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Jingpho

A language of Myanmar

ISO 639-3: kac

Population 900,000 in Myanmar (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 940,000.
Region Kachin State. Also spoken in China.
Alternate names   Kachin, Jinghpaw, Chingpaw, Chingp'o, Marip
Dialects Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong. Dzili may be a separate language. Hkaku and Kauri are only slightly different than Jingpho. Lexical similarity 50% with Singhpo of India.
Classification Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Jingpho-Konyak-Bodo, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho
Language use Serves as lingua franca for Zaiwa, Lashi, and Maru.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 60% to 100%. Literacy rate in second language: 50% to 75%. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Dictionary. Bible: 1927.
Comments 'Kachin' refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. Called 'Aphu' or 'Phu' by the Rawang people. SOV; tonal, 4 tones. Pastoralists; agriculturalists. Polytheist, Buddhist, Christian.

Also spoken in:

China

Language name   Jingpho
Population 40,000 in China (1999 Xu Xijian). 50% monolingual. Ethnic population: 119,209 in China (1990 census).
Region Western Yunnan, Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture, Yingjiang County (Shidan dialect; Enkun dialect elsewhere in Dehong Dai-Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture).
Alternate names   Jingpo, Jinghpaw, Chingpaw, Chingp'o, Kachin, Marip, Dashanhua
Dialects Enkun, Shidan, Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Hkauri, Gauri), Dzili (Jili), Dulong.
Language use Vigorous. Speakers of other languages in the area speak Jingpho as second language. Taught at Kunming Institute. All domains. Positive language attitude. Speakers also use Zaiwa, Lashi, Maru, or Chinese. Chinese is used in some secondary schools.
Comments Part of the Jingpo nationality. 'Kachin' refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. An official nationality in China; includes 70,000 Atsi, and Maru and Lashi officially. Has a Pinyin alphabet in China. Orthography at Kunming Institute is based on Enkun dialect. Mountain slope. Pastoralists; agriculturalists. Polytheist, Buddhist, Christian.