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Languages of USA

See language map.
United States of America. 293,027,571. Population includes 1,900,000 American Indians, Inuits, and Aleut, not all speaking indigenous languages (1990 census). National or official languages: Hawaiian (in Hawaii), Spanish (in New Mexico). Literacy rate: 95% to 99%. Also includes Adyghe (3,000), Armenian (1,100,000), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (80,000), Bahamas Creole English, Bahnar, Balkan Romani, Basque (8,108), Belarusan (70,808), Belize Kriol English (40,000), Bengali, Breton (32,722), Bukharic (50,000), Bulgarian, Burmese (1,581), Cajonos Zapotec, Carpathian Romani (18,000), Catalan-Valencian-Balear (40,000), Cebuano, Central Khmer (50,000), Chaldean Neo-Aramaic (80,000), Chru, Corsican, Crimean Turkish, Czech (1,452,812), Danish (194,000), Eastern Cham, Eastern Frisian, Eastern Kanjobal, Eastern Mnong, Eastern Panjabi (100,000), Eastern Yiddish (1,250,000), El Nayar Cora, Estonian (26,610), Fijian Hindustani, Finnish (266,096), French (1,100,000), Garifuna (65,000), Georgian (757), Gheg Albanian (79,829), Greek (458,699), Gujarati, Guyanese Creole English, Haitian Creole French (200,000), Hakka Chinese, Hebrew, Hiligaynon, Hindi (26,253), Hmong Daw (70,000), Hmong Njua (100,000), Hulaulá, Hungarian (447,497), Icelandic (9,768), Ilocano, Indonesian, Irish Gaelic, Italian (906,000), Iu Mien (24,000), Japanese (804,000), Jarai, Judeo-Tunisian Arabic, Kabardian (2,000), Kabuverdianu (400,000), Kalmyk-Oirat, Karachay-Balkar, Khmu, Khuen, Klao, Koho, Korean (1,800,000), Ladin, Ladino, Lahu Shi (2,000), Lao (171,577), Latvian (50,000), Laven, Laz, Lithuanian, Lombard, Luxembourgeois (20,618), Mal, Malay (6,253), Maltese, Mandarin Chinese, Mezquital Otomi, Min Nan Chinese, Mixtepec Mixtec, Najdi Spoken Arabic (193,520), Northern Kurdish, Northern Uzbek, Nung, Parsi (75,000), Peñoles Mixtec, Phu Thai, Piemontese, Pingelapese (500), Polish (3,398,763), Pontic, Portuguese (1,313,424), Rade, Rapa Nui, Romanian (56,590), Samoan (63,104), San Juan Guelavía Zapotec (500), Scottish Gaelic, Senaya (400), Serbian (169,938), Shelta (50,000), Sherpa (500), Silacayoapan Mixtec, Sindhi, Slovak, Slovenian (82,321), South Azerbaijani, Southwestern Caribbean Creole English, Standard German (6,093,054), Swahili (3,991), Swedish (626,102), Sylheti, Tagalog (377,000), Tai Daeng, Tai Dam (3,000), Tatar (7,000), Tày, Thai (14,416), Tibetan (3,000), Tokelauan, Tondano, Tongan (3,000), Tosk Albanian, Traveller Scottish, Turkish (24,123), Turkmen, Turoyo (5,000), Ukrainian (844,026), Upper Guinea Crioulo (156,000), Upper Ta'oih, Uyghur, Vietnamese (859,000), Vlax Romani (650,000), Western Bru, Western Cham (3,000), Western Farsi (900,000), Western Kanjobal, Western Panjabi, Yalálag Zapotec, Yatzachi Zapotec, Yoruba, Yue Chinese, Zoogocho Zapotec (400), Arabic (3,000,000), Chinese (1,645,000), from the Philippines (1,405,000), South Asians (634,000), speakers of other African, Asian, European, Latin American, and Pacific languages. Approximately (1,000,000) Gypsies use a variety of Romani as first or second language (1980 census). Information mainly from W. Chafe 1962, 1965; L. Campbell and M. Mithun 1979; C. A. Callaghan 1998; M-L Tarpent and D. Kendall 1998; SIL 1951–2003. Blind population: 500,000. Deaf population: nearly 2,000,000 (1988). Deaf institutions: Many. The number of languages listed for USA is 238. Of those, 162 are living languages, 3 are second language without mother-tongue speakers, and 73 are extinct.

Living languages

Achumawi

[acv] 10 nonfluent speakers (1997 Nevin). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1997 Bruce Nevin). Northeastern California. Alternate names: Achomawi, Pitt River.  Dialects: Originally there were nine dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Palaihnihan  Nearly extinct.
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Afro-Seminole Creole

[afs] Population total all countries: 200. Bracketville, Texas. Also spoken in Mexico. Alternate names: Afro-Seminole, Seminole, Black Seminole.  Dialects: Texas, Mexico. Separated from coastal Sea Islands Creole between 1690 and 1760. Similar to Sea Islands Creole of USA and Bahamas Creole. Lexical similarity 90% with Sea Islands Creole.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
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Ahtena

[aht] 80 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska, Copper River above the Eyak River at its mouth, and upper Susitna and Nenana drainages. 8 communities. Alternate names: Atna, Ahtna, Copper River, Mednovskiy.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanaina-Ahtna  Nearly extinct.
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Alabama

[akz] 100 (1997 Timothy Montler). Ethnic population: 500 to 600 (1990 Heather Hardy). Alabama-Coushatta Reservation near Livingston in southeastern Texas. No speakers left in Oklahoma. Alternate names: Alibamu.  Dialects: Less than 50% cognate with Koasati.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
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Aleut

[ale] 300 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 490. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Western Aleut on Atka Island (Aleutian Chain); Eastern Aleut on eastern Aleutian Islands, Pribilofs, and Alaskan Peninsula. Also spoken in Russia (Asia). Dialects: Western Aleut (Atkan, Atka, Attuan, Unangany, Unangan), Eastern Aleut (Unalaskan, Pribilof Aleut).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut 
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Amerax

[aex]   Classification: Unclassified 
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American Sign Language

[ase] 100,000 to 500,000 primary users (1986 Gallaudet Univ.) out of nearly 2,000,000 profoundly deaf persons in the USA (1988), 0.8% of the USA population. 15,000,000 hard of hearing persons in the USA (1989 Sacks). Also used in varying degrees in Canada, Philippines, Ghana, Nigeria, Chad, Burkina Faso, Gabon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritania, Kenya, Madagascar, Benin, Togo, Zimbabwe, Singapore, China (Hong Kong). Also used in Canada, Guatemala. Alternate names: ASL, Ameslan.  Dialects: Black American Sign Language, Tactile Sign Language. In Canada there are dialect differences with USA ASL and regional differences from east to west. Structurally and grammatically distinct from Quebec Sign Language (LSQ). Has grammatical characteristics independent of English. A few adults know both ASL and LSQ. Most signers from eastern Canada use ASL with some British Sign Language vocabulary, a remnant from Maritime Sign Language, which came from British Sign Language. Black American Sign Language developed in segregated schools in the south. It contains much sign vocabulary not in ASL and some different grammatical structure. Tactile Sign Language is used by over 900 persons in Louisiana who know ASL, but have lost their sight from a generic cause: Usher's Syndrome. They communicate by touch on each other's wrists. Some have migrated to Seattle. Some have learned Braille. ASL has 43% lexical similarity with French Sign Language in an 872-word list.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Angloromani

[rme] 100,000 in North America.  Alternate names: English Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romanis.  Classification: Mixed Language, English-Romani 
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Apache, Jicarilla

[apj] 812 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Northern New Mexico, area of Dulce. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache 
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Apache, Kiowa

[apk] 18 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Western Oklahoma, Caddo County. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Kiowa Apache  Nearly extinct.
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Apache, Lipan

[apl] 2 or 3 (1981 R. W. Young). Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). New Mexico, Mescalero Reservation. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache  Nearly extinct.
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Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua

