] 24,000 (1987). Pwani Region, Bagamoyo District, north of the Kwere. Alternate names: Dohe, Kidoe.  Dialects: Doe has influenced Zigula and Bondei linguistically, and it has been influenced by them. Lexical similarity 74% with Kwere, 64% with Kami, 61% with Kutu and Zaramo, 70% with Zigula, 54% with Luguru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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English

[eng]   Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Fipa

[fip] 200,000 in Tanzania (1992 UBS). Sumbawanga and Nkansi Districts, Rukwa Region, a large area between lakes Tanganyika and Rukwa. Also spoken in Malawi. Alternate names: Icifipa, Ichifipa, Cifipa, Fiba, Kifipa.  Dialects: Kandaasi, Siiwa, Kwaafi, Ntili, Peemba, Kwa, Nkwaamba, Sukuuma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Gogo

[gog] 1,300,000 (1992 UBS). Dodoma Region; Singida Region, Manyoni District. Alternate names: Chigogo, Kigogo.  Dialects: Nyambwa (West Gogo), Nyaugogo (Central Gogo), Tumba (East Gogo). Lexical similarity 50% with Hehe and Sangu, 48% with Kimbu, 45% with Nilamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) 
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Gorowa

[gow] 50,000 (1999 R. Kiessling). Arusha Region, Mbulu District; Dodoma Region, Kondoa District, near Babati, around Mt. Ufiome. Alternate names: Goroa, Fiome, Gorwaa.  Dialects: Close to Burunge, Alagwa, Iraqw. May be a dialect of Iraqw.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Gujarati

[guj] 250,000 in Tanzania (1993 Johnstone). Small communities. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati 
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Gweno

[gwe] Few speakers (2000 M. Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 2,000 or more. Kilimanjaro Region, northernmost part of the North Pare Hills. Alternate names: Kigweno.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 54% to 56% with Chaga dialects (closest), 46% with Taita.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30)  Nearly extinct.
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Ha

[haq] 990,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Kigoma Region. Alternate names: Giha, Kiha, Ikiha.  Dialects: Dialects in border area near Burundi are reported to be intelligible with Rundi (Polomé 1980). Lexical similarity 78% with Rundi, 77% with Hangaza and Shubi, 72% with Rwanda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Hadza

[hts] 800 (2000 Brenzinger). Ethnic population: 800. Some distance northwest of the Sandawe, southeast of Lake Victoria, Singida, Arusha, and Shinyanga regions, near Lake Eyasi. Alternate names: Hatsa, Hadzapi, Hadzabi, Kindiga, "Tindiga", Wakindiga, Kangeju.  Dialects: Bali may be a dialect.  Classification: Khoisan, Hatsa 
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Hangaza

[han] 150,000 (1987). Northwestern, southwest of Bukoba. Kagera Region, Ngara and Biharamulo districts. Alternate names: Kihangaza.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Shubi, 83% with Rundi, 77% with Ha, 72% with Rwanda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Haya

[hay] 1,200,000 (1991 UBS). Kagera Region, mainly Bukoba District. Alternate names: Ekihaya, Ruhaya, Ziba, Kihaya.  Dialects: Bumbira, Edangabo, Ganda-Kiaka, Hamba, Hangiro, Mwani, Nyakisisa, Ekiziba, Yoza.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Hehe

[heh] 750,000 (1994 UBS). Iringa Region, south of Gogo. Alternate names: Kihehe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 65% with Bena (closest), 59% with Pangwa, 56% with Sangu, 50% with Kinga, 48% with Wanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Ikizu

[ikz] 28,000 (1987). Mara Region, east of Zanaki and Kerebe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Ikoma

[ntk] 15,000 (1987). Mara Region, east of Ikizu, Zanaki, and Kerebe. Alternate names: Nata, Ikinata.  Dialects: Issenyi (Isenyi, Ikisenyi). Lexical similarity 81% with Zanaki, 73% with Ngurimi, 68% with Kuria, 44% with Gusii.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Iraqw

[irk] 462,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Arusha Region, Mbulu District, highlands southwest of Arusha in north. Alternate names: Mbulu, Mbulunge, Erokh, Iraku, Kiiraqw.  Dialects: Asa. Asa may be a separate language.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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Isanzu

