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Languages of Australia

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Commonwealth of Australia. 20,310,000. 170,000 are of Aboriginal descent, of whom 47,000 have some knowledge of an Aboriginal language. National or official language: English. Cocos Islands (569 in 1981), Christmas Island (3,000 in 1983), Norfolk Island (1,800 in 1985). Literacy rate: 99%. Immigrant languages: Adyghe, Afrikaans (12,700), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (30,000), Basque, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Eastern Yiddish, Estonian (5,600), Fijian Hindustani, Greek (107,000), Hebrew, Hmong Njua, Hungarian (5,760), Indo-Portuguese, Italian (500,000), Japanese (12,000), Korean (37,000), Lao, Latvian (25,000), Lithuanian (10,000), Maltese, Mambae, Mandaic, Northern Kurdish (11,000), Northern Uzbek, Nung, Piemontese, Polish (13,800), Pukapuka (140), Romanian (7,400), Scottish Gaelic, Senaya, Serbian (38,800), Slovene, Spanish (78,000), Standard German (135,000), Sylheti, Tai Dam, Tongan, Traveller Scottish, Turkish (40,000), Turoyo (2,000), Unserdeutsch, Uyghur, Vietnamese (35,000), Western Cham, Western Farsi (11,000), Yue Chinese. Also includes Malay, Arabic (250,000), Chinese (190,000), many languages of Europe. Information mainly from P. Black 1983; J. Hudson 1987; W. and L. Oates 1970; A. Schmidt 1990; B. Waters 1989; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 28,000. Deaf population: Estimated to be 9,000 to 1,096,008 (1998). Deaf institutions: 116. The number of individual languages listed for Australia is 274. Of those, 161 are living languages, 2 are second languages without mother-tongue speakers, and 111 have no known speakers.
Adnyamathanha

[adt] 130 (1996 census). Southern Australia, Flinders Ranges area, Nepabunna. Alternate names: Ad’n’amadana, Adynyamathanha, Anjimatana, Anjiwatana, Archualda, Benbakanjamata, Binbarnja, Gadjnjamada, Jandali, Kanjimata, Keydnjmarda, Mardala, Nimalda, Nuralda, Umbertana, Unyamootha, Wailbi, Wailpi, Waljbi, Wipie.  Dialects: Related to Guyani [gvy], Banggarla [bjb], Nugunu [nnv], Narungga [nnr], which may have no remaining speakers.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura  Nearly extinct.
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Aghu Tharnggalu

[ggr] Extinct. Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, Laura. Alternate names: Ikarranggali, Kuku-Mini.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama 
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Alawa

[alh] 18 (1991 M. Sharpe). There are 4 semi-speakers. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper River. Alternate names: Kallana, Leealowa.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Alawic  Nearly extinct.
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Alngith

[aid] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, northeast Cape York Peninsula just north of Weipa. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama 
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Alyawarr

[aly] 1,450 (1996 census). Northern Territory and Queensland, Sandover and Tennant Creek areas. Alternate names: Aljawara, Alyawarra, Alyawarre, Iliaura, Yowera.  Dialects: Related to Western Arrarnte [are], Anmatyerre [amx], Kaytetye [gbb].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic 
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Amarag

[amg] 5. Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Goulburn Island. Alternate names: Amurag, Wureidbug.  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Amaragic  Nearly extinct.
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Ami

[amy] 32 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Coast along Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. Alternate names: Ame, Amijangal.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Wadjiginy [wdj].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy  Nearly extinct.
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Andegerebinha

[adg] 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Hay River, Pituri Creek area, east of Alyawarra. Alternate names: Andigibinha, Antekerrepinhe.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic  Nearly extinct.
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Angloromani

[rme] 5,000 in Australia (1985).  Alternate names: English Romani, Pogadi Chib, Romanichal.  Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani 
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Anindilyakwa

[aoi] 1,240 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Groote Eylandt, Gulf of Carpenteria. Alternate names: Andiljangwa, Andilyaugwa, Aninhdhilyagwa, Enindhilyagwa, Enindiljaugwa, Groote Eylandt, Ingura, Wanindilyaugwa.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa 
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Anmatyerre

[amx] 1,220 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Mt. Allen, Northwest Alice Springs region. Alternate names: Anmatjirra, Anmatyerr.  Dialects: Eastern Anmatyerre, Western Anmatyerre (Kalenthelkwe, Kelenthwelkere, Kelentheyewelrere).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic 
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Antakarinya

[ant] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southern Australia, Northeast area. Alternate names: Andagarinya.  Dialects: Most similar to Warnman [wbt].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati  Nearly extinct.
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Arabana

[ard] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Southern Australia, west side Lake Eyre to Stuart Range, Maree, Port Augusta. Alternate names: Arabunna.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku 
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Areba

[aea] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, southwest Cape York Peninsula, Bilbert River, northeast of Normanton. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama 
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Arrarnta, Western

[are] 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Alice Springs area, Hermannsburg. Alternate names: Aranda, Arunta.  Dialects: Western Aranda, Akerre (Akara), Southern Aranda. Similar to Alyawarr [aly], Kaytetye [gbb].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic 
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Arrernte, Eastern