[apm] 1,800 (1977 SIL). Population includes 279 Chiricahua speakers (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,395 (2000). Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico. A small number of Chiricahua at Ft. Sill, Oklahoma. Dialects: Chiricahua, Mescalero.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Eastern Apache 
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Apache, Western

[apw] 12,693 (1990 census). 303 in San Carlos. East central Arizona, several reservations. Alternate names: Coyotero.  Dialects: White Mountain, San Carlos, Cibecue, Tonto.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Western Apache-Navajo 
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Arapaho

[arp] 1,038 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1977 SIL). Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, and associated with the Cheyenne in western Oklahoma. Alternate names: Arrapahoe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho 
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Arikara

[ari] 20 (1997 Parks). Ethnic population: 3,000. Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. Alternate names: Arikari, Arikaris, Arikaree, Ree, Ris.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Pawnee  Nearly extinct.
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Assiniboine

[asb] Ethnic population: 1,983 (2000). Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations, Montana. Alternate names: Assiniboin, Hohe.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Atsugewi

[atw] 3 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). 1,350 with Achumawi (2000 A. Yamamoto). Northeastern California. Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Palaihnihan  Nearly extinct.
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Blackfoot

[bla] 100 in the USA (2001 Goddard). Ethnic population: 5,000 to 8,000 in USA (2001 Ives Goddard). Blackfeet Reservation, Montana. Alternate names: Pikanii, Blackfeet.  Dialects: Piegan (Peigan).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
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Caddo

[cad] 25 (1997 Chafe). Ethnic population: 3,371 (1997 W. Chafe). Western Oklahoma, Caddo County. Formerly in northeastern Texas, extending into southwestern Arkansas. Alternate names: Kado, Caddoe, Kadohadacho.  Dialects: Related to Pawnee, Wichita, and two extinct languages: Kitsai and Adai.  Classification: Caddoan, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Cahuilla

[chl] 7 to 20 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 35 (1990 census). Southern California, San Gorgonio Pass and Mohave Desert areas. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Cahuilla-Cupeno  Nearly extinct.
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Cayuga

[cay] 10 in the USA (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Cattaraugus Reservation, western New York, and formerly in northeastern Oklahoma. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
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Cherokee

[chr] 15,000 to 22,500. 130 monolinguals. Population includes 14,000 speakers on Oklahoma rolls (1986 Durbin Feeling, Cherokee Nation, OK), 1,000 in North Carolina (1997 Robin Sabino). Ethnic population: 308,132 (1990 census) including 70,000 on Oklahoma rolls (1986 D. Feeling), 9,800 in Eastern Band (1997 Robin Sabino). Eastern and northeastern Oklahoma and Cherokee Reservation, Great Smokey Mountains, western North Carolina. Alternate names: Tsalagi, Tslagi.  Dialects: Elati (Lower Cherokee, Eastern Cherokee), Kituhwa (Middle Cherokee), Otali (Upper Cherokee, Western Cherokee, Overhill Cherokee), Overhill-Middle Cherokee.  Classification: Iroquoian, Southern Iroquoian 
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Chetco

[ctc] 5 (1962 Chafe). Ethnic population: 100 possibly (1977 SIL). Southern coast, Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
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Cheyenne

[chy] 1,721 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Northern Cheyenne Reservation, southeastern Montana; associated with Arapaho in western Oklahoma. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
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Chickasaw

[cic] 1,000 (1987 Munro and Willmond). Ethnic population: 35,000 to 37,000 (1999 Chickasaw nation). Principally in south central Oklahoma, from Byng or Happyland (near Ada) in the north, and from Davis or Ardmore in the west to Fillmore and Wapanucka in the east. Some in Los Angeles, California. Dialects: Choctaw speakers find Chickasaw to be unintelligible.  Classification: Muskogean, Western 
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Chinook

[chh] 12 speakers of Kiksht dialect (1996). Ethnic population: 300 possibly (1977 SIL). Lower Columbia River, Oregon, and Washington. Alternate names: Lower Chinook.  Dialects: Klatsop (Tlatsop), Clackama, Kiksht.  Classification: Penutian, Chinookan  Nearly extinct.
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Chinook Wawa

[chn] 17 in the USA (1990 census). Formerly used along the Pacific coast from Oregon to Alaska. All speakers are probably now scattered. Alternate names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Tsinuk Wawa.  Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian  Nearly extinct.
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Chippewa

[ciw] 5,000. Ethnic population: 103,826 in USA (1990 Census Bureau). Upper Michigan westward to North Dakota. Alternate names: Southwestern Ojibwa, Ojibwe, Ojibway.  Dialects: Upper Michian-Wisconsin Chippewa, Central Minnesota Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa) in Ontario.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Choctaw

[cho] 9,211 (2000). Ethnic population: 120,400 including 111,400 in Oklahoma (1998 Choctaw Language Department, Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma). Principally in southeastern Oklahoma (McCurtain County) and east central Mississippi. Some in Louisiana and Tennessee. Dialects: Recent reports indicate that Choctaw speakers find Chickasaw to be unintelligible.  Classification: Muskogean, Western 
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Clallam

[clm] 10 (1997 Timothy Montler). Ethnic population: Several thousands (1997 T. Montler). Washington, northeastern Olympic Peninsula, Port Angeles. Alternate names: Klallam, S'klallam, Na'klallam.  Dialects: Close to Saanich.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
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Cocopa

[coc] 150 in the USA (1994 L. Hinton). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 321 in the USA (1990). Lower Colorado River south of Yuma, Arizona. The majority live in Baja California, Mexico. Alternate names: Kikima, Cucapá, Cocopah, Kwikapa, Delta River Yuman.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Coeur d'Alene

[crd] 5 (1999 R. McDonald). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Northern Idaho, Coeur d'Alene Reservation. Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Columbia-Wenatchi

[col] 75 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). Population includes 39 Columbia speakers (1990 census). Ethnic population: 500 possibly (1977 SIL). North central Washington, Colville Reservation. Alternate names: Wenatchi-Columbia.  Dialects: Columbia (Sinkiuse, Columbian), Wenatchi (Wenatchee, Entiat, Chelan).  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
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Comanche

[com] 200 (2000). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000). Western Oklahoma. Dialects: Close to Shoshoni, Panamint.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central 
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Coos

[csz] 1 or 2 (1962 Chafe). Ethnic population: 250 (1977 SIL). Southern Oregon coast. Alternate names: Hanis.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Coosan  Nearly extinct.
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Cree, Plains

[crk] 100 in the USA (2001 I. Goddard). North central Montana, Rocky Boy Reservation. Alternate names: Western Cree.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Crow

[cro] 4,280 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 9,840 enrolled in the nation (1999 BIA). Southern Montana. Alternate names: Apsaalooke.  Dialects: Close to Hidatsa.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Missouri Valley 
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Dakota

[dak] 15,355 in the USA (1990 census). 31 monolinguals (1990 census). Population includes 250 speakers of Yanktonais (1997 Douglas Parks). Population total all countries: 20,355. Ethnic population: Includes 5,000 Yanktonais (1997 D. Parks). Northern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, North and South Dakota, northeastern Montana. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Sioux.  Dialects: Dakota (Dakhota, Santee, Santee-Sisseton), Nakota (Nakoda, Yankton, Yankton-Yanktonais). Lexical similarity 83% to 86% with Stoney, 89% to 94% with Assiniboine, 90% to 95% among dialects.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Degexit'an

[ing] 20 to 30 (1997 Sharon Hargus). Ethnic population: 250 to 300 (1997 M. Krauss). Alaska, Shageluk, Anvik, and Athapaskans at Holy Cross, below Grayling on the Yukon River. Alternate names: "Ingalik", "Ingalit", Deg Xinag, Deg Xit'an.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Ingalik  Nearly extinct.
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English

[eng] 210,000,000 in the USA (1984). 8,400,000 USA residents 14 years old or older who do not speak fluent English; 38% or 7,700,000 households headed by immigrants.  Dialects: Black English.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Eyak