[isn] 32,400 (1987). Iramba District of Singida Region. Alternate names: Kinyihanzu, Kinyisanzu.  Dialects: Closely related to Nyaturu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Jita

[jit] 217,000 (1987). Mara Region, southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerebe. Alternate names: Echijita, Ecijita.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 83% with Kwaya, 81% with Kara, 62% with Kerewe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kabwa

[cwa]  North central, Mara Region. Dialects: Close to Kiroba (Kuria).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Kachchi

[kfr]  Cities. Alternate names: Cutchi, Kacchi, Kachi, Katchi.  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi 
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Kagulu

[kki] 217,000 (1987). Morogoro Region, Kodoma Region, Kilosa District. Alternate names: Chikagulu, Kaguru, Northern Sagara, Kiningo, Solwa, Kigalulu, Kigaguru.  Dialects: Megi, Tumba, Mangehele. Lexical similarity 63% with Sagala, 56% with Gogo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Gogo (G.10) 
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Kahe

[hka] 2,700 (1987). Southest of Moshi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Kami

[kcu] 16,411 (2000 WCD). Morogoro Region, Morogoro and Kilosa districts. About 30 km north and northeast of Morogoro, on and south of the main road to Dar es Salaam, and on for about 20 km. The farthest village is about 60 km south of this road. Alternate names: Kikami.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Kutu and Kwere, 65% with Zaramo, 64% with Doe, 54% with Luguru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Kara

[reg] 86,000 (1987). Southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerewe, on Ukerewe island. A few in Mwanza. Alternate names: Regi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 81% with Jita, 80% with Kwaya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kerewe

[ked] 100,000 (1987). Northwestern Ukerewe Island, southern Lake Victoria, Kibara. North of Sukuma, across Speke Gulf. Alternate names: Ekikerebe, Kerebe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 76% with Zinza, 75% with Haya, 69% with Nyambo, 68% with Nyankore, 63% with Chiga and Toro, 62% with Nyoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kimbu

[kiv] 78,000 (1987). Mbeya Region, Kipembawe ward of Chunya District; Singida Region, Manyoni District; Tabora Region, Sikonge District. Alternate names: Kikimbu, Ikibungu, Yanzi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 61% with Nilamba, 57% with Sukuma, 53% with Nyaturu, 48% with Sumbwa, 47% with Langi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Kinga

[zga] 140,000 (2003). 57,000 in Makete District. Iringa Region, Makete District, in the Kipengere Mountain Range. Alternate names: Kikinga, Ekikinga.  Dialects: Kinga, Mahanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Kisankasa

[kqh] 4,670 (1987).  Alternate names: "Ndorobo", "Dorobo".  Dialects: A distinct language from others called "Dorobo": Aramanik, Mediak, Mosiro. See also Aasax.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Kisi

[kiz] 10,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 18,000. Northwestern shore of Lake Nyasa (L. Malawi). Iringa Region, Ludewa District, Mwambao Division, Lupingu and Makonde Wards. Four primary villages: Lifuma, Lupingu, Makonde, and Nindi. Alternate names: Kikisi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 62% with Pangwa, 55% with Kinga, 53% with Sangu, 52% with Wanji, and 47% with Bena.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Konongo

[kcz] 51,000 (1987). Rukwa Region, in the northwest corner of Mpanda District, south of the Nyamwezi, across the Ugalla River. 25% live in the traditional area. Alternate names: Kikonongo.  Dialects: May be a dialect of Nyamwezi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Kuria

[kuj] 213,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 348,000. Mara Region, near the Kenya border, east of Lake Victoria. Also spoken in Kenya. Alternate names: Ikikuria, Igikuria, Tende, Kurya, Kurye.  Dialects: Kiroba, Simbiti, Sweta. Kiroba and Simbiti may be distinct languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Kutu

[kdc] 45,000 (1987). Morogoro Region, Morogoro and Kilosa districts. Alternate names: Kikutu, Khutu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Kami, 68% with Zaramo, 64% with Kwere, 61% with Doe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Kwaya

