Archived 15th edition
Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Asia > Viet Nam

Languages of Viet Nam

See language map.
Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Cong Hoa Xa Hoi Chu Nghia Viet Nam. 82,689,518. Population includes 54 official ethnic communities. 56,849,370 or 94% speakers of Austro-Asiatic languages, 2,255,450 or 3.7% speakers of Daic languages, 679,000 or 1.1% speakers of Miao-Yao languages, 492,000 or 0.8% speakers of Austronesian languages, 40,000 speakers of Tibeto-Burman languages (1991 J. Matisoff). National or official language: Vietnamese. Literacy rate: 78% to 88%. Also includes Mandarin Chinese, Northern Dong. Information mainly from C. P. Miller 1964, 1966; M. Barker 1966; D. Thomas 1966, 1969, 1976, 1980; D. Thomas and R. Headley, Jr. 1970; F. Lebar, G. Hickey, J. Musgrave 1964; K. Smith 1968; J. A. Edmondson and D. B. Solnit 1997. Blind population: 200,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of languages listed for Viet Nam is 103. Of those, 102 are living languages and 1 is extinct.

Living languages

Akha

[ahk] 1,261 in Viet Nam (1995 Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, Hanoi). Quang Binh and Quang Tri Provinces both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, northeast of Phuc Trach. Alternate names: Kaw, Ekaw, Ikaw, Aka, Ak'a, Ahka, Ko, Khako, Kha Ko, Khao Ikor, Aini, Yani.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
More information.

Arem

[aem] 20 in Viet Nam (1996 Ferlus). Population total all countries: 40. Ethnic population: 100 in Viet Nam (1996 Ferlus). Tan Trach and one or two families of Thuong Trach in Bo Trach District, Quang Binh Province. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: A-Rem, Chomrau, Chombrau, Umo.  Dialects: Other dialects or ethnic names: Tu-vang, Pa-leng, Xo-lang, To-hung, Chà-cu, Tac-cui, Nhà Chút.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Bahnar

[bdq] 158,456 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Gia Lai, Kon Tum, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen provinces, central highlands. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Bana.  Dialects: Tolo, Golar, Alakong (A-La Cong), Jolong (Gio-Lang, Y-Lang), Bahnar Bonom (Bomam), Kontum, Krem. Other dialects or ethnic names: Roh, Kpang Cong. Closest to Alak 1, Tampuan, and Lamam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
More information.

Brao

[brb] 313 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Kon Tum Province, Cambodia-Laos border area. Alternate names: Brau, Braou, Proue, Brou, Love, Lave, Laveh, Rawe.  Dialects: Palau.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet 
More information.

Bru, Eastern

[bru] 55,559 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Quang Binh, Quang Tri, and Dac Lac provinces. Alternate names: Bru, Brou, Van Kieu, Quang Tri Bru.  Dialects: Mangkong, Tri.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
More information.

Cao Lan

[mlc] 147,315 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 187,315. The San Chay are mainly concentrated in Tuyen Quang, Bac Can, and Thai Nguyen provinces. They are also found scattered in certain areas of Yen Bai, Vinh Phuc, Phu Tho, Bac Giang, and Quang Ninh provinces. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Caolan, San Chay, San Chi, "Man Cao-Lan", Sán-Chi, "Mán", Cao Lan-Sán Chi.  Dialects: Maintains some features from Northern Tai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

Cham, Eastern

[cjm] 72,873 in Viet Nam (2002). Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan, Dong Nai provinces and Ho Chi Minh City. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Tjam, Chiem, Chiem Thành, Bhamam.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru 
More information.

Cham, Western

[cja] 25,000 in Viet Nam. Population includes 4,000 in Saigon. An Giang and Tay Ninh provinces and Ho Chi Minh City. Alternate names: Cambodian Cham, Tjam, Cham, New Cham, Chiem.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru 
More information.

Chinese, Yue

[yue] 862,371 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Soc Trang, Can Tho, Vinh Long, Tra Vinh, Dong Nai, and Kieng Giang provinces and in the cities of Ho Chi Minh, Hanoi, and Haiphong, and along the northern Viet Nam-China border regions. Alternate names: Suòng Phóng, Quang Dong, Hai Nam, Ha Xa Phang, Minh Huong, Chinese Nung, Nung, Lowland Nung, Hoa, Han, Trièu Chau, Phúc Kién, Liem Chau, Samg Phang.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
More information.