[eya] 1 (1996 N. Barnes). Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss). Mouth of the Copper River, Alaska. Last speaker lives in Anchorage. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Eyak  Nearly extinct.
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French, Cajun

[frc] 1,000,000 (1988 Harris). Southern Louisiana west of the Mississippi as far north as Avoyelles, Evangeline, Allen, and Calcasieu parishes. Alternate names: Français Acadien, Acadian, Cajun, Cajan, Cadien.  Dialects: Marsh French, Prairie French, Big Woods French. Ancestors came from French Canada in the 18th century. It is reported that Cajun speakers can partially understand Standard French. Different from the variety of 'Broken French' used by 8,000 African Americans, or the 'Napoleanic Era French' (located around Houma and north of Theriot on Hwy. 315, speaking an archaic French and English).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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German, Hutterite

[geh] 5,000 in the USA (1981 SIL). 123 colonies in USA (South Dakota 53, North Dakota 6, Minnesota 9, Montana 34, Washington State 6, and Oregon 1). Alternate names: Tyrolese, Tirolean, Hutterian German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian 
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German, Pennsylvania

[pdc] 85,000 in the USA (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 100,000. Ethnic population: 200,000 (1978 Kloss and McConnell). Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, Virginia, West Virginia, and Florida, and new communities in other states. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvanish, Pennsylvania Dutch.  Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pensylvanisch Deitsch, Non-Plain Pennsylvania German). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible now to a person from the Palatinate (Kloss 1978).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German 
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Gros Ventre

[ats] 10 (1977 SIL). Very few semispeakers in 2000 (2001 Goddard). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). Fort Belknap Reservation, Milk River, north central Montana. Alternate names: Gros Ventres, Atsina, White Clay People, Ahahnelin, Ahe, Fall Indians, Ananin.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho  Nearly extinct.
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Gwich'in

[gwi] 300 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 1,100 (1995 M. Krauss). Northeastern Alaska on Yukon River and tributaries. 5 villages: Fort Yukon, Chalkyitsik, Birch Creek, Venetie, and Arctic Village. Alternate names: Kutchin.  Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich'in, Arctic Village Gwich'in, Western Canada Gwich'in (Takudh, Tukudh, Loucheux), Arctic Red River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin 
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Haida, Northern

[hdn] 15 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 600 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Southern tip of Alaska panhandle, southern half of Prince of Wales Island, Hydaburg, Kasaan, Craig, and Ketchikan. Alternate names: Masset.  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
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Halkomelem

[hur] 25 in the USA (1997 Galloway). Ethnic population: 5,267 (1997 Galloway). Washington. Alternate names: Holkomelem.  Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Halkomelem 
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Han

[haa] 7 or 8 in Alaska (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 14. Ethnic population: 300. Yukon River in area of Alaska-Canada border, Eagle, Alaska. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Han-Kutchin, Moosehide, Dawson.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin  Nearly extinct.
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Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai

[yuf] 2,693 (1990 census). Population includes 530 Havasupai speakers (2000 Yamamoto), 1,000 Walapai speakers (2000 Yamamoto), 163 Yavapai speakers. Ethnic population: 3,857 including 565 Havasupai, 1,872 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (2000). Central and northwestern Arizona. The Walapai are on top of the south rim of the Grand Canyon, the Havasupai at the bottom. Alternate names: Upper Colorado River Yuman, Upland Yuman.  Dialects: Walapai (Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Havasupai, Yavapai. 78% to 98% intelligibility among the dialects. Lexical similarity 91% to 95% among the dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Upland Yuman 
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Hawai'i Creole English

[hwc] 600,000 (1986 Forman). Population includes 100,000 to 200,000 who have low proficiency in Standard English and near Standard English (1986 Forman). Another 100,000 speakers on the USA mainland. All the Hawaiian Islands, USA mainland (especially the west coast, Las Vegas, and Orlando). Alternate names: Pidgin, Hawai'i Pidgin, HCE.  Dialects: The basilect (heavy creole) is barely intelligible with Standard English (H. McKaughan and M. Forman 1982).  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Hawai'i Pidgin Sign Language

[hps] A few users out of about 6,000 profoundly deaf people in Hawaii (1987 Honolulu Star-Bulletin), 72,000 deaf or hard-of-hearing people in Hawaii (1998 Honolulu Advertiser). Hawaiian Islands. Alternate names: Pidgin Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
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Hawaiian

[haw] 1,000. 500 with Ni'ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 Laina Wong Univ. of Hawaii). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 Keith Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 first-language speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). Ethnic population: 400,000 in Hawaii (2003 Office of Hawaiian Affairs), 18.8% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Dept. of Health), and 99,269 ethnic Hawaiians on the USA mainland (1990 census), including 24,245 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,244 pure Hawaiian, 72,809 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,523 less than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 Wayne Harada). Hawaiian Islands, mainly Ni'ihau Island and the Big Island of Hawai'i, some on all the other islands. Alternate names: 'Olelo Hawai'i, 'Olelo Hawai'i Makuahine.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 79% with Rarotongan, 77% with Tuamotuan, 76% with Tahitian (Elbert), 71% with Maori (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan, 64% with Rapa Nui.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic 
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Hidatsa

[hid] 100 (1986 SIL). 6 monolinguals. 25 to 50 semifluent speakers. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1986 SIL). Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. Alternate names: Minitari, Hiraca, Hinatsa.  Dialects: Close to Crow.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Missouri Valley 
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Ho-Chunk

[win] 230 (1997 Valdis J. Zeps). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1995 V. Zeps). 822 enrolled in Nebraska (1968 USA BIA). Scattered locations in central Wisconsin and Winnebago Reservation in eastern Nebraska. Alternate names: Winnebago, Hocak Wazijaci, Hocák, Hocank, Hochank.  Dialects: Wisconsin, Nebraska.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Winnebago 
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Holikachuk

[hoi] 12 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 200 (1995 M. Krauss). Village of Grayling on lower Yukon River, Alaska. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Koyukon-Holikachuk  Nearly extinct.
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Hopi

[hop] 5,264 (1990 census). 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,500 (1977 SIL). Several villages in northeast Arizona, with small numbers in Utah and New Mexico. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Hopi 
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Hupa

[hup] 8 (1998 Brook). Ethnic population: 2,000. Hoopa Valley Reservation, northwestern California. Alternate names: Hoopa.  Dialects: Whilkut.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Hupa  Nearly extinct.
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Inupiatun, North Alaskan

[esi] Ethnic population: 8,000. Norton Sound and Point Hope, Alaska. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: North Alaskan Inupiat, Inupiat, "Eskimo".  Dialects: North Slope Inupiatun (Point Barrow Inupiatun), West Arctic Inupiatun, Point Hope Inupiatun, Anaktuvik Pass Inupiatun.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
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Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska

[esk] 4,000 (1978 SIL). Speakers of all Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 8,000 (1978 SIL). Alaska, Kobuk River, Noatak River, Seward Peninsula, and Bering Strait. Alternate names: Northwest Alaska Inupiat, Inupiatun, "Eskimo".  Dialects: Northern Malimiut Inupiatun, Southern Malimiut Inupiatun, Kobuk River Inupiatun, Coastal Inupiatun, Kotzebue Sound Inupiatun, Seward Peninsula Inupiatun, King Island Inupiatun (Bering Strait Inupiatun).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
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Jemez

[tow] 1,301 (1990 census). 6 monolinguals (1990). Ethnic population: 1,488 (1980 census). North central New Mexico. Alternate names: Towa.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Kiowa-Towa, Towa 
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Kalapuya

[kyl] 1 or 2 (1962 Chafe). Northwest Oregon. Alternate names: Santiam, Lukamiute, Wapatu.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Kalapuyan  Nearly extinct.
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Kalispel-Pend D'oreille

[fla] 200 (1997). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). Kalispel Reservation, northeast Washington, Flathead Reservation, northwest Montana. Alternate names: Kalispel-"Flathead", "Flathead"-Kalispel, Salish.  Dialects: Pend D'oreille, Kalispel.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
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Kansa

