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Chechen

A language of Russia (Europe)

ISO 639-3: che

Population 944,600 in Russia (1989 census). Population total all countries: 955,600. Ethnic population: 956,879.
Region Chechnya, north Caucasus. The capital is Syelzha Ghaala (Chechen name) or Grozny (Groznii; Russian name). 80% live in rural areas. Also spoken in Georgia, Germany, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Syria, Turkey (Asia), Uzbekistan.
Alternate names   Nokhchiin, Nokchiin Muott, Galancho
Dialects Ploskost, Itumkala (Shatoi), Melkhin, Kistin, Cheberloi, Akkin (Aux). Melkhi is the transitional dialect to Ingush. Chechen is at least partially intelligible with Ingush, more so with contact.
Classification North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush
Language use The largest Nakh-Daghestanian language. Used in publishing. Most speakers are quite fluent in Russian.
Language development Taught in primary schools. Cyrillic script. Newspapers. Radio programs. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1986–1995.
Comments They call themselves 'Nakhchuo' (sg.) or 'Nokhchi' (pl.). There are many Russians, Ingush, Ossetins, and other peoples living among them. From 1944 to 1957 they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia, losing 25% to 50% of their population, and have lost much land, economic resources, and civil rights. They have been largely removed from the productive lowlands. Ergative case system; many consonants and vowels; extensive inflectional morphology, many nominal cases, several gender classes; complex sentences by chaining participial clauses; verbs have gender agreement with the direct object or intransitive subject, but no person agreement (Johanna Nichols). Mountain slope, foothills, plains. Alpine forest (highlands). Pastoralists; agriculturalists: grain. Muslim (Sunni, Sufi).

Also spoken in:

Jordan

Language name   Chechen
Population 3,000 in Jordan (1993 Johnstone).
Region In 2 or 3 villages mixed among Adygey and Arabic speakers.
Comments Muslim (Sunni, Sufi).