Chrau

[crw] 22,567 (1999 census). Few monolinguals. Dòng Nai Province. The Tamun group live in Tayninh and Binhlong provinces. Alternate names: Chauro, Choro, Ro, Tamun.  Dialects: Jro, Dor (Doro), Prang, Mro, Voqtwaq, Vajieng, Chalah, Chalun, Tamun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau 
More information.

Chru

[cje] 14,978 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lam Dong and Binh Thuan provinces. Also spoken in France, USA. Alternate names: Churu, Choru, Chu Ru, Chu, Cru, Kru, Chrau Hma, Cadoe Loang, Seyu.  Dialects: Rai, Noang (La-Dang). Close to Cham.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Cham-Chru 
More information.

Chut

[scb] 3,829 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 4,279. Quang Binh Province, Thuong Hoa, Hoa Son, Dan Hoa communes, near the Laos border at the same latitude as Mu Gia Pass. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Sach, Salang, Ruc, May.  Dialects: Sach, May, Ruc ( Kha Mu Gia, Tac Cui).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
More information.

Côông

[cnc] 2,000 (2002 Edmondson). Lai Chau Province, Muong Te District, east of Sila, south of Mang. 4 villages at Ban Nam Luong in Xa Can Ho, Bo Lech in Xa Can Ho, Nam Kha Co area at Ban Bo, Muong Tong at Nam Ke near the Lao border. Alternate names: "Xa Coong", "Xa Xam", Khoong, "Xa Xeng".  Dialects: Quite different from Akha, Lahu, and Sila of this location. The northern and southern varieties in Viet Nam are different, but inherently intelligible to speakers. Bisu, Pyen, and Mpi are closely related.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Phunoi 
More information.

Cua

[cua] 27,766 (1999 census). Quang Ngai and Quang Nam provinces. Alternate names: Bong Miew, Bòng Mieu.  Dialects: Kol (Kor, Cor, Co, Col, Dot, Yot), Traw (Tràu, Dong).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong 
More information.

En

[enc] 200 (1998 Edmondson). Cao Bang Province, Noi Thon village, about 20 km directly east on foot from Ho Quang City, Ho Quang District. Alternate names: Nung Ven.  Dialects: Lexical similarity less than 50% with Laha, Qabiao (Laqua), Lachi, Gelao, Buyang, Hlai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Gelao, Green

[giq] 300 (2002 Edmondson). Yen Minh District, Pho La and Dong Van. Alternate names: Hoki Gelao, Cape Draping Gelao, Klau, Qau.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
More information.

Gelao, Red

[gir] 20. Yen Minh District. Alternate names: Voa Dê, Vandu Gelao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Gelao, White

[giw] 20 (2002 Edmondson). Yen Minh District, Pho La and Dong Van. Alternate names: Tú Du, Telue, Southwestern Gelao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Giáy

[pcc] 49,098 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lao Cai, Hà Giang, and Lai Chau provinces. Alternate names: Bouyei, Bo-Y, Bo-I, Buyi, Pu-I, Puyi, Pui, Chang Chá, Trong Ggia, Tu-Dìn, Nhaang, Nyang, Niang, Yai, Yay, Giai, Giang, Dang, Dioi, Pau Thin, Pú Nà, Pu-Nam, Cùi Chu, Xa Chung Chá, Chung Cha, Sa.  Dialects: Tu-Dí, Nhang, Pú Nà.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Northern 
More information.

Haiphong Sign Language

[haf]  Haiphong. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Halang

[hal] 13,500 in Viet Nam (2000). Population total all countries: 17,500. Kon Tum Province. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Salang, Koyong.  Dialects: Close to Jeh. Salang in Laos may be a different but related language.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
More information.

Halang Doan

[hld] 2,000 in Viet Nam(1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population total all countries: 4,346. Kon Tum Province, between the Sedang and the Cua. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Halang Duan, Duan, Doan.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Takua, Kayong, Halang Daksut, or Rengao.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan 
More information.

Hani

[hni] 17,535 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lai Chau and Lao Cai provinces in northern Viet Nam. One variety is east, one west of Muong Te City. Not in Thailand. Alternate names: Hànhì, Haw, Uni, U Ní, Xauni, Xá U Ní.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani, Ha-Ya 
More information.

Hanoi Sign Language

[hab]  Hanoi. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Haroi

[hro] 35,000 (1998). Binh Dinh and Phu Yen provinces. Alternate names: Hrway, Hroi, Hroy, Hoi, Aroi, Bahnar Cham.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau 
More information.