[kya] 102,000 (1987). Mara Region, southeastern shore of Lake Victoria, between the Zanaki and Kerebe. Dialects: Ruri. Lexical similarity 83% with Jita, 80% with Kara.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Kwere

[cwe] 98,000 (1987). Pwani Region, Bagamoyo District. Many live among the Zaramo and Luguru. Alternate names: Kakwere, Kwele, Ng'were, Nghwele, Tsinghwele, Kinghwele, Ngwele, Kikwere.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 74% with Doe, 69% with Kami, 64% with Kutu, 61% with Zaramo, 62% with Zigula, 54% with Luguru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Lambya

[lai] 40,000 in Tanzania (1987). Southern part of Ulambya Division in Ileje District, Mbeya Region, border with Malawi. Alternate names: Ichilambya, Icilambya, Lambia, Lambwa, Rambia, Iramba, Ici-Rambia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (N.20) 
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Langi

[lag] 350,000 (1999 Hartung and Stegen). 35,000 monolinguals. Population includes many ethnic Burunge (in Chemba, Goima, and elsewhere) and some ethnic Alagwa (in Kolo, Mnenya, and elsewhere) who are Langi first-language speakers. Dodoma Region, Kondoa District, west of the Maasai, northeast of the Sandawe. Communities also in Dodoma, Mwanza, Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Tanga, Morogoro, Babati, and Singida. Alternate names: Kilangi, Irangi, Rangi, Kirangi.  Dialects: Kondoa, Haubi, Kolo, Mondo. Close to Mbugwe. Limited comprehension of any other language. Lexical similarity 74% with Mbugwe, 49% with Nyaturu and Sukuma, 48% with Nyamwezi, 47% with Kimbu and Nilamba, 40% with Sumbwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Luguru

[ruf] 692,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Morogoro Region, Morogoro and Kilosa districts; Pwani Region, Bagamoyo District, Luguru Mountains, and Dar-es-Salaam. Alternate names: Lugulu, Ikiruguru, Guru, Ruguru, Kiluguru, Kiruguru.  Dialects: People have little comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity 54% with Kami.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Luo

[luo] 280,000 in Tanzania (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Mara Region, near Kenya border, east of Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Dholuo, Kavirondo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Luo 
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Maasai

[mas] 430,000 in Tanzania (1993). Population includes 170,000 Arusa, 30,000 Baraguyu (1987). North central, on Kenya border, east of Serengeti National Park. The Baraguyu are spread from the Indian Ocean nearly to Malawi. Alternate names: Masai, Maa, Lumbwa, Kimaasai.  Dialects: Arusha (Il-Arusha, L-Arusha), Parakuyo (Baraguyu, Kwavi), Kisonko.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa 
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Machame

[jmc] 300,000 (1992 UBS). Chaga area. Alternate names: Kimashami, Machambe.  Dialects: Masama, Siha (Shira), Ng'uni, Bosho, Hai. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo, Mochi, Vunjo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Machinga

[mvw] 36,000 (1987). Lindi Region, Kilwa and Lindi districts, along the coast, above the 10th parallel south, close to the Mwera and the Ngindo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Magoma

[gmx] 9,000 (SIL 2003). Iringa Region, Makete District, near the Kitulo Plateau. Alternate names: Kimagoma.  Dialects: Two very closely related varieties: one in the lower villages and one in the villages with a higher elevation.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Makhuwa-Meetto

[mgh] 360,000 in Tanzania (1993). Mtwara Region, Masasi District, extreme southern Tanzania. Alternate names: Makua, Makhua, Imakua, Makoa, Mato, Maquoua, Kimakua, Makuwa.  Dialects: Medo (Meto, Emeto).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) 
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Makonde

[kde] 1,140,000 in Tanzania (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 1,373,358. Mtwara Region, primarily Mtwara Urban, Mtwara Rural, Tandahomba, and Newala districts. Also spoken in Mozambique. Alternate names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Konde, Matambwe.  Dialects: "Maviha", Maraba. Matambwe may be closer to Yao than Makonde, and may even be a separate language or a dialect of Mwera.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Malila

[mgq] 65,000 (2003 SIL). Mbeya Region, about 40 km southwest of the town of Mbeya. South of Safwa, north of Ndali, west of Nyakyusa, east of Nyiha. Alternate names: Malilia, Ishimalilia, Shimalilia, Kimalila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Mambwe-Lungu

