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Mongolian, Peripheral

A language of China

ISO 639-3: mvf

Population 3,381,000 in China (1982). 2,500,000 are monolingual. Population includes 4,806,849 Buriat and Tuvin (1990 census). 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorain, 593,00 Karachin, 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine (1982 census).
Region Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, Urumchi to Hailar. Also spoken in Mongolia.
Alternate names   Mongol, Monggol, Menggu, Southern-Eastern Mongolian, Inner Mongolian
Dialects Chahar (Chaha'er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ordos (E'erduosite), Tumut (Tumet), Shilingol (Ujumchin), Ulanchab (Urat, Mingan), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Naiman, Keshikten), Jostu (Ke'erqin, Kharchin, Kharachin, Kharchin-Tumut, Eastern Tumut), Jirim (Kalaqin, Khorchin, Jalait, Gorlos), Ejine. Largely intelligible with Halh standard dialect of Mongolia, but there are phonological and important loan differences.
Classification Altaic, Mongolian, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper
Language use Official regional language. Language of wider communication. Vigorous. Chinese speakers living in the area can also speak it. All domains. All ages. Positive language attitude. Speakers also use Chinese. About 70,000 can also speak Uyghur or Kazakh. Written Chinese is in use.
Language development Literacy rate in second language: 71%. Taught in primary and secondary schools. Standard Inner Mongolian script. Magazines. Newspapers. Radio programs. TV. Grammar. NT: 1952–2003.
Comments Part of the Mongolian nationality. One of the five main official nationalities. The government includes Buriat, Tuvin, Oirat, and other varieties under the Mongolian official nationality. In Xinjiang, the Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the 'Four tribes of Oirat'. SOV. Mountain mesa, plains. Desert. Agriculturalists; pastoralists; animal husbandry. Buddhist (Lamaist), Shamanist.

Also spoken in:

Mongolia

Language name   Mongolian, Peripheral
Alternate names   Southern-Eastern Mongolian
Dialects Ujumchin (Uzemchin, Ujumuchin), Jostu (Kharchin, Kharachin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos.
Language use Speakers also use Halh Mongolian.
Language development Literacy rate in second language: In Halh Mongolian.