[ksk] 19 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 250 (1986 SIL). Oklahoma, north central. Alternate names: Kaw, Konze, Kanze.  Dialects: Close to Omaha, Osage, Ponca, Quapaw.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
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Karok

[kyh] 10 (1997 William Bright). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Northwestern California, along the banks of the Klamath River. Alternate names: Karuk.  Dialects: No significant dialect differences.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta  Nearly extinct.
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Kashaya

[kju] 45 (1994 L. Hinton).  Alternate names: Southwestern Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Kawaiisu

[xaw] 8 to 10 (2000 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 35 (2000 A. Yamamoto). California, south, Tehachapi-Mojave area of the Mojave Desert. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Keres, Eastern

[kee] 4,580. Population includes 463 Zia, 229 Santa Ana, 1,560 San Felipe, 1,888 Santo Domingo, 384 Cochiti. Ethnic population: 5,701 including 602 Zia, 374 Santa Ana, 1,789 San Felipe, 2,140 Santo Domingo, 796 Cochiti. North central New Mexico. Alternate names: Eastern Keres Pueblo.  Dialects: Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santo Domingo, Cochiti.  Classification: Keres 
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Keres, Western

[kjq] 3,391 (1980 census). Population includes 1,695 Laguna, 1,696 Acoma. Ethnic population: 5,880, including 3,526 Laguna, 2,354 Acoma (1980 census). New Mexico, north central. Alternate names: Western Keres Pueblo.  Dialects: Acoma (Laguna).  Classification: Keres 
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Kickapoo

[kic] 539 in the USA (1990 census). 6 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 839. Northeastern Kansas: Horton; central Oklahoma: McCloud, Jones; Texas: Nuevo Nacimiento. Also spoken in Mexico. Alternate names: Kikapoo, Kikapú.  Dialects: Possibly intelligible with Sac and Fox (Mesquakie).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Kiowa

[kio] 1,092 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1977 SIL). Oklahoma, west central. Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Kiowa-Towa, Kiowa 
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Klamath-Modoc

[kla] 1 (1998 N.Y. Times, April 9, p. A20). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 Scott DeLancey). Oregon, south central, around and to the east and north of Klamath and Agency lakes; Modoc directly to the south. Dialects: Closest to Molala and Sahaptian.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Klamath-Modoc  Nearly extinct.
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Koasati

[cku] 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 600, including 100 in Texas. Koasati Reservation near Elton, Louisiana, and Alabama-Koasati Reservation near Livingston, Texas. Others elsewhere; 1 family in Oregon. The language is no longer used in Oklahoma. Alternate names: Coushatta.  Dialects: The grammars of Koasati and Alabama are significantly different. Less than 50% cognate with Alabama.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
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Koyukon

[koy] 300 (1995 Krauss). Ethnic population: 2,300 (1995 Krauss). Alaska, Koyukuk and middle Yukon rivers. Alternate names: Ten'a.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Ingalik-Koyukon, Koyukon-Holikachuk 
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Kumiai

[dih] 75 in the USA (1994 L. Hinton). Population includes 50 Kumiai, 25 Ipai. Southern California east of San Diego, including some in Imperial Valley. Alternate names: Kumeyaay, Diegueño, Digueño, Campo, Kamia.  Dialects: Kimiai, Ipai, Tipai.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-Californian 
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Kuskokwim, Upper

[kuu] 40 (1995 Krauss). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (1995 Krauss). Nikolai, Telida, McGrath, Upper Kuskokwim River, central Alaska. Alternate names: Mcgrath Ingalik, Kolchan.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Upper Kuskokwim  Nearly extinct.
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Kutenai

[kut] 6 in the USA (2002). Northern Idaho, Flathead Reservation, Montana. Alternate names: Ktunaxa, Kootenai.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Lakota

[lkt] 6,000 in the USA (1987 SIL and 1997 Pustet). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1987 SIL and 1997 Pustet). 103,255 ethnic Sioux in USA (1990 Census Bureau). Northern Nebraska, southern Minnesota, North and South Dakota, northeastern Montana. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Lakhota, Teton.  Dialects: Brulé.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Louisiana Creole French

[lou] 60,000 to 80,000 (1985 Neumann). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon). Predominantly in St. Martin parish (St. Martinville, Breaux Bridge, Cecilia), New Roads and Edgard, Louisiana, parts of east Texas, small community in Sacramento, California. Dialects: Different from Standard French, the Cajun French also spoken in Louisiana, Haitian Creole French, and others of the Caribbean. "No slaves (and few if any of the slaveowners) appear to have come from the French Antilles....What we now need is a careful comparison between Louisiana Creole and other French Caribbean creoles, detailing the similarities and differences" (D. Bickerton, Carrier Pidgin 1995 23(2):2).  Classification: Creole, French based 
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Luiseño

[lui] 30 to 40 (2000 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southern California. Dialects: Juaneño (Ajachema, Ajachemem, Agachemem, Acgachemem), Luiseño.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Luiseno  Nearly extinct.
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Lushootseed

[lut] 60 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). Population evenly divided between the northern and southern dialects. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). Washington, Puget Sound area. Dialects: Northern Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish), Southern Lushootseed (Southern Puget Sound Salish). Northern Lushootseed includes subdialects Skagit, Snohomish, and Swinomish; southern Lushootseed includes Duwamish, Nisqually, Puyallup, and Suquamish.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana  Nearly extinct.
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Maidu, Northeast

[nmu] 1 to 2 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 108 (1990 census). California, northern Sierras, Plumas and Lassen counties. Alternate names: Mountain Maidu.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
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Maidu, Northwest

[mjd] 3 to 6 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Lower foothills of the Sierras, central California. The ethnic group is scattered. Alternate names: Holólupai, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba, Konkow, Konkau, Concow, "Digger".  Dialects: A separate language from other Maidu varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
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Malecite-Passamaquoddy

[pqm] 1,000 in the USA (1997 Teeter). Ethnic population: 2,500 to 3,000 (1997 Teeter). Maine, New Brunswick border area. Malecite mainly in Canada, Passamaquoddy mainly in Maine. Alternate names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy.  Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Mandan

[mhq] 6 (1992 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1986 SIL and 1997 M. Mixco). Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mandan  Nearly extinct.
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Maricopa

[mrc] 181 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Associated with the Pima on the Gila River and Salt River reservations near Phoenix, Arizona. Alternate names: Cocomaricopa.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Mohave, 58% with Havasupai, 57% with Walapai and Yavapai.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
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Menominee

[mez] 39. Ethnic population: 3,500 (1977 SIL). Northeastern Wisconsin, on what was formerly the Menomini Reservation. Alternate names: Menomini.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central  Nearly extinct.
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Mesquakie

[sac] 200 to 300 (2001 Goddard). A handful of Sauk speakers (2000 Ives Goddard). Ethnic population: 1,200. Mesquakie at Tama, Iowa; Sac and Fox at Sac and Fox Reservation on eastern Kansas-Nebraska border and central Oklahoma. Alternate names: Meskwakie, Sac And Fox, Sauk-Fox.  Dialects: Fox, Sac, Mesquakie. Kansas and Oklahoma groups are closely related to Kickapoo of Oklahoma and Mexico.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Michif

[crg] 390 in the USA (1990 census). Population total all countries: 990. Turtle Mountain Reservation, North Dakota. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: French Cree, Mitchif.  Dialects: Closest to Plains Cree. Several varieties in Canada.  Classification: Mixed Language, French-Cree 
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Micmac

[mic] 1,200 in the USA. Population includes 200 in Maine, and 1,000 largely in Boston. Northern Maine near Fort Fairfield, Boston, Massachusetts, and small scattered places elsewhere in the USA. Alternate names: Mi'gmaw, Miigmao, Mi'kmaw, Restigouche.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Mikasuki

[mik] 496 (1990 census). 33 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). Southern Florida. Alternate names: Hitchiti, Mikasuki Seminole, Miccosukee.  Dialects: Hitchiti, Mikasuki. Not intelligible with Creek, Alabama, or Koasati.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
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Miwok, Central Sierra