[mgr] 97,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population includes 63,000 Mambwe and 34,000 Rungu. Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga District, the southeastern shore and to the south of Lake Tanganyika. Dialects: Mambwe (Icimambwe, Ichimambwe, Kimambwe), Rungu (Icilungu, Lungu, Cilungu, Kilungu, Kirungu).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Manda

[mgs] 22,000 in Ludewa District (2002). Iringa Region, Ludewa District; also Ruvuma Region, Mbinga District; eastern shore of Lake Nyasa. Alternate names: Kimanda, Kinyasa, Nyasa.  Dialects: Matumba. Matumba is recognized as a distinct dialect but is completely intelligible with Manda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Maraba

[ymk] 10,000 in Tanzania (2003). Southeast Tanzania. Alternate names: Kimakwe, Makwe, Palma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Matengo

[mgv] 150,000 (1987). Ruvuma Region, southwest, east of Lake Malawi. Also possibly in Malawi. Alternate names: Chimatengo, Kimatengo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10) 
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Matumbi

[mgw] 72,000 (1978 MARC). Lindi Region, on the banks of the Ruvuma, next to the Makonde and Makhuwa (Polomé and Hill 1980). Alternate names: Kimatumbi.  Dialects: Kuchi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Mbugu

[mhd] 7,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 32,000. Tanga Region, Lushoto District, in Usambara Mountains. Alternate names: Ma'a, Mbougou, Wama'a, Wa Maathi, Kibwyo.  Dialects: Cha ndani, Cha kawaida.  Classification: Mixed Language, Bantu-Cushitic 
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Mbugwe

[mgz] 24,000 (1999). Babati District, Arusha Region. Alternate names: Kimbugwe, Mbuwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 52% with Langi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Mbunga

[mgy] 29,000 (1987). South central, southeast of the Hehe, north of the Pogolo. Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Ndamba, 57% with Pogolu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Mediak

[mwx] 5,268 (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Ndorobo, Dorobo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Mochi

[old] 596,656 (2000 WCD). Around Moshi, south corner Chaga area. Alternate names: Moshi, Kimoshi, Mosi, Old Moshi, Kimochi.  Dialects: Uru. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo, Machame, Vunjo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Mosiro

[mwy] 5,268 (2000 WCD).  Alternate names: Ndorobo, Dorobo.  Dialects: A distinct language from others called "Dorobo": Aramanik, Mediak, Kisankasa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Nandi-Markweta, Nandi 
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Mpoto

[mpa] 80,000 (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Ruyuma Region, Mbinga District, southwestern, along northeast shore of Lake Nyasa. Alternate names: Chimpoto, Kinyasa, Nyasa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12) 
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Mwera

[mjh] 6,000 (2004). Ruyuma Region, Mbinga District, Mbamba Bay, Shore of Lake Nyasa, southwest Tanzania. Alternate names: Nyasa, Kinyasa, Nyanza.  Dialects: Similar to Mwera in the Lindi Region, but not the same. Also reported to be similar to Nyanja (N.30) languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Mwera

[mwe] 469,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Southeast, north of Makonde, mostly in Lindi Region, primarily Nachingwea, Ruangwa, and Lindi Urban and Rural districts. Alternate names: Chimwera, Cimwera, Mwela.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Ndali

[ndh] 150,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 220,000. Mbeya Region, Ileje District, cross into Malawi, between Lambya and Nyakyusa. Also spoken in Malawi. Alternate names: Chindali, Kindali, Ici-Ndali.  Dialects: Sukwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Ndamba

[ndj] 55,000 (1987). South central, Iringa Region, northeast of Bena, southeast of Hehe, west of Pogolo, southwest of Mbunga. Dialects: Lexical similarity 69% with Mbunga, 56% with Pogolo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50) 
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Ndendeule

[dne] 100,000 (2000 Deo Ngonyani). Inland, east of the main Ngoni territory south of the 10th parallel, Ruvuma Region. Neighbor languages are Yao to the south and east, Ngoni to the west, Bena to the north, Nindi to the south, Ngindo to the northeast beyond the Selous Game Reserve. Alternate names: Ndendeuli, Kindendeule, Kindendeuli.  Dialects: Closest to Ngindo, although geographically distant.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ndengereko

