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Pashto, Northern

A language of Pakistan

ISO 639-3: pbu

Population 9,585,000 in Pakistan (1993). Population includes all Pashto. Population total all countries: 9,700,000. Ethnic population: 49,529,000 possibly total Pashto in all countries.
Region Along Afghanistan border, most of NWFP, Yusufzai, and Peshawar. Also spoken in Afghanistan, India, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom.
Alternate names   Pakhto, Pashtu, Pushto, Yusufzai Pashto
Dialects Ningraharian Pashto, Northeastern Pashto. A good deal of similarity with Northwestern Pashto in Afghanistan. Subdialects of Northeastern Pashto are Kohat (Khatak), Yusufzai (Peshawar), Afridi, Shinwari, Mohmand, Shilmani. Lexical similarity 80% between Northeastern and Southwestern Pashto.
Classification Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto
Language use Rich literary tradition. The Powinda are a nomadic Pashto-speaking group.
Language development Literacy rate in second language: Low. Taught in primary schools. Perso-Arabic script; Urdu script in United Arab Emirates. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. TV. Dictionary. Bible: 1895.
Comments Muslim (Sunni and Shi'a).

Also spoken in:


Language name   Pashto, Northern
Region Central Ghilzai area.
Alternate names   Paktu, Pakhtu, Pakhtoo, Afghan
Dialects Northwestern Pakhto, Ghilzai, Durani.
Language use One of the two official languages taught in schools. The Ghilzai speakers are nomadic and 24% of the national population. The Durani, 16%, live in permanent settlements. Speakers also use Farsi.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: 5% to 10%. Literacy rate in second language: 15% to 25%.
Comments The people are called 'Pakhtoon' in the north, 'Pashtoon' in the south. Pashto clans are: Mohmandi, Ghilzai, Durani, Yusufzai, Afridi, Kandahari (Qandahari), Waziri, Chinwari (Shinwari), Mangal, Wenetsi. Muslim (Hanafi Sunni).

United Arab Emirates

Language name   Pashto, Northern
Population 100,000 in United Arab Emirates (1986).
Alternate names   Pusto, Pashtu, Passtoo, Pakhtoo, Pushto
Comments People called Pathans. Speakers have come from Pakistan. Unskilled laborers; drivers. Muslim.