[csm] 12. Population includes 6 Eastern Central Sierra, 6 Western Central Sierra (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: Possibly 5,000 all Miwok (2000 Yamamoto). California, upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne. Dialects: Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. A separate language from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
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Miwok, Lake

[lmw] 1 to 2 (1994 L. Hinton). California, Clear Lake basin. Dialects: A separate language from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Western  Nearly extinct.
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Miwok, Northern Sierra

[nsq] 6 (1994 L. Hinton). California, upper valleys of Mokelumne and Calaveras rivers. Dialects: A separate language from other Miwok varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
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Miwok, Plains

[pmw] 1 (1962 H. Landar in Sebeok 1977). California, deltas of the San Joaquin and Cosumnes rivers. Alternate names: Valley Miwok.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Miwok, Southern Sierra

[skd] 7 Southern Central Sierra Miwok (1994 L. Hinton). California, along headwaters of the Merced and Chowchilla rivers and on Mariposa Creek. Alternate names: Meewoc, Mewoc, Me-Wuk, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern, Sierra  Nearly extinct.
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Mohave

[mov] 65 to 85 (1994 L. Hinton). Population includes 30 to 35 at Fort Mohave, 35 to 50 at Colorado River. Ethnic population: 767 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations on the California-Arizona border. Alternate names: Mojave.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 85% with Maricopa, 63% with Walapai and Havasupai, 62% with Yavapai.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
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Mohawk

[moh] 3,000 in the USA (1990 census and 1997 N. Bonvillain). Ethnic population: 6,000 in the USA (1997 Bonvillain, Mithun, Michelson). St. Regis Reservation, northern New York. Alternate names: Kanien'kehaka.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
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Mono

[mnr] 37 to 41 (1994 L. Hinton). Population includes 10 to 12 North Fork, 15 Auberry, 7 to 8 Big Sandy, 5 to 6 Dunlap, no Waksachi. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 A. Yamamoto). East central California. Alternate names: Monachi.  Dialects: Related to Northern Paiute.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western  Nearly extinct.
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Muskogee

[mus] 4,300 (1997 Pye). 43 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 Pye). Creek and Seminole of east central Oklahoma, Creek of southern Alabama, Seminole of Brighton Reservation, Florida. Alternate names: Creek.  Dialects: Creek, Seminole. Close to Mikasuki in Florida. The dialects are very similar.  Classification: Muskogean, Eastern 
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Navajo

[nav] 148,530 (1990 census). 7,616 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 219,198 (1990 USA Census Bureau). Northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, southeastern Utah, and a few in Colorado. Alternate names: Diné, Navaho.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Apachean, Navajo-Apache, Western Apache-Navajo 
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Nez Perce

[nez] 100 to 300 (1997 Haruo Aoki). Ethnic population: 2,700 (1997 Haruo Aoki). Northern Idaho. Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
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Nisenan

[nsz] 1 (1994 L. Hinton). Central California, scattered, foothills of the Sierras. Alternate names: Southern Maidu, Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Wapumni.  Dialects: A separate language from other Maidu varieties.  Classification: Penutian, Maiduan  Nearly extinct.
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Okanagan

[oka] 112 in the USA (1990 census). Colville Reservation, Washington. Alternate names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan.  Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil, Colville, Lake.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
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Omaha-Ponca

[oma] 85 (1986 SIL). Population includes 60 speakers of Omaha (1993 V. Zeps), and 25 fluent speakers over 60 and a few semifluent speakers of Ponca. Ethnic population: 5,000 including 3,000 of Omaha (1993 C. Rudin), and 2,000 of Ponca (1986 SIL). Omaha Reservation, eastern Nebraska (Omaha), and north central Oklahoma (Ponca). Alternate names: Mahairi, Ponka, Umanhan, Ppankka.  Dialects: Omaha, Ponca. Ponca and Omaha are completely inherently intelligible to each other's speakers, Close to Osage, Quapaw, and Kansa.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha 
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Oneida

[one] 50 in the USA (1991 M. Dale Kincade). 6 monolinguals. Central New York, eastern Wisconsin. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
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Onondaga

[ono] 15 in the USA (1993 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 1,000 in USA (1993 V. Zeps). Central New York south of Syracuse. Alternate names: Onandaga.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Onondaga 
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Osage

[osa] 5 (1991 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 15,000 (1997 Carolyn Quintero). North central Oklahoma. Alternate names: Wazhazhe.  Dialects: Close to Omaha, Ponca, Quapaw, and Kansa.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
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Ottawa

[otw] 10 monolinguals. Population includes 330 Ottawa, 5,065 Ojibwa in USA (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (Ottawa and Chippewa) in USA (1991 M. Dale Kincade). Lower Michigan and upper Michigan near Sault Ste. Marie. Alternate names: Odawa, Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwa, Ojibwe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Paiute, Northern

[pao] 1,631 (1999 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Northern Nevada and adjacent areas of Oregon, California, and Idaho. Spoken on about twenty reservations spread out over 1,000 miles. Alternate names: Paviotso.  Dialects: Bannock, North Northern Paiute (Mcdermitt), South Northern Paiute (Yerington-Schurz). Related to Mono. Almost every reservation has its own dialect. All dialects are inherently intelligible.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western 
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Panamint

[par] 20. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 John E. McLaughlin). The Panamint are in southeastern California, in and around southern Owens Valley around Owens Lake Coso Range, southwest of Darwin, and Little Lake area, southern Eureka Valley, southwest of Lida in Nevada, Saline Valley and eastern slopes of Inyo Mountains, Argus Range south of Darwin, northern Panamint Valley and Panamint Mountains north and central Death Valley, Grapevine Mountains and Funeral Range on California-Nevada border, west and southwest of Beatty, Nevada, Amargosa Desert, and area around Beatty. Alternate names: Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni, Koso, Coso, Koso Shoshone.  Dialects: Close to Shoshoni and Comanche. Not inherently intelligible with them.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central  Nearly extinct.
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Pawnee

[paw] 20 (1997 Parks). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 Parks). North central Oklahoma. Dialects: South Band, Skiri (Skidi). Close to Arikara, but not inherently intelligible with it. Kitsai is between Pawnee and Wichita, but closer to Pawnee.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Pawnee  Nearly extinct.
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Plains Indian Sign Language

[psd]  Great Plains of the USA. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Plains Sign Language.  Dialects: Some variation by ethnic group and region.  Classification: Sign language 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 11,974 in the USA (2000). Hillsboro, Kansas; Reedley, California; and Corn, Oklahoma. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Pomo, Central

[poo] 2 to 5 (1997 Mithun). Ethnic population: 4,766 (1997 Mithun). Clear Lake area, northern California. Alternate names: Ballo-Kai-Pomo, Cabanapo, Habenapo, H'hana, Kábinapek, Khabenapo, Khana, Kulanapan, Kulanapo, Venaambakaia, Venambakaiia, Yokaia.  Dialects: Point Arena, Hopland, Ukiah.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Pomo, Southeastern

[pom] 5 (1994 L. Hinton). California, eastern shores of Clear Lake. Alternate names: Lower Lake Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Southeastern  Nearly extinct.
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Pomo, Southern

[peq] 1 (1994 L. Hinton). California. Alternate names: Gallinoméro.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Potawatomi

[pot] 50 in the USA (1995 Potawatomi Language Institute). Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 Laura Buszard-Welcher). Southwestern and northern Michigan, northern Wisconsin and northeastern Kansas. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Pottawotomi.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Quapaw

[qua] 34 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL). Northeastern corner of Oklahoma. Alternate names: Arkansas, Alkansea, Capa, Ogaxpa.  Dialects: Close to Kansa, Omaha, Osage, and Ponca, all called 'Dhegiha'.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dhegiha  Nearly extinct.
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Quechan