[ndg] 110,000 (2000). Central coast, south of the Zaramo, north of the Rufiji. Eastern parts of Songea District, Ruvuma Region. Alternate names: Kingengereko, Ndengeleko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ndonde Hamba

[njd] 10,000 to 20,000 (2002 PBT). Lindi Region, Nachingwea District, primarily Kilimarondo Division. Alternate names: Kimawanda, Mawanda, Ndomde, Ndonde, Kindonde Hamba, Chindonde Hamba, Chindonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Ngasa

[nsg] 200 to 300 (1983). Ethnic population: 4,285 (2000 WCD). Eastern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Alternate names: Shaka, Ongamo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 60% with Maasai, 59% with Samburu, 58% with Chamus.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Ongamo-Maa 
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Ngindo

[nnq] 220,000 (1987). East central, south of the Rufiji, west of the Mwera. Alternate names: Kingindo, Njindo, Magingo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Ngoni

[ngo] 170,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 205,000. South central, Ruvuma Region, south of Songea. Also spoken in Mozambique. Alternate names: Chingoni, Kingoni, Angoni, Kisutu, Sutu.  Dialects: Different from 'Ngoni' which is an alternate name for Zulu, Ngoni dialect of Nsenga, Ngoni dialect of Tumbuka. Not related to Ngoni of Malawi. Low lexical similarity percentage with Zulu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.10) 
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Ngulu

[ngp] 132,000 (1987). Morogoro Region, Morogoro District; Tanga Region, Handeni District; Dodoma Region, Mpwapwa and Kongwa districts. Alternate names: Kingulu, Nguru, Nguu, Wayomba, Geja.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 83% with Zigula, 73% with Bondei, 68% with Shambala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Ngurimi

[ngq] 32,000 (1987). North central border with Kenya, between the Maasai and the Kuria, Shinyanga and Mara regions. Alternate names: Ikingurimi, Ngoreme, Ngruimi, Nguruimi, Dengurume.  Dialects: Limited comprehension of other languages. Lexical similarity 84% with Kuria, 80% with Zanaki, 73% with Ikoma, 49% with Gusii.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Nilamba

[nim] 440,000 (1987). Population includes 50,000 Iambi. Western Shinyanga Region, north of the Nyaturu. Alternate names: Nyilamba, Ikinilamba, Iramba, Nilyamba, Ikiniramba, Ilamba, Niramba, Kiniramba, Kinilamba.  Dialects: Iambi. Lexical similarity 56% with Nyamwezi, 55% with Sukuma, 45% with Sumbwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Nindi

[nxi] 100. East Songea District, Ruvuma Region, southern Tanzania close to the Mozambique border, south of the Ndendeule. Dialects: Similar to Ndendeule.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Nyakyusa-Ngonde

[nyy] 750,000 in Tanzania (1992 UBS). Population total all countries: 1,050,000. Southern areas of Mbeya Region. North end of Lake Malawi. Some also in Iringa Region, Makete District. Also spoken in Malawi. Alternate names: Ikinyakyusa, Mombe, Ngonde, Ikingonde, Konde, Nkonde, Nyakusa, Nyikyusa, Sochile, Sokile, Sokili, Kukwe, Nyekyosa, Kinyakyusa.  Dialects: Nyakyusa, Kukwe, Mwamba (Lungulu), Ngonde, Selya (Salya, Seria).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa (M.30) 
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Nyambo

[now] 400,000 (2003). Kagera Region, Karagwe District, northwest corner, Uganda border, west of Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Ekinyambo, Karagwe, Rukaragwe, Ururagwe, Ragwe, Runyambo, Kinyambo.  Dialects: Yakahanga. Lexical similarity 84% with Haya, 81% with Zinza, 75% with Kerewe, 78% with Nyankore, 72% with Chiga, 69% with Kerewe, 68% with Toro, 67% with Nyoro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Nyamwanga