Hmong Daw

[mww] All Hmong in Viet Nam: 787,604 (1999 census). Most live in several provinces of northern Viet Nam, now over 10,000 resettled in Dac Lac province in southern Viet Nam. Alternate names: White Meo, Meo Kao, White Lum, Mán Tráng, Bai Miao.  Dialects: Hmong Xi (Meo Do).  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong Dô

[hmv]  Ha Giang Province, Dong Van and Meo Vae districts; Lao Cai Province, Bac Ha District. Dialects: Largely intelligible with Hmong Daw. Lexical similarity 80% with Hmong Daw.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong Don

[hmf]  Ha Giang Province, Hua Binh, YenBai, Nghia Lo. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong Njua

[blu]  Living in many provinces of northern Viet Nam, probably some in Dac Lac Province in southern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Blue Meo, Green Miao, Tak Meo, Hmong Njwa, Hmong Leng.  Dialects: Hmong Hoa.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Hmong Shua

[hmz] 60 (2003). Ha Giang Province, 3 villages. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian 
More information.

Ho Chi Minh City Sign Language

[hos]  Ho Chi Minh City. Dialects: Related to sign languages in Hanoi, Haiphong, Laos, and earlier sign languages in Thailand.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Hre

[hre] 113,111 (1999 census). Quang Ngai and Binh Dinh provinces. Alternate names: Davak, Davach, Moi Da Vach, Moi, Moi Luy, Cham-Re, Chom, Tachom.  Dialects: Rabah (Tava), Creq (Kare, Kre), Hre. Closest to Sedang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang 
More information.

Hung

[hnu] 700 in Viet Nam (1996 Ferlus). Pong dialect in Tam Thai commune, Tuong Duong District, Nghe An Province, and Dan Lai and Ly Ha dialects in Mon Son and Luc Da communes, Con Cuong District. Alternate names: Cuói, K'katiam-Pong-Houk.  Dialects: Pong (Poong, Phong, Tay Pong, Toum Phong, Khong Kheng, Xa La Vang, Pong 1, Pong 2), Dan Lai, Ly Ha.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
More information.

Iu Mien

[ium] 350,000 in Viet Nam (1999 H. Purnell). Throughout the highland regions of northern Viet Nam, about 16,000 in Dac Lak Province in the south. Alternate names: Kim Mien, Yu Mien, Mien, "Mán", Yao, Myen, Highland Yao, Dao Do, Red Dao, "Dong", "Trai", "Xá", Dìu, Yao Kimmien, Yao Ogang, Dao Thanh Phan.  Dialects: Dao Do, Deo Tien, Dao Lan Tien, Dao Lo Gang, Cham, Quan Chet, Quan Trang.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
More information.

Jarai

[jra] 317,557 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 332,557. Mainly in Gia Lai and Kon Tum Provinces, some in Dac Lac Province. Also spoken in Cambodia, USA. Alternate names: Djarai, Gia-Rai, Jorai, Cho-Rai, Chor, Mthur, Chrai, Gio-Rai.  Dialects: Puan, Hodrung (Hdrung), Jhue, Aráp, Habau (Ho-Bau), To-Buan, Sesan, Chuty, Pleikly, Golar.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau 
More information.

Jeh

[jeh] 15,243 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 23,256. Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Die, Yeh, Gie.  Dialects: Jeh Bri La (Bri-La), Jeh Mang Ram. Related to Halang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang 
More information.

Katu, Eastern

[ktv] 50,458 (1999 census). Quang Nam and Thua Thien provinces. Alternate names: High Katu.  Dialects: A different language variety and orthography in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
More information.

Katua

[kta] 3,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Gia Lai-Cong Tum Province, around Mang Buk, west of the Kayong language. Alternate names: Ca Tua.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric 
More information.

Kayong

[kxy] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Remote mountains of Cong Tum Province. Alternate names: Kagiuong, Ca Giong, Katang.  Dialects: Close to Takua and Cua.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Cua-Kayong 
More information.

Kháng

[kjm] 3,921 (1985 F. Proschan). Son La and Lai Chau provinces in northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Khaang, Tayhay, Tay Hay, Xa, Xá Khao, Xa Xua, Xa Don, Xa Dang, Xa Hoc, Xa Ai, Xa Bung, Quang Lam, Hang, Bren, Ksakautenh, Putenh, Pouteng, Teng, Theng.  Dialects: Kháng Clau, Kháng Ai (Xa Khao, Xa Cau, Sakau). Related to Puoc and Phong-Kniang in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
More information.

