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Arakanese

A language of Myanmar

ISO 639-3: mhv

Population 730,000 in Myanmar (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population total all countries: 954,000.
Region Southwest, Arakan Province. Also possibly in China. Also spoken in Bangladesh, India.
Alternate names   Maghi, Morma, Yakan, Yakhaing, Rakhain, Mogh, Magh, Marma, Mash, Rakhine
Dialects One of the better known varieties of nonstandard Burmese with profound pronunciation and vocabulary differences from Burmese.
Classification Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Lolo-Burmese, Burmish, Southern
Language development Burmese script in India. Bible portions: 1914.
Comments The people wear Burmese dress. SOV. Buddhist, Muslim, Hindu.

Also spoken in:

Bangladesh

Language name   Arakanese
Population 200,000 in Bangladesh (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Population includes 150,000 Marmar, 35,000 Rakhain (SIL 2002).
Region Southeast, Chittagong Hills area. Marma is in the hills and Rakhine along the coast.
Alternate names   Marama, "Maghi", "Mogh", "Magh", Mash, Marma
Dialects Marma (Morma), Rakhine (Rakhain, Yakhain).
Language use Educated speakers know and read standard Burmese. Many men can speak Bengali.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 80%. Literacy rate in second language: 60% Rakhain; 30% Marmar. Literacy rate in Arakanese decreasing with Bengali emphasis.
Comments People came to Bangladesh over a period of time. The Marma and Rakhine are ethnic Arakanese Buddhists who speak a dialect of Arakanese Burmese, but were born in southeastern Bangladesh. Tropical forest. Agriculturalists. Buddhist, Muslim, Christian.
   

India

Language name   Arakanese
Population 24,000 in India (1997).
Region Assam; Tripura; Mizoram, Mombusu, Dungjangtalang, Mowthimambrow villages; West Bengal.
Alternate names   Mogh, Mog, "Magh", "Maghi", Morma, Yakan, Yakhaing, Rakhain, Marma
Language use Speakers also use Bengali.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 10% to 30%.
Comments Mag is a Scheduled Tribe in India. "Magh" is a derogatory term. Few Arakanese in Mizoram or Tripura attend school. No one has attained higher education in Mizoram (Singh). Agriculturalists. Buddhist syncretism with traditional religion, Christian.