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Armenian

A language of Armenia

ISO 639-3: hye

Population 3,399,903 in Armenia (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 6,723,840.
Region Throughout the country. Also spoken in Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Canada, Cyprus, Egypt, Estonia, France, Georgia, Greece, Honduras, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Romania, Russia (Europe), Syria, Tajikistan, Turkey (Europe), Turkmenistan, Ukraine, USA, Uzbekistan.
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Ermeni Dili, Armjanski Yazyk
Dialects Eastern Armenian, Erevan (Eriwan), Tbilisi (Tiflis), Karabagh, Shamakhi (Schamachi), Astrakhan (Astrachan), Dzhulfa (Dschugha, Dschulfa), Agulis, Khvoy-Salmst (Choi-Salmst), Urmia-Maragheh (Urmia-Maragha), Artvin (Artwin), Karin (Erzurum, Erzerum), Mus (Musch), Van (Wan), Tigranakert (Diyarbakir, Diarbekir), Kharberd (Charberd, Erzincan, Erzenka), Shabin-Karahissar (Schabin-Karahissar), Trabzon (Trapezunt), Hamshen (Hamschen), Malatya (Malatia), Kilikien, Syria (Syrien), Arabkir, Akn, Sebaste, Ewdokia (Tokat), Smyrna (Izmir), North Komedia, Constantinople (Konstantinopel, Istanbul), Rodosto, Crimea (Krim), Ashkharik. All dialects in all countries usually reported to be inherently intelligible. Eastern Armenian (4,341,000) is spoken in Armenia and its Turkish and Iranian borderlands; Western Armenian (879,612) is spoken elsewhere. Western Armenian is understood only by some in Iran. In Syria, people in Kessaberen (northeastern mountain village of Kessab) and the village of Musa Dagh (now relocated to Lebanon) speak related varieties which other Western Armenian speakers do not understand. Most speakers of Kessaberen have now learned Western Armenian. Western (Turkish) Armenian and Ararat (Russian) are easily intelligible.
Classification Indo-European, Armenian
Language use National language. 91% of the ethnic group in the former USSR spoke it as first language (1979 census). All ages. About 30% of speakers also use Russian.
Language development Unique script. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1883–1994.
Comments Speakers refer to this language as Haieren. SVO. National Armenian Christian Church.

Also spoken in:

Azerbaijan

Language name   Armenian
Region Nagorno-Karabakh Region.
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski
Dialects Western Armenian.
Comments Christian, Monophysite.
   

Cyprus

Language name   Armenian
Population 2,740 in Cyprus (1987).
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski
Dialects Western Armenian.
Language use Most speak Greek. The older ones speak Turkish.
Comments Urban population. Christian.
   

Iran

Language name   Armenian
Population 170,800 in Iran (1993).
Region Northern Iran, Azerbaijan Provinces around Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Esfahan, Shiraz.
Alternate names   Haieren, Somekhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski, Armani, Erâmani
Dialects Eastern Armenian, Agulis, Astrakhân, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh.
Language use Vigorous. Used in the home, church, school. All ages. Speakers also use Western Farsi or South Azerbaijani.
Language development Literacy rate in second language: 80%. Taught in Armenian private schools.
Comments Merchants. Christian.
   

Iraq

Language name   Armenian
Population 60,000 in Iraq.
Dialects Western Armenian.
Comments Christian.
   

Israel

Language name   Armenian
Population 3,000 in Israel (1971 The Armenian Review).
Region Jerusalem.
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski
Dialects Western Armenian.
Language use Speakers also use South Levantine Arabic.
Comments Eastern Armenian is spoken in Armenia, Turkey, and Iran; Western in other countries, including Israel. Christian.
   

Jordan

Language name   Armenian
Population 8,000 in Jordan (1971 The Armenian Review).
Dialects Western Armenian.
Comments Christian.
   

Lebanon

Language name   Armenian
Population 234,600 in Lebanon (1986).
Alternate names   Ermenice, Armanski, Haieren, Somkhuri
Dialects Western Armenian.
Language use Language of wider communication.
Comments 'Haieren' is their own name. Christian.
   

Syria

Language name   Armenian
Population 320,000 in Syria (1993).
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski
Dialects Western Armenian.
Language use Language of wider communication.
Comments Christian.
   

Turkey (Europe)

Language name   Armenian
Population 40,000 in Turkey (1980). 1,022 monolinguals (1965 census). Ethnic population: 70,000 in Turkey (1980).
Region Many in Istanbul, and a few scattered across eastern Turkey. The Hemshin (Hamshen) are Armenian Muslims, living near the Laz.
Alternate names   Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski
Dialects Eastern Armenian.
Language use 96% bilingual in Turkish.
Comments Christian.