Khao

[xao] 10,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Northwest, near the Ma River, north of Pa Ma. Dialects: Related to Bit in Laos and China.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao 
More information.

Khmer, Central

[khm] 1,055,174 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Mainly in Hau Giang, Tra Vinh, Vinh Long, Kien Giang, An Giang, Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Ba Ria-Vung Tau, Binh Phuoc, and Tay Ninh provinces and Ho Chi Minh City. Alternate names: Cambodian, Kho Me, Cur Cul, Cu Tho, Viet Go Mien, Khome, Krom.  Dialects: Central Khmer, Southern Khmer.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer 
More information.

Khmu

[kjg] 56,542 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Son La, Lai Chau, Nghe An, and Yen Bai provinces. Alternate names: Kmhmu, Khomu, Khamu, Mun Xen, Xa Cau, Kha Cau, Cam Mu.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
More information.

Khua

[xhv] 3,000 in Viet Nam (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population total all countries: 5,000. West central; southeast of Giap Tam. Also spoken in Laos. Dialects: Related to Bru, Mangkong, Leun.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So 
More information.

Kim Mun

[mji] 170,000 in Viet Nam (1999 J. Edmondson).  Alternate names: Mun, Lanten, Lan Ten, Lantin, "Man Lan-Tien", Lowland Yao, Coc Mun, Jinmen, Dao Quan Trang, Red Trouser Yao, Dao Thanh Y, Dao Ao Dai, Great Tunic Yao, Dao Lam Dinh.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin 
More information.

Koho

[kpm] 128,723 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lam Dòng, Binh Thuan, Ninh Thuan and Khanh Hoa provinces. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Coho, Caho, Kohor.  Dialects: Chil (Kil), Tring (Trinh), Sre, Kalop, Sop, Laya, Rion, Nop (Xre Nop, Tu-Lop), Tala (To La), Kodu (Co-Don), Pru, Lac (Lat, Lach).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre 
More information.

Lachi

[lbt] 7,863 in Viet Nam (1990 census). Population includes 3,990 women, in 1,450 households (1990 Liang Min), including Black Lachi 2,500 in 550 households, Long-Haired Lachi 4,500 in 900 households. 10,765 for all La Chi in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 9,016. Ethnic population: 9,600 (2000 D. Bradley). Hà Giang Province, mostly west of Hà Giang in the upper Clear River valley (Riviere Claire) on the China border: Black Lachi at Manyou, Long-Haired Lachi at Manpeng. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: La Chi, Lachí, Laji, Lati, Tai Lati, Lipulio, Y To, Y Pí, Y Póng, Y Mia, Cù Te, Cu-Tê.  Dialects: Liputiõ (Black Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi). Related to Gelo. Long-Haired Lachi of Viet Nam (4,806 speakers) has 80% lexical similarity with Flowery Lachi of China; White Lachi of Viet Nam (1,602) has 30% to 40% similarity with the others, and should be considered a separate language. Lexical similarity 36% with Gelo, 33% with Laqua, 34% with Buyang, 28% with Northern Zhuang, 22% with Dong, 23% with Laka, 25% with Hlai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
More information.

Lachi, White

[lwh] 1,602 (1990 Liang Min). 300 households. Hà Giang Province, northern Viet Nam south of Maguan in China, Manbang and Manmei. Alternate names: White Lachi, Lipupõ.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 30% to 40% with other Lachi.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Ge-Chi 
More information.

Laghuu

[lgh] 300 (2002 Edmondson). Northwestern Viet Nam. Lao Cai Province, Sa Pa District, Nam Sa village. 15 km south and east of Sa Pa City, in the valley below the highest mountain in Viet Nam, Phan Si Pan (3,198 meters). Alternate names: Laopa, Xá Phó.  Dialects: It is not known how this relates to Laopang (Laopa) of Myanmar, also in the Lolo group.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Laha

[lha] 5,686 (1999 census). Lao Cai and Son La provinces, along the Red and Black rivers. Alternate names: Xá Khao, Khlá Phlao, Klá Dong, Khlá Don, Khlá Dung, Khlá Liik, La Ha Ung, La Ha, Xá Chien, Xá Lay.  Dialects: Close to Qabiao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Lahu

[lhu] 6,874 All Lahu (Yellow, Black, White) in Viet Nam (1999 census). Northwestern border of Viet Nam with Laos. Black Lahu are north of Muong Te City near the China border, at Ban Kiem Tra, Phu Nam Ma, Phu Nam Cau, Phu Nam Ha. White Lahu are in one village just to the east of Nha Ca in Muong Te. Alternate names: Lohei, Lahuna, Launa, Laku, Kaixien, Namen, Mussuh, Muhso, Musso, Mussar, Mooso.  Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Khucong, Musser Dam), Nyi (Red Lahu, Musseh Daeng), Shehleh, Lahu Phung (White Lahu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
More information.

