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Domari

A language of Iran

ISO 639-3: rmt

Population 1,338,271 in Iran (2000 WCD). Population total all countries: 1,876,116.
Region Kurbat and Luli are in western Iran. Mehtar is in Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Boyerahmad Province. Karachi is in northern Iran. Also spoken in Afghanistan, Egypt, India, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Libya, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Russia (Europe), Sudan, Syria, Turkey (Europe), Uzbekistan.
Alternate names   Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene, Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar
Dialects Kurbati (Ghorbati), Qinati, Yürük, Koli, Karachi, Luli, Maznoug, Nawar. A number of the dialects in Iran may be highly divergent from one another. Not intelligible to Romani speakers.
Classification Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Dom
Language use Vigorous. Used only as a private language for communication with other Gypsies. All ages. Speakers also use Western Farsi, Luristani, Bakthiari, Southern Luri, Qashqa'i.
Language development Grammar.
Comments Influenced by Arabic, as well as the languages of the host ethnic groups with which any gypsy group is associated. Blacksmiths; haircutters; musicians; carpenters; butchers. Muslim.

Also spoken in:

Afghanistan

Language name   Domari
Dialects Churi-Wali.
Language development Literacy rate in first language: below 1%. Literacy rate in second language: below 5%.
Comments Muslim.
   

Egypt

Language name   Domari
Population 234,000 in Egypt (2004). Muslim Gypsies in Egypt: 1,080,000.
Region The Ghagar live mainly in Dakahlia Governorate, north of Cairo.
Dialects Nawar (Ghagar), Helebi.
Language use Reports that many now speak Arabic.
Comments Muslim.
   

India

Language name   Domari
Population 201,787 in India (2000 WCD).
Region Bihar, Saran and Champaran districts; Assam; West Bengal; Uttar Pradesh; Punjab; Madhya Pradesh; Jammu and Kashmir; Orissa.
Alternate names   Dom, Domra Magu Hiya
Dialects Domaki, Wogri-Boli.
Language use A Gypsy language partly used for in-group identification.
Comments Efforts made to hide meaning of words from outsiders. Similar to Bhojpuri. Muslim, Christian.
   

Iraq

Language name   Domari
Population 22,946 in Iraq (2000 WCD).
Alternate names   Middle Eastern Romani
Comments People called 'Zott'. Muslim.
   

Israel

Language name   Domari
Population 2,000 in Israel (1997 Yaron Matras). Population includes Palestinian West Bank and Gaza.
Region Mainly Jerusalem (Old City), Bir Zeit near Ramallah, and Gaza.
Alternate names   Nawari, Dom, Near-Eastern Gypsy
Dialects Nawari.
Language use The first language of children in some places. Speakers also use South Levantine Spoken Arabic.
Comments They call themselves 'Dom'. A large number of loanwords from Arabic, Kurdish, and some other Iranian languages. Muslim.
   

Jordan

Language name   Domari
Population 4,913 in Jordan (2000 WCD).
Alternate names   Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene, Gypsy, Nawar, Kurbat, Barake
Dialects Nawar, Kurbat, Barake.
Comments Arabic influence. Muslim.
   

Libya

Language name   Domari
Population 31,738 in Libya (2000 WCD).
Dialects Helebi.
Comments Muslim.
   

Palestinian West Bank and Gaza

Language name   Domari
Population 2,000 in Palestinian West Bank and Gaza (1997). Population includes Israel.
Region Gaza and Bir Zeit near Ramallah.
Alternate names   Nawari, Dom, Near-Eastern Gypsy
Dialects Nawari.
Language use The first language of children in some places. Speakers also use South Levantine Spoken Arabic.
Comments They call themselves 'Dom'. A large number of loanwords from Arabic, Kurdish, and some other Iranian languages. Muslim.
   

Russia (Europe)

Language name   Domari
Region Karachi dialect is in the Caucasus, Luli and Maznoug in Uzbekistan.
Dialects Karachi, Luli, Maznoug.
Comments Muslim.
   

Sudan

Language name   Domari
Region Northern Sudan.
Comments Main clans in Sudan: Halabi, Ghajar. Muslim.
   

Syria

Language name   Domari
Population 10,000 in Syria (1961).
Region Turkey to India; Nawar is in Palestine, Syria, and Egypt; Kurbat in Syria and western Iran; Helebi in Egypt and Libya; Karachi in north Turkey, the Caucasus of Russia; and north Iran; Domaki and Wogri-Boli in India; Barake in Syria; Luli and Maznoug in Uzbekistan; other groups in Iran; Churi-Wali in Afghanistan.
Alternate names   Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene, Gypsy, Nawar, Kurbat, Barake
Dialects Nawar, Kurbati, Beirut, Nablos, Barake.
Comments Arabic influence. Muslim.
   

Turkey (Europe)

Language name   Domari
Population 28,461 in Turkey (2000 WCD).
Region Mainly in western Turkey, some in eastern Turkey.
Alternate names   Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene, Gypsy
Dialects Karachi, Beludji, Marashi.
Comments 500,000 Gypsies in Turkey speak Domari or varieties of Romani (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Muslim.