[mwn] 87,000 in Tanzania (1987). Rukwa Region, southeast corner of Sumbawanga District; Mbeya Region, southwest corner of Mbozi District, bordering to Zambia south of the Fipa. Southwest of Lake Rukwa. Saisi Valley in the northwest to forested plateau in the southeast. Alternate names: Chinamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga, Kinamwanga.  Dialects: Tambo, Iwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Nyamwezi

[nym] 1,200,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). 73% are in the traditional area. Northwest central, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa. Tabora Region; Rukwa, Singida, and Shinyanga regions. Alternate names: Kinyamwezi, Kinyamwesi, Nyamwesi, Namwezi.  Dialects: Nyanyembe, Takama (Garaganza), Mweri (Sumbwa, Konongo, Kiya). Lexical similarity 84% with Sukuma, 61% with Sumbwa, 56% with Nilamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Nyaturu

[rim] 556,000 (1993 Johnstone). Singida Region, Iramba and Singida districts, north central, south of Singida, west of the Wembere River. Alternate names: Turu, Kinyaturu, Rimi, Limi, Kirimi, Remi, Kiremi, Keremi.  Dialects: Girwana (Rimi), Chahi, Ginyamunyinganyi. Lexical similarity 63% with Nilamba, 59% with Sukuma, 58% with Nyamwezi, 53% with Kimbu, 49% with Nyaturu, 44% with Sumbwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Nyilamba-Langi (F.30) 
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Nyiha

[nih] 306,000 in Tanzania (1987). Population total all countries: 626,000. Mbeya Region, Mbozi District, south and west of Lake Rukwa. Also spoken in Zambia. Alternate names: Ishinyiha, Shinyiha, Nyika, Nyixa, Kinyiha.  Dialects: Close to Lambya, Malila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Okiek

[oki]  Northern Tanzania, southern part of Arusha Region; the Akie live in small groups south of Arusha among Maasai speakers. Alternate names: Akie, Akiek.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Okiek 
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Pangwa

[pbr] 95,000 (2002). Iringa Region, Ludewa District; in the Livingstone mountains on the eastern shore of Lake Nyasa. Alternate names: Ekipangwa, Kipangwa.  Dialects: Kimwela. Kimwela is spoken with a distinctly different accent and the people consider themselves a separate ethnic group, but the language is completely intelligible with the main variety of Pangwa. Lexical similarity 71% with Bena, 62% with Kisi, 61% with Kinga, 59% with Hehe, 58% with Sangu, 55% with Wanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Pimbwe

[piw] 29,000 (1987). Rukwa Region, Mpanda and Mkasi districts. Rift Valley to the northwest of Lake Rukwa. Alternate names: Ichipimbwe, Cipimbwe, Kipimbwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Pogolo

[poy] 185,000 (1987). Iringa and Morogoro regions, south central, south of the Mbunga, east of the Ndamba. Alternate names: Chipogolo, Pogoro, Pogora, Chipogoro, Pogolu, Shpogolu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 57% with Mbunga, 56% with Ndamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Pogoro (G.50) 
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Rombo

[rof]  Chaga area, eastern area. Alternate names: Kirombo.  Dialects: Keni, Mashati, Mkuu, Usseri. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Mochi, Machame, Vunjo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Rufiji

[rui] 200,000 (1987). Pwani Region, Rufiji District, central coast, south of the Ndengereko, north of the Matumbi. Alternate names: Ruihi, Kiruihi, Fiji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Matumbi (P.10) 
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Rungwa

[rnw] 18,000 (1987). Rukwa Region, Mpanda District, the plains at the northern end of Lake Rukwa. Alternate names: Lungwa, Ichirungwa, Icilungwa, Runga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Rwa

[rwk] 90,000 (1987). Population includes 50,000 Kihai. Arusha Region, around Mt. Meru. Alternate names: Rwo, Kirwo.  Dialects: Kihai (Meru).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Safwa

[sbk] 158,000 (1987). Mbeya and Poroto mountain ranges in the Mbeya, Chunya, and Mbozi districts of Mbeya Region. Alternate names: Ishisafwa, Cisafwa, Kisafwa.  Dialects: Guruka, Mbwila, Poroto, Songwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Sagala