[yum] 150 (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Ft. Yuma Reservation, southeastern corner of California. Alternate names: Kechan, Yuma, Quecl.  Dialects: Close to Maricopa and Mohave.  Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Yuman, River Yuman 
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Quileute

[qui] 10 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Pacific side of Olympic Peninsula in Washington. Dialects: Quileute, Hoh.  Classification: Chimakuan  Nearly extinct.
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Russian

[rus] 334,615 in the USA (1970 census).  Alternate names: Russki.  Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, East 
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Salish, Southern Puget Sound

[slh] 107 (1990 census). 5 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Southern end of Puget Sound, Washington. Dialects: Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Snoqualmie, Suquh.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
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Salish, Straits

[str]  Southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia and adjoining portions of Washington, including the islands in between. Alternate names: Straits.  Dialects: Saanich, Lummi, Samish, Sooke, Songish.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
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Sea Island Creole English

[gul] 250,000 (2000). 7,000 to 10,000 monolinguals. Population includes 10,000 in New York City (1989 Holm). Ethnic population: 250,000. Coastal region from Jacksonville, North Carolina to Jacksonville, Florida, and especially on the Sea Islands off the Georgia coast. Small clusters in New York City and Detroit. Alternate names: Gullah, Geechee.  Dialects: Northeast Florida Coast, Georgia, South Carolina. Intelligibility of other English-based creoles is undetermined. Very close to Bahamas Creole and Afro-Seminole. Lexical similarity 90% with Afro-Seminole.  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern 
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Seneca

[see] 150 in the USA (1997 Wallace Chafe). Population total all countries: 175. Ethnic population: 6,241 (1997 W. Chafe). Tonawanda, Cattaraugus, and Allegheny reservations in western New York, and mixed with Cayuga in northeastern Oklahoma. Also spoken in Canada. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
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Serrano

[ser] 1 (1994 Coker). Southern California, San Bernardino and San Gorgonio Pass area. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Serrano-Gabrielino  Nearly extinct.
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Shawnee

[sjw] 200 (2002 Pearson). Ethnic population: 2,500. Central and northeastern Oklahoma. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Shoshoni

[shh] 2,284 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL). The Western Shoshoni are in central to northeastern Nevada and Fort Hall Reservation in Idaho; Northern Shoshoni in Wind River Reservation, Wyoming, Goshute in western Utah. Alternate names: Shoshone.  Dialects: Gosiute (Goshute), Western Shoshoni, Northern Shoshoni. Wind River Shoshoni is a subdialect of Northern Shoshoni, spoken at Wind River Reservation. Close to Comanche and Panamint, which are not inherently intelligible with Shoshoni.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central 
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Skagit

[ska] 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). East side of Puget Sound, Washington. Alternate names: Swinomish.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
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Snohomish

[sno] 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Tulalip Reservation, northwestern Washington. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana  Nearly extinct.
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Spanish

[spa] 22,400,000 in the USA (1990 census). San Antonio, Texas to Los Angeles; Miami, Florida area; New York City; Illinois; Denver; other areas. Alternate names: Español, Castellano.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Spokane

[spo] 50 (1990). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Northeastern Washington. Alternate names: Spokan.  Dialects: Close to Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
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Tanacross

[tcb] 35 (1997 G. Holton). Population includes 3 in the Healy Lake dialect, 32 in Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Ethnic population: 120 (1997 G. Holton). Eastern Alaska, near the Upper Tanana, Tanacross, Healy Lake, Dot Lake, Tok. Dialects: Healy Lake, Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Little dialect variation. Mansfield-Ketchumstuck is the most important politically and numerically. Closest to Upper Tanana, but they have different tone systems.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
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Tanaina

[tfn] 75 (1997 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 900 (1997 M. Krauss). Around Cook Inlet and adjacent area of southern Alaska. Alternate names: Dena'ina, Kinayskiy.  Dialects: Kenai Peninsula, Upper Inlet, Coastal-Inland, Stoney River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanaina-Ahtna  Nearly extinct.
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Tanana, Lower

[taa] 30 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 380 (1995 M. Krauss). Tanana River below Fairbanks, Nenana, and Minto, central Alaska. Alternate names: Tanana.  Dialects: Chena, Salcha-Goodpaster.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
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Tanana, Upper

[tau] 105 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 115. Ethnic population: 300 in the USA (1995). Area of upper Tanana River, east central Alaska. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Nabesna.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana 
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Tenino

[tqn] 200 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon. Alternate names: Warm Springs.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
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Tewa

[tew] 1,298 (1980 census). 18 monolinguals (1990 census). Population includes 50 Nambe speakers, 25 Pojoaque, 349 San Ildefonso, 495 San Juan, 207 Santa Clara, 172 Tesuque (1980 census). Ethnic population: 2,383 including 175 Nambe, 37 Pojoaque, 478 San Ildefonso, 1,146 San Juan, 318 Santa Clara, 229 Tesuque (1980 census). North of Santa Fe, New Mexico and at Hano on the Hopi Reservation, Arizona. Dialects: Hano, San Juan, Nambe, Pojoaque, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Tesuque.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tewa 
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Tiwa, Northern

[twf] 927 (1980 census). Population includes 803 Taos speakers, 101 Picuris speakers (1990 census). Ethnic population: 1,166 (1980 census), including 1,042 Taos, 124 Picuris (1990 census). North central New Mexico. Dialects: Taos, Picuris.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
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Tiwa, Southern

[tix] 1,631 (1980 census). Population includes 1,588 Isleta speakers (1980 census). 43 Sandia speakers (1990 census) out of 220 population. Ethnic population: 2,469 (1980 census) including 2,249 Isleta, 220 Sandia (1990 census). New Mexico, pueblos of Isleta and Sandia, north and south of Albuquerque. Dialects: Sandia, Isleta (Isleta Pueblo).  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
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Tlingit

[tli] 700 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Population total all countries: 845. Ethnic population: 10,000 in the USA (1995 M. Krauss). Southeastern Alaska from Yakutat south to the Canadian border at Portland Canal. Also spoken in Canada. Alternate names: Thlinget, Tlinkit.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Tlingit 
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Tohono O'odham

[ood] 11,819 in the USA(1990 census). 181 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1977 SIL). South central Arizona. 60 villages on 7 reservations. Also spoken in Mexico. Alternate names: Papago-Pima, O'othham, Nevome, Nebome, O'odham, Upper Piman.  Dialects: Tohono O'odam ("Papago"), Akimel O'odham (Pima).  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Tepiman 
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Tolowa

[tol] 4 to 5 (1994 Hinton). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 Yamamoto). Southwestern Oregon. Alternate names: Smith River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
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Tsimshian

[tsi] 50 in the USA (2002). Ethnic population: 1,300 in USA (1995 M. Krauss). Tip of Alaska panhandle, (New) Metlakatla on Annette Island, some in Ketchikan. Alternate names: Sm'algyax, Tsimshean, Zimshian, Chimmezyan, Coast Tsimshian.  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
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Tübatulabal

[tub] 6. Ethnic population: 900 (2000 Yamamoto). South central California. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Tubatulabal  Nearly extinct.
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Tuscarora

[tus] 4 to 5 in the USA (1997 Mithun). Ethnic population: 1,200 in the USA (1997 Mithun). Tuscarora Reservation near Niagara Falls, New York, eastern North Carolina. Alternate names: Skarohreh.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway  Nearly extinct.
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Tututni

[tuu] 10 (1962 Chafe). Southwestern Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice  Nearly extinct.
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Umatilla

[uma] 50 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). Umatilla Reservation, Oregon. Alternate names: Columbia River Sahaptin.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
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Ute-Southern Paiute

[ute] 1,984 (1990 census). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Population includes 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (1994 L. Hinton). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1977 SIL). Ute in southwestern Colorado and southeastern and northeastern Utah; Southern Paiute in southwestern Utah, northern Arizona, and southern Nevada; Chemehuevi on lower Colorado River, California. Dialects: Southern Paiute, Ute, Chemehuevi.  Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern 
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Walla Walla