Lahu Shi

[kds] 6,874 all Lahu (Yellow, Black, White) in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lai Chau Province, just to the west of Muong Te City on the Son Da (Black River). Alternate names: Kutsung, Kucong, Khutsho, Yellow Lahu, Shi, Kui, Kwi, Ne Thu, La Hu Si.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Lahu 
More information.

[khb] 4,964 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lai Chau Province, northern Viet Nam in the Binh Lu area. Alternate names: Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Lue, Tai Lu, Nhuon, Duon.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Northwest 
More information.

Maa

[cma] 33,338 (1999 census). Lam Dong, Dong Nai provinces, spread over a wide area. Alternate names: Maaq, Ma, Maa', Chauma, Ma Ngan, Che Ma, Ma Xop, Ma To, Ma Krung.  Dialects: Sometimes considered a Koho dialect.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Sre 
More information.

Maleng

[pkt] 200 in Viet Nam (1996 Ferlus). Malieng in Thanh Hoa and Lam Hoa communes, Tuyen Hoa District, dan Hoa in Minh Hoa District, northern Quang Binh Province; Huong Lien commune in Huong Khe District, Ha Tinh Province, 2 or 3 villages bordering Laos, and another to the southeast. Alternate names: Malieng, Malang.  Dialects: Malieng (Pa Leng), Kha Phong (Maleng Kari, Maleng Bro, Kha Nam Om).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut 
More information.

Mang

[zng] 2,663 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 3,168. Ethnic population: 4,500 (2000 D. Bradley). Lai Chau Province, in villages in a triangle-shaped area between the Song Da (Black River) and the Nam Na at places such as Nam Nghe, Nam Xung, Nam Ban, Ban Nam Voi. Also spoken in China, Thailand. Alternate names: Mang U, Xá Mang, Xá Ó, Nieng Ó, Chaman, Manbu, Ba'e, Xá Lá Vàng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang 
More information.

Mantsi

[nty] 1,100 (2002 Edmondson). Hà Giang Province at Meo Vac and Dong Van districts. Alternate names: Lolo, Flowery Lolo, Black Lolo, Red Mantsi.  Dialects: Called 'Southeast Vernacular' type of Yi. May be related to what is called Southeastern Yi or Guizhou Yi in China. Not intelligible with Sichuan Yi (Nosu).  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Northern, Yi 
More information.

Mnong, Central

[cmo] 32,451 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 52,451. Southwest of the Rade, mainly in Song Bé and western Dac Lac provinces. Also spoken in Cambodia. Alternate names: Pnong, Budong, Budang, Phanong.  Dialects: Préh (Pre), Biat (Bhiét), Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri (Di-Pri), Bu Dang. Biat may be a separate language related to Eastern Mnong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong 
More information.

Mnong, Eastern

[mng] 30,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Southeast of the Rade in Dac Lac and Lam Dòng provinces. Also spoken in USA. Dialects: Mnong Rolom (Rolom, Rolam, Rlam, Ralam), Mnong Gar (Gar), Mnong Kwanh, Chil. Biat may be closer to Eastern Mnong than to Central Mnong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Eastern Mnong 
More information.

Mnong, Southern

[mnn] 30,000 (2002). Mostly in Binh Phuoc Province south of the Central Mnong and north of the Stieng. Dialects: Bunong (Nong, Pnong), Prang (Po Rang).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong 
More information.

Monom

[moo] 5,000 (1973 SIL). Eastern Gia Lai and Kon Tum provinces. Alternate names: Bonom, Menam, Monam.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom 
More information.

Muong

[mtq] 1,137,515 (1999 census). Hoa Bình, Thanh Hóa, Vinh Phú, Yen Bai, Son La, and Ninh Binh provinces, mostly in the mountains of north central Viet Nam. Dialects: Thang, Wang, Mol, Mual, Moi 1, Boi Bi (Moi Bi), Ao Tá (Au Tá). Related to Sach, May, Ruc, Arem, Thavung, Pakatan.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
More information.