[sbm] 79,000 (1987). Morogoro Region, Kilosa and Ulanga districts; Dodoma Region, Mpwapwa District; Iringa Region. Alternate names: Kisagala, Southern Kisagala, Kisagara, Sagara.  Dialects: Itumba, Kondoa (Solwe), Kweny, Nkwifiya (Kwifa, Kwiva). Lexical similarity 63% with Kagulu, 60% with Gogo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Sandawe

[sad] 40,000 (2000). Dodoma Region, Kondoa District, between the Bubu and Mponde rivers. Alternate names: Sandaui, Sandawi, Sandwe, Sandaweeki, Kisandawe.  Dialects: Bisa, Telha. 2 dialects.  Classification: Khoisan, Sandawe 
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Sangu

[sbp] 75,000 (1987). Usangu Plains, Mbarale District, Mbeya Region. Alternate names: Sango, Eshisango, Rori, Kisangu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Segeju

[seg] 7,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: Fewer than 15,000. Narrow strip of the northeast coast between Tanga and the Kenya border, Muheza District, Tanga region. Alternate names: Kisegeju, Sageju, Sengeju.  Dialects: Closely related to Digo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Nyika (E.40), Mijikenda 
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Shambala

[ksb] 664,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Tanga Region, Lushoto District, Usambara Mountains. Alternate names: Kishambala, Kishambaa, Kisambaa, Sambaa, Shambaa, Sambala, Sambara, Schambala.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 75% with Bondei, 68% with Ngulu and Zigula.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Shambala (G.20) 
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Shubi

[suj] 153,000 (1987). Kagera Region, northwest of Sumbwa, near Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Subi, Urushubi, Sinja.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Hangaza, 77% with Rundi and Ha, 71% with Rwanda, 49% with Sumbwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Sizaki

[szk] 82,000 (1987). Mara Region, Musoma District, near Zanaki, northeast of Kerebe, near the southeast shore of Lake Victoria. Alternate names: Shashi, Sasi, Kisizaki.  Dialects: Related to Zanaki.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Suba

[suh] 30,000 in Tanzania (1987). Mara Region, Tarime District, north central, south of Luo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Subi

[xsj]  Kagera Region, Biharamulo District. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Sukuma

[suk] 3,200,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Northwest, between Lake Victoria and Lake Rukwa, Shinyanga to Serengeti Plain (Kiya); also Mwanza (Gwe). A small percentage in cities; 88% in the traditional area. Alternate names: Kisukuma.  Dialects: Kiya, Gwe (Kigwe). Dialects contiguous with Nyamwezi are intelligible with it. Lexical similarity 84% with Nyamwezi, 59% with Sumbwa and Nyaturu, 57% with Kimbu, 55% with Nilamba, 49% with Langi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Sumbwa

[suw] 191,000 (1987). Bukombe District of Shinyanga Region. Alternate names: Kisumbwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 61% with Nyamwezi, 59% with Sukuma, 45% with Nilamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Sukuma-Nyamwezi (F.20) 
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Swahili

[swh] 540,837 in Tanzania (2000 WCD). 313,200 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 772,642. Zanzibar, coastal areas. Also spoken in Burundi, Kenya, Mayotte, Mozambique, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, USA. Alternate names: Kiswahili, Kisuaheli.  Dialects: Mrima, Unguja (Kiunguja, Zanzibar), Pemba, Mgao. Bajun has 85% lexical similarity with Amu, 78% with Mvita, 72% with Mrima; Mvita has 86% with Amu, 79% with Mrima; Mrima has 79% with Amu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Tanzanian Sign Language

[tza]   Alternate names: Lugha Ya Alama, "Lugha Ya Bubu".  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Temi

[soz] 30,000 (2002 SIL). Arusha Region, Ngorongoro District, north central near the Kenya border, Maasai area, 2 hours by car from the Wasso-Loliondo area, on unimproved roads. 7 villages: Sale (Eroghata), Mdito, Samunge (Soyeta), Digodigo (Ebwe), Kisangiro (Raghari), Mugholo (Gheeri), Oldonyo Sambu (Kura). Alternate names: Sonjo, Sonyo, Wasonjo, Watemi, Kisonjo.  Dialects: The language is reported to show some similarities to Gikuyu of Kenya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Tongwe