[waa] 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL). Umatilla Reservation, Oregon. Alternate names: Northeast Sahaptin.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
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Wasco-Wishram

[wac] 69 (1990 census). 7 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 750 possibly (1977 SIL). North central Oregon, south central Washington. Alternate names: Upper Chinook.  Classification: Penutian, Chinookan  Nearly extinct.
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Washo

[was] 10 (1998 J. Brooke). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). California-Nevada border southeast of Lake Tahoe. Alternate names: Washoe.  Classification: Hokan, Washo  Nearly extinct.
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Wichita

[wic] 3 (2000 Brian Levy). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 David S. Rood). West central Oklahoma. Dialects: Waco, Tawakoni. Close to Kitsai and Pawnee.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Wichita  Nearly extinct.
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Wintu

[wit] 5 or 6 (1997 Shepherd). Ethnic population: 2,244 (1997 Shepherd). California, Clear Lake and Colusa area and northward. Alternate names: Wintun.  Dialects: Wintu, Patwin, Nomlaki.  Classification: Penutian, California Penutian, Wintuan  Nearly extinct.
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Yakima

[yak] 3,000 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL). Yakima Valley, south central Washington. Dialects: Yakima, Klikitat.  Classification: Penutian, Plateau Penutian, Sahaptin 
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Yaqui

[yaq] 406 in the USA (1990 census). 2 monolinguals. Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona area. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Sonoran, Cahita 
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Yinglish

[yib]  Also spoken in United Kingdom. Alternate names: Ameridish.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Yokuts

[yok] 78 speakers of Northern Foothill Yokuts (1990 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). California, San Joaquin River and the slopes of the Sierra Nevada, San Joaquin Valley. Dialects: Northern Foothill Yokuts, Southern Foothill Yokuts, Valley Yokuts. Many subdialects.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Yokuts  Nearly extinct.
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Yuchi

[yuc] 10 to 12 (1997 Mary Linn). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). Among Creek people in east central Oklahoma. Alternate names: Uchean.  Classification: Language Isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Yupik, Central

[esu] 10,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 21,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Nunivak Island, Alaska coast from Bristol Bay to Unalakleet on Norton Sound and inland along Nushagak, Kuskokwim, and Yukon rivers. Alternate names: Central Alaskan Yupik.  Dialects: Kuskokwim Yupik (Bethel Yupik). There are 3 dialects, which are quite different.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan 
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Yupik, Central Siberian

[ess] 1,050 in the USA (1995 Krauss). Population total all countries: 1,350. Ethnic population: 1,050 in USA (1995 Krauss). St. Lawrence Island, Alaska; Gambell and Savonga villages, Alaska. Also spoken in Russia (Asia). Alternate names: St. Lawrence Island "Eskimo", Bering Strait Yupik.  Dialects: Chaplino.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Siberian 
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Yupik, Pacific Gulf

[ems] 400 (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island (Koniag dialect), Alaskan coast from Cook Inlet to Prince William Sound (Chugach dialect). 20 villages. Alternate names: Alutiiq, Sugpiak "Eskimo", Sugpiaq "Eskimo", Chugach "Eskimo", Koniag-Chugach, Suk, Sugcestun, Aleut, Pacific Yupik, South Alaska "Eskimo".  Dialects: Chugach, Koniag.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan 
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Yurok

[yur] 12 (2002 Goddard). Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,500 possibly (1982 SIL). Northwestern California. Classification: Algic, Yurok  Nearly extinct.
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Zuni

[zun] 9,651 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 9,651. New Mexico, reservation in southern McKinley County, south of Gallup. Alternate names: Zuñi, Shiwi'ma.  Classification: Language Isolate 
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Extinct languages

Abnaki, Eastern

[aaq] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,800 including Western Abnaki in Canada (1982 SIL). Formerly near Bangor, Maine, 1 village (Penobscot). Alternate names: Abenaki.  Dialects: Penobscot.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Alsea

[aes] Extinct. Oregon, on Alsea River and Bay. Alternate names: Alséya.  Dialects: Yaquina (Yakwina, Yakon, Yakona).  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Yakonan 
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Atakapa

[aqp] Extinct. Southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. Classification: Gulf 
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Barbareño

[boi] Extinct. Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
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Biloxi

[bll] Extinct. Lower Mississippi Valley. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Biloxi-Ofo 
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Carolina Algonquian

[crr] Extinct. Formerly spoken in northeastern North Carolina. Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
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Catawba

[chc] Extinct. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). Near Rock Hill, northern South Carolina. Dialects: There were several dialects.  Classification: Siouan, Catawba 
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Chehalis, Lower

[cea] Extinct. Southwestern coast of Washington. Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
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Chehalis, Upper

[cjh] Extinct. Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Washington, south of Puget Sound. Alternate names: Chehalis, Kwaiailk.  Dialects: A separate language from Lower Chehalis. Not to be confused with Halkomelem on the Chehalis River in British Columbia.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
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Chimakum

[cmk] Extinct. Washington State, Puget Sound side of Olympic Peninsula. Alternate names: Chemakum.  Classification: Chimakuan 
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Chimariko

[cid] Extinct. Ethnic population: No members of the ethnic group left (1997 K. Turner). Northwest California. Classification: Hokan, Northern 
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Chitimacha

[ctm] Extinct. Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Southern Louisiana. Classification: Gulf 
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Chumash

[chs] Extinct. Ethnic population: 156 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southern California coast near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Inherently unintelligible Chumash varieties formerly spoken included Obispeño, Ineseño, Purisimeño, Barbareño, Ventureño, and Cruzeño (Island Chumash, Isleño), named after the missions to which they were brought. Marianne Mithun says it is not Hokan.  Classification: Chumash 
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Coquille

[coq] Extinct. Southwestern Oregon, formerly on upper Coquille River. Alternate names: Upper Coquille, Mishikhwutmetunee.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice 
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Cowlitz

[cow] Extinct. Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. D. Kinkade). Southwestern Washington. Alternate names: Lower Cowlitz.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Inland 
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Cruzeño

[crz] Extinct. Formerly in Southern California, near Santa Barbara. Alternate names: Island Chumash, Isleño.  Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects.  Classification: Chumash 
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Cupeño

[cup] Extinct. Ethnic population: 700 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Southern California, near the Pala Reservation, north of Valley Center. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cupan, Cahuilla-Cupeno 
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Delaware, Pidgin

[dep] Extinct. Formerly in the Middle Atlantic region. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian 
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Esselen

[esq] Extinct. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Formerly on central California coast near Carmel. Classification: Hokan, Esselen-Yuman, Esselen 
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Galice

[gce] Extinct. Formerly in southwestern Oregon. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, Oregon, Tolowa-Galice 
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Ineseño

[inz] Extinct. Formerly in southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
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Iowa-Oto

[iow] Extinct. Ethnic population: 2,400, including 1,000 Iowa, 1,400 Oto (1986 SIL). Formerly in north central Oklahoma and Iowa Reservation, northeast Kansas. Dialects: Iowa (Baxoje, Ioway), Oto (Jiwere, Otoe, Jiwele, Chiwere), Niutaji (Nyut'chi, Missouri, Missouria).  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Chiwere 
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Karkin

[krb] Extinct. Formerly in north Central California. Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
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Kato

[ktw] Extinct. Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL). Formerly on the Laytonville Reservation, northwestern California. Alternate names: Cahto, Batem-Da-Kai-Ee, Kai Po-Mo, Tlokeang.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
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Kitsai

[kii] Extinct. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 Scott DeLancey). Formerly in west central Oklahoma among the Caddo, Caddo County. Alternate names: Kichai.  Dialects: Closer to Pawnee than to Wichita.  Classification: Caddoan, Northern, Pawnee-Kitsai, Kitsai 
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Lumbee

[lmz] Extinct. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL). Formerly in southern North Carolina and into South Carolina and Maryland. Alternate names: Croatan.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Unclassified 
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Mahican

[mjy] Extinct. Formerly on the Upper Hudson River and later in Wisconsin. Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
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Maidu, Valley