Ná-Meo

[neo] 1,200 (2002). Northwest part of Lang Son Province, Trang Dinh District, Cao Minh Village and Khuoi Phu Dao Village, Khanh Long Hamlet; Thach An District, Ca Liec Village. Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Nguôn

[nuo] 2,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Minh Hoa District, northeastern Quang Binh Province. Alternate names: Ngouan.  Dialects: Diffloth (1992) groups Nguon as a separate language close to Vietnamese, but Doi (1996) and Ferlus (1996) group it with Muong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong 
More information.

Nung

[nut] 856,412 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Mainly in Cao Bang and Lang Son provinces. A number of Nung now live in Ho Chi Minh City, Dong Nai, Lam Dong, and Dac Lac. Also spoken in Australia, Canada, Laos, USA. Alternate names: Nong, Bu-Nong, Highland Nung, Tai Nung, Tay, Tày Nùng.  Dialects: Xuòng, Giang, Nùng An, Nùng Phan Slình (Nùng Fan Slihng), Nùng Cháo, Nùng Lòi, Nùng Qúy Rin (Guiren), Khen Lài, Nùng Inh. Close to Tày and Southern Zhuang (Ningming, Longzhou varieties). Dialect cluster with Southern Zhuang in China.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

O'du

[tyh] 301 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 495. Nghe Tinh Province in northern Viet Nam. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: O Du, Iduh, 'Iduh, "Tay Hat", Hat, Haat.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu', Khmu' 
More information.

Pa Di

[pdi] 300 in Viet Nam. Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong District. Alternate names: Padi.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
More information.

Pacoh

[pac] 16,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 29,224. Quang Tri Province. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Paco, Pokoh, Bo River Van Kieu.  Dialects: Pahi (Ba-Hi). Related to Phuong. 'Koh' in 'Pacoh' means 'mountain'.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
More information.

Pa-Hng

[pha] 5,569 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Tuyên Quang and Hà Giang provinces. Alternate names: Pa Hng, Paheng, Baheng, Bahengmai, Pà Hung, Pà Then.  Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng 
More information.

Phu Thai

[pht] 209,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Northern. Alternate names: Putai, Phutai, Puthay, Puthai.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, Lao-Phutai 
More information.

Phula

[phh] 9,046 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 13,246. Ethnic population: 13,246. Lao Cai Province, near Lao Cai City and one village in Xin Mun District of Hà Giang Province, also Lai Chau and Son La provinces. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Phu La, Phu Khla, Phu Kha, Fu Khla.  Dialects: Related to Laghuu.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Unclassified 
More information.

Phuong

[phg] 15,112 (2000 WCD). Quang Nam-Da Nang and Gia Lai-Cong Tum provinces, southeast of the Pacoh language. Alternate names: Phuang, Phuong Catang.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh 
More information.

Puoc

[puo] 18,018 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 20,182. Lai Chau and Son La provinces in northern Viet Nam, along the Laos border. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Kha Puhoc, Puhoc, Puok, Pua, Xinh Mul, Xinh-Mun, Xin Mul, Sing Mun, Ksing Mul.  Dialects: Related to Khang and Pong 3.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul 
More information.

Qabiao

[laq] 307 in Viet Nam (2002 Edmondson). Population total all countries: 614. Hà Giang Province, Viet Nam-Yunnan-Kwangsi border, upper Clear River valley, Dunshi, Pugao, Pula, Pubang, Manong; Yên Minh and Mèo Vac districts; Dông Van District, Phô Là and Sung Chang villages. Also spoken in China. Alternate names: Ka Beo, Ka Bao, Ka Biao, Laqua, Pubiao, Pupeo, Pu Péo, Pen Ti Lolo, Bendi Lolo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity 38% with Gelo, 33% with Lati, 38% with Buyang, 30% with Northern Zhuang, 29% with Dong, 23% with Laka, 26% with Hlai, 10% with Hmong, 7% with Mien.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kadai, Yang-Biao 
More information.

Rade

[rad] 270,348 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Dac Lac and part of Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa provinces, centered around Banmethuot. Possibly also Cambodia. Also spoken in USA. Alternate names: Rhade, Raday, Rde, E-De, Edeh, De.  Dialects: Bih, Ndhur (Mdhur), Adham (A-Dham), Blo, Kodrao (Kdrao), Krung 1, Rde Kpa (Kpa). Bih (1,000) may be a separate language. The Krung 1 dialect is different from the Bahnaric language Krung 2, in Cambodia. Other names of dialects or ethnic groups: Ktul, Dlie, Rue, E-pan, Dong Kay, Arul, Kah.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Plateau 
More information.