[tny] 13,000 to 15,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 31,551 (2000 WCD). Within the boundaries of Kigoma District, Kigoma Region. The Tongwe live on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika between the villages of Ilagala (N) to Kashagulu (S), boundary between Kigoma and Rukwa regions constitutes eastern boundary of the Tongwe area. The shore of Lake Tanganyika constitutes the western border. There are also small pockets of Tongwe (up to 20% to 30% of the population) around villages of Uvinza and Nguruka. Alternate names: Kitongwe, Sitongwe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 83 to 91% with Bende (with different varieties).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (F.10) 
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Vidunda

[vid] 32,000 (1987). East central, east of the Hehe, west of the Kutu Morogoro Region, south of Mikumi town in the mountains west of Kidodi. Alternate names: Chividunda, Kividunda, Ndunda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Vinza

[vin] 10,000 (1987). Kigoma Region, Kigoma District, around and west of the town of Uvinza. West of the Nyamwezi, north of the Tongwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Vunjo

[vun] 300,000 (1992 UBS). Kilimanjaro Region, Chaga area, southeast variety. Alternate names: Kivunjo, Wunjo, Kiwunjo.  Dialects: Marangu, Lema (Kilema), Mamba, Mwika. A member of the Chaga dialect continuum which includes Rombo, Mochi, Machame.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Chaga (E.30) 
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Wanda

[wbh] 24,000 (1987). Mbeya Region, Mbozi District; Rukwa Region, Sumbawanga District. Alternate names: Iciwanda, Ichiwanda, Wandia, Vanda, Kiwanda.  Dialects: Sichela. Lexical similarity 68% with Nyamwanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.20) 
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Wanji

[wbi] 28,000 (SIL 2003). Iringa Region, Makete District, in the Kipengere Mountain Range. West of the Bena, south of the Sangu, north of the Kinga. Alternate names: Kivwanji, Kiwanji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Bena-Kinga (G.60) 
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Ware

[wre]   Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Yao

[yao] 492,000 in Tanzania (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). South central, east of Lake Malawi, Mozambique border area. Mtwara Region, Masasi District and Ruvuma Region, Tunduru District. Also possibly in Zimbabwe. Alternate names: Chiyao, Achawa, Adsawa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Djao, Hajao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.20) 
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Zanaki

[zak] 62,000 (1987). Mwanza Region, Magu District; Mara Region, Bunda District, slightly inland, southeast shore, Lake Victoria above Speke Gulf. Alternate names: Ikizanaki, Kizanaki.  Dialects: Ndali, Siora, Girango. Lexical similarity 81% with Ikoma, 80% with Ngurimi, 78% with Kuria, 50% with Gusii.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, E, Kuria (E.10) 
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Zaramo

[zaj] Few speakers (1991 Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer). Ethnic population: 656,730 (2000). East central coast, Pwani Region, Kisarawe and Bagamoyo districts, between Bagamoyo and Dar es Salaam. Alternate names: Zalamo, Kizaramo, Dzalamo, Zaramu, Saramo, Myagatwa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 68% with Kutu, 65% with Kami, 61% with Kwere and Doe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Zigula

[ziw] 355,000 (1993 Johnstone). Pwani Region, Bagamoyo District; Tanga Region, northeastern, Maasai Steppe. Alternate names: Zigua, Zigwa, Kizigula, Zeguha, Zigoua, Zegura, Seguha, Wazegua, Wayombo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 83% with Ngulu, 75% with Bondei, 68% with Shambala, 70% with Doe, 62% with Kwere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Zigula-Zaramo (G.30) 
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Zinza

[zin] 138,000 (1987). Southwest shore of Lake Victoria and neighboring islands. Alternate names: Echijinja, Echidzindza, Ecizinza, Dzinda, Jinja, Zinja, Dzindza, Kizinza.  Dialects: Longo, Kula. Lexical similarity 81% with Nyambo and Nyankore, 78% with Haya, 76% with Kerewe, 75% with Chiga, 67% with Nyoro and Toro.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Extinct languages

Kw'adza

[wka] Extinct. Mbulu District. Alternate names: Qwadza.  Dialects: Related to Iraqw.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South 
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