[vmv] Extinct. Formerly in California, between Sacramento and the Sierra foothills. Classification: Penutian, Maiduan 
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Makah

[myh] Extinct. Formerly on the northern tip of Olympic Peninsula, opposite Vancouver Island, Washington. Alternate names: Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht, Kweedishchaaht.  Classification: Wakashan, Southern 
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Martha's Vineyard Sign Language

[mre] Extinct. Formerly in Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. Alternate names: MVSL.  Dialects: The early sign language was based on a regional one in Weald, England, where the deaf persons' ancestors had lived. French Sign Language was introduced to Martha's Vineyard in 1817. MVSL was later combined with American Sign Language (ASL), but never became identical to ASL.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Mattole

[mvb] Extinct. Formerly in northern California. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
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Miami

[mia] Extinct. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Formerly in Miami in north central Indiana, Miami and Peoria in northeast Oklahoma, Illinois in Illinois and Iowa. Alternate names: Miami-Illinois, Miami-Myaamia, Illinois.  Dialects: Miami, Peoria.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Miwok, Bay

[mkq] Extinct. Formerly in northern California, San Francisco Bay. Alternate names: Saclan, Saklan.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Eastern 
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Miwok, Coast

[csi] Extinct. Formerly in California, coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. Dialects: Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Miwokan, Western 
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Mobilian

[mod] Extinct. Formerly in the lower Mississippi River valley area, south central USA. Alternate names: Mobilian Jargon.  Dialects: Muskogean-based pidgin, formerly used as lingua franca. Loanwords from Spanish, English, French, Creek, Alabama-Koasati, Choctaw, Chickasaw.  Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian 
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Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett

[mof] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,400 population (1977 SIL). Formerly in Connecticut, Rhode Island, Long Island, New York, Wisconsin. Dialects: Pequot-Mohegan, Narrangansett, Montauk (Shinnecock-Poosepatuck), Stockbridge.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Molale

[mbe] Extinct. Formerly in Washington and Oregon in the valley of the Deschutes River, later west into the Molala and Santiam River valleys, and to the headwaters of the Umpqua and Rogue rivers. Alternate names: Molele, Molala, Molalla.  Dialects: Not close to Cayuse as formerly thought.  Classification: Penutian, Unclassified 
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Nanticoke

[nnt] Extinct. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Formerly in southern Delaware and eastern Maryland. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Natchez

[ncz] Extinct. Formerly in Oklahoma. Classification: Gulf 
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Nawathinehena

[nwa] Extinct. Formerly spoken among the Arapaho. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains, Arapaho 
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Nooksack

[nok] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway). Formerly in the northwest corner of Washington. Alternate names: Nootsack.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Nooksack 
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Nottoway

[ntw] Extinct. Formerly in Southampton County, Virginia. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway 
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Obispeño

[obi] Extinct. Formerly in California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
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Ofo

[ofo] Extinct. Formerly in the lower Mississippi Valley. Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Biloxi-Ofo 
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Ohlone, Northern

[cst] Extinct. Formerly in north central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. Alternate names: "Costanoan".  Dialects: East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad.  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
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Ohlone, Southern

[css] Extinct. Formerly in north central California, Monterrey and San Benito counties. Alternate names: "Costanoan".  Dialects: Monterey, Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Runsien, San Carlos, Carmel).  Classification: Penutian, Yok-Utian, Utian, Costanoan 
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Piro

[pie] Extinct. Formerly in Socorro, left bank of Rio Grande, USA, and Senecu, right bank, Mexico. Alternate names: Tompiro.  Classification: Kiowa Tanoan, Tewa-Tiwa, Tiwa 
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Piscataway

[psy] Extinct. Formerly spoken in Maryland. Alternate names: Conoy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian 
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Pomo, Eastern

[peb] Extinct. Formerly in California, Clear Lake area. Alternate names: Clear Lake Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Eastern 
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Pomo, Northeastern

[pef] Extinct. Formerly in California, Coast Range Valley of Story Creek; a tributary of the Sacramento River. Alternate names: Salt Pomo.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Northeastern 
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Pomo, Northern

[pej] Extinct. Formerly in California, Sherwood Valley area. Dialects: Guidiville, Sherwood Valley.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Pomo, Russian River and Eastern, Russian River, Northern 
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Powhatan

[pim] Extinct. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Formerly scattered in eastern Virginia and Powhatan Renape Nation, Rankokus Indian Reservation, Rancocas, New Jersey. Alternate names: Virginia Algonkian, Virginia Algonquian.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Purisimeño

[puy] Extinct. Formerly in southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties.  Classification: Chumash 
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Quinault

[qun] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1977 SIL). Formerly on the Pacific side of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington. Dialects: Lower Chehalis.  Classification: Salishan, Tsamosan, Maritime 
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Salinan

[sln] Extinct. Ethnic population: Hundreds (1997 K. Turner). Formerly in California, central coast. Dialects: There were two dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Salinan-Seri 
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Shasta

[sht] Extinct. Ethnic population: 12 (1990 census). Formerly in northern California. Alternate names: Sastean, Shastan.  Dialects: Formerly there were four dialects.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Karok-Shasta, Shasta-Palaihnihan, Shastan 
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Siuslaw

[sis] Extinct. Formerly on the southern Oregon coast. Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Coast Oregon, Siuslawan 
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Susquehannock

[sqn] Extinct. Formerly along the Susquehanna River. Alternate names: Susquehanna, Conestoga, Andaste, Minqua.  Classification: Iroquoian 
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Takelma

[tkm] Extinct. Formerly on the middle course of the Rogue River, Oregon. Alternate names: Takilma, Lowland Takelma.  Dialects: May be in a Takelma-Kalapuyan subgroup, but not conclusive.  Classification: Penutian, Oregon Penutian, Takelma 
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Tillamook

[til] Extinct. Formerly in northwestern Oregon. Classification: Salishan, Tillamook 
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Tonkawa

[tqw] Extinct. North central Oklahoma. Classification: Coahuiltecan 
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Tunica

[tun] Extinct. Central Louisiana. Classification: Gulf 
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Tutelo

[tta] Extinct. Formerly in the lower Mississippi Valley. Alternate names: Saponi.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Southeastern, Tutelo 
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Twana

[twa] Extinct. Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). East of Puget Sound, Washington. Alternate names: Skokomish.  Dialects: Skokomish, Quilcene.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Twana 
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Unami

[unm] Extinct. Ethnic population: 13,500 (1997 J. Rementer). Formerly in northeastern and west central Oklahoma, northern New Jersey, and lower Delaware Valley. Alternate names: Delaware, Lenni-Lenape, Lenape, Tla Wilano.  Dialects: Related to Munsee in Ontario.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Ventureño

[veo] Extinct. Formerly in southern California, near Santa Barbara. Dialects: Was not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects.  Classification: Chumash 
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Wailaki

[wlk] Extinct. Formerly on the Round Valley Reservation, northern California. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Pacific Coast, California, Mattole-Wailaki 
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Wampanoag

[wam] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). Southeastern Massachusetts. Alternate names: Massachusett, Massachusetts, Natick.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Wappo

[wao] Extinct. Ethnic population: 50 (1977 SIL). California, north of the San Francisco Bay area. Classification: Yuki 
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Wiyot

[wiy] Extinct. Ethnic population: 450 (2000 Yamamoto) to 800 (1997 Teeter). Formerly in northwestern California. Classification: Algic, Wiyot 
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Wyandot

[wya] Extinct. Ethnic population: 3,200 (1997 Bruce L. Pearson). Formerly in northeastern Oklahoma. Alternate names: Wendat, Wyendat, Wyandotte.  Dialects: Huron, Wyandot.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Huron 
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Yana

[ynn] Extinct. Formerly in the Upper Sacramento Valley, California. Dialects: Northern Yana, Central Yana, Southern Yana, Yahi.  Classification: Hokan, Northern, Yana 
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Yuki

[yuk] Extinct. Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Formerly on the Round Valley Reservation, northern California. Classification: Yuki 
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