Rengao

[ren] 16,000 (2002). Kon Tum Province, from northwest of Dak To to southeast of Kontum city between Sedang and Bahnar. Alternate names: Ro-Ngao.  Dialects: Western Rengao, Sedang-Rengao, Bahnar-Rengao.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Rengao 
More information.

Roglai, Cacgia

[roc] 3,000 (2002). Ninh Thuan Province, on the coast northeast of Phan Rang. Alternate names: Ra-Glai.  Dialects: It is considerably different from other Roglai dialects.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai 
More information.

Roglai, Northern

[rog] 52,931 (2002). Ninh Thuan, Binh Thuan, Khanh Hoa and Lam Dong provinces, in the mountains west and south of Nhatrang, and some near Dalat. Alternate names: Radlai, Adlai, Rayglay, Ra-Glai, Rang Glai, Noang, La-Oang.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai 
More information.

Roglai, Southern

[rgs] 41,000 (1999 census). Binh Thuan and Ninh Thuan provinces, southern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Rai.  Dialects: Rai. Close to Chru and Northern Roglai.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Achinese-Chamic, Chamic, South, Coastal, Roglai 
More information.

Romam

[rmx] 250 (1993 Dang Nghiem Van). On the Viet Nam-Cambodian border. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric 
More information.

Sedang

[sed] 100,648 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 101,434. Kon Tum, Quang Nam, Quang Ngai provinces. Also spoken in Laos. Alternate names: Hadang, Hdang, Hoteang, Roteang, Rotea, Hotea, Xodang, Xa Dang, Cadong, Tang, Kmrang.  Dialects: Central Sedang, Greater Sedang, Dak Sut Sedang, Kotua Sedang, Kon Hring Sedang. Closest to Hre.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Sedang 
More information.

Sila

[slt] 840 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Lai Chau Province, Cú Dè Xù, Khá Pé. 3 villages: Ban Xeo Hai in Xa Can Ho, Xi Thao Chai of Pa Ha, Nam Xin of Muong Nhe. Alternate names: Sida.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Loloish, Southern, Akha, Hani 
More information.

Stieng, Budeh

[stt]  Southern Stieng area, Binh Phuoc and Tay Ninh provinces. Alternate names: Lower Stieng, Southern Stieng.  Dialects: Different enough from Bulo Stieng that intelligibility is not functional.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric 
More information.

Stieng, Bulo

[sti] Population total all countries: 6,059. Binh Phuoc, Lam Dong, and Tay Ninh provinces. Also spoken in Cambodia. Alternate names: Xtieng, Xa-Dieng, Budíp, Rangah, Upper Stieng, Northern Stieng.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau 
More information.

Sui

[swi] 120 in Viet Nam (2002 Edmondson). Tuyen Quang, Chiem Hoa. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui 
More information.

Tai Daeng

[tyr] 140,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 165,000. North central Viet Nam in the area of Thanh Hoa Province, south of Sam Nuea. Also spoken in Laos, Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Red Tai, Tai Rouge, Thai Do, Thai Dang, Tai Deng, Daeng, Táy-Môc-Châu, Môc-Châu.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Tai Dam

[blt] 699,000 in Viet Nam (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 763,700. Northern Viet Nam along the Red and Black rivers. Some moved south and are settled in Tung Nghia (Lam Dam),Tho Thanh (Dac Lac), Pleiku (Gia Lai), and elsewhere. Also spoken in Australia, China, France, Laos, Thailand, USA. Alternate names: Tai Noir, Thái Den, Táy-Dam, Black Tai, Tai Do.  Dialects: Táy Mu'ò'i (Tai Mueai, Meuay). Close to Song and Tai Dón, but not inherently intelligible with Tai Dón.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Tai Do

[tyj] 300 (2002). Northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Tay-Jo, Tay Yo, Tay Muoi, Tay Quy Chau.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai 
More information.

Tai Dón

[twh] 280,000 in Viet Nam (2002). Population total all countries: 490,000. North Viet Nam along the Red and Black rivers. Some are settled in southern Viet Nam, mainly in Tung Nghia (Lam Dong Province). Also spoken in China, France, Laos. Alternate names: Tai Blanc, Thái Tráng, Tai Lai, Tai Kao, Táy Khao, White Tai.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Tai Dam. Lao has influenced the speech of some Tai Dón speakers.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Tai Hang Tong

[thc] 10,000 (2002). Northern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Hàng Tong, Tày Muòng.  Dialects: Part of the Thái official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam, Pu Thay, Tay Thanh, and Tho Da Bac.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Tai Thanh

[tmm] 20,000 (2002). Northern Viet Nam, Thanh Hoa and Nghe An provinces. Alternate names: Táy Thanh, Thanh, Tai Man Thanh.  Dialects: Part of the Thái official ethnic community, related to White Thai, Tai Dam, Tai Hang Tong, Pu Thay, and Tho Da Bac.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
More information.

Takua

[tkz] 12,768 (2000 WCD). Quang Nam and Da Nang provinces. Alternate names: Quang Tin Katu, Langya.  Dialects: Closest to Cua and Kayong.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, East, Takua 
More information.

Ta'oih, Upper

[tth] 19,000 in Viet Nam (2002). 70% monolingual. Thua Thien-Hue Province and Quang Tri Province. Alternate names: T-Oy, Tà-Oi, Tau Oi, Ta Hoi, Toi-Oi, Kantua.  Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan', Palee'n, Leem, Ha'aang (Sa'ang).  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta'oih 
More information.

Tày

[tyz] 1,477,514 in Viet Nam (1999 census). Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, and Lam Dòng provinces, central and northeastern Viet Nam near the China border. Some moved south and settled in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Also possibly in Laos. Also spoken in France, USA. Alternate names: "Thô", Thu Lao, T'o, Tai Tho, Ngan, Phen.  Dialects: Central Tày, Eastern Tày, Southern Tày, Northern Tày, Tày Trung Khanh, Thu Lao, Tày Bao Lac. Dialect continuum to Southern Zhuang in China. Close to Nung.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

Tày Sa Pa

[tys] 300 (2002 Edmondson). Lao Cai Province, Muong Khuong District. Alternate names: Tai Sa Pa.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern 
More information.

Tày Tac

[tyt]  Northwestern Viet Nam, Muong Tâc District in eastern Son La Province. Alternate names: Tai Tac.  Dialects: Related to Tai Dam, Tai Dón, Tai Daeng.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Tho

[tou] 68,394 (1999 census). Northern Nghe An Province, highland areas. Cuoi Cham is in Tan Hop commune, Tan Ky District. Alternate names: Cuoi, Cuoi Cham, Keo, Ho Muong Meridional.  Dialects: Cuoi Cham (Uy Lo), Mon.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi 
More information.

Thu Lao

[tyl] 200 (2002 Edmondson). Cao Bàng, Lang Son, Hà Giang, Tuye Quang, Bác Thái, Quang Ninh, Hà Bac, and Lam Dòng provinces, central and northeastern Viet Nam near the China border. Some moved south and settled in Tung Nghia and Song Mao. Also possibly in Laos. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Southwestern, East Central, Chiang Saeng 
More information.

Todrah

[tdr] 9,142 (2000 WCD). Kon Tum Province, northeast of Kon Tum City from Kon Hring to Kon Braih. Alternate names: Todrá, Didrah, Didra, Podra, Modra, Kodra.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Sedang-Todrah, Todrah-Monom 
More information.

Trieng

[stg] 15,000 (2002). Mainly in Kon Tum and Quang Nam provinces. Alternate names: Strieng, Gie-Trieng, Tareh, Treng, Ta-Rieng, Talieng, Dgiéh, Giang Ray, Pin.  Dialects: May be related to Jeh or Talieng in Laos.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West 
More information.

Ts'ün-Lao

[tsl] 10,000 (1993 Dang Nghiem Van). Lai Chau Province, northwestern Viet Nam. Alternate names: Lao.  Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Be-Tai, Tai-Sek, Tai, Central 
More information.

Vietnamese

[vie] 65,795,718 in VIet Nam (1999 census). Population total all countries: 67,439,139. The entire country. Also spoken in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Finland, France, Germany, Laos, Martinique, Netherlands, New Caledonia, Norway, Philippines, Senegal, Thailand, United Kingdom, USA, Vanuatu. Alternate names: Kinh, Gin, Jing, Ching, Viet, Annamese.  Dialects: Northern Vietnamese (Tonkinese, Hanoi), Central Vietnamese (Hue), Southern Vietnamese. Numerous dialects.  Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese 
More information.

Extinct languages

Tay Boi

[tas] Extinct. Was used in the major ports of French Indo-China. Alternate names: Tay Boy, Annamite French, Vietnamese Pidgin French.  Classification: Pidgin, French based 
More information.