[aer] 3,820 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Alice Springs area (Mparntwe), Santa Teresa (Ltyentye Apurte), Alcoota, Harts Range (Artetyerre), Bonya (Uthipe Atherre), Amoonguna (Amwengkwerne). Alternate names: Arunta, Eastern Aranda.  Dialects: Mparntwe Arrernte, Ikngerripenhe, Akarre, Antekerrepenh. Related to Alyawarr [aly], Western Arrarnta [are], Anmatyerre [amx], Kaytetye [gbb].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic 
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Atampaya

[amz] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, extreme north Cape York Peninsula, Eliot Creek. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama 
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Australian Aborigines Sign Language

[asw]  Southern Australia, central, and west desert regions, coastal Arnhem Land, some north coast islands, west side of Cape York Peninsula, islands of Torres Strait. Dialects: Not related to Australian Sign Language [asf].  Classification: Deaf Sign language 
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Australian Sign Language

[asf] 14,000.  Alternate names: Auslan.  Dialects: Related to British Sign Language [bfi], with influences also from Irish [isg] and American sign languages [ase].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Awabakal

[awk] Extinct. New South Wales, Lake Macquarie, south from Newcastle. Alternate names: Awabagal.  Dialects: Awabagal, Cameeragal, Wonarua.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi 
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Ayabadhu

[ayd] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, north of Coleman River, south of Coen. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Badimaya

[bia] 20 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Western Australia, northeast of Moora to south of Cue; east to Paynes Find; west to Mullewa. Alternate names: Parti-Maya, Widimaya.  Dialects: Related to Wajarri [wbv].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari  Nearly extinct.
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Bandjalang

[bdy] 10 (1983 R. Dixon). New South Wales, northeast, Woodenbong. Alternate names: Bandjelang, Bogganger, Bundala, Gidabal, Yugumbe.  Dialects: Gidabal (Gidhabal), Yugumbir.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Bandjalangic  Nearly extinct.
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Bandjigali

[bjd] 1 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). New South Wales, northwest, north, and west of White Cliffs. Alternate names: Baarrundji, Barindji, Marrawarra, Maruara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji  Nearly extinct.
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Banggarla

[bjb] Extinct. Southern Australia, Port Lincoln to Spencer Gulf head. Alternate names: Bahanga-La, Bangala, Banggala, Barngarla, Bungeha, Bungela, Kortabina, Pakarla, Pangkala, Pankalla, Parnkala, Parnkalla, Punkalla.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura 
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Bardi

[bcj] 380 (1996 census). Includes 16 Bardi dialect, 3 Jawi dialect. Western Australia, Western Kimberley region, One Arm Point Aboriginal Community, Lombadina Aboriginal Community, Broome, Derby. Alternate names: Baadi, Baardi, Badi, Bard.  Dialects: Bardi, Jawi. Intelligibility adequate between Bardi and Jawi dialects. Related to Nyikina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Djawi [djw], Nimanbur [nmp], Nyulnyul [nyv], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Dyugun [dyd], Yawuru [ywr].  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Barrow Point

[bpt] Extinct. Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, Barrow Point on Princess Charlotte Bay and inland. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr 
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Bayali

[bjy] Extinct. Queensland, Fitzroy River mouth inland to Boomer Range at Marlborough, Yeppon, Yamba, and Rockhampton. Alternate names: Biyali, Charumbul, Darambal, Darawal, Darumbal, Kooinmarburra, Kuinmurbara, Ningebal, Orambul, Tarumbal, Tharumbal, Urambal, Warabal, Yetimarala.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Kingkel 
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Bayungu

[bxj] 6 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, lower Lyndon and Minilya rivers, West Pilbara. Alternate names: Baiong, Baiung, Bajungu, Biong, Giong, Mulgarnoo, Pajungu, Payungu.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara  Nearly extinct.
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Bidyara

[bym] 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, between Tambo and Augathella, Warrego and Langlo rivers. Alternate names: Bidjara, Bithara, Bitjara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric  Nearly extinct.
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Biri

[bzr] Extinct. Queensland southeast of Charters Towers. Alternate names: Wirri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Broome Pearling Lugger Pidgin

[bpl] 40 speakers. Broome, Lombardinie, Beagle Bay, La Grange, One Arm Point, Derby. Alternate names: Broom Creole, Japanese Pidgin English, Koepang Talk, Malay Talk.  Classification: Pidgin, Malay based 
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Bunaba

[bck] 160 (1996 census). Western Australia, Fitzroy Crossing area. Alternate names: Bunuba, Punapa, Punuba.  Classification: Australian, Bunaban 
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Burarra

[bvr] 700 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Maningrida. Alternate names: Anbarra, Barera, Bawera, Burada, Bureda, Burera, Gidjingaliya Gujingalia, Gujalabiya, Gun-Guragone, Jikai, Tchikai.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran 
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Burduna

[bxn] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Henry and upper Lyndon rivers. Alternate names: Boordoona, Budina, Budoona, Buduna, Pinneegooroo, Poodena, Poordoona, Purduma, Purduna.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Kanyara  Nearly extinct.
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Dagoman

[dgn] Extinct. Northern Territory. Dialects: Very similar to Wardaman [wrr].  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic 
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Darling

[drl] 5. New South Wales, Darling River basin. Alternate names: Baagandji, Kula, Southern Baagandji.  Dialects: Kula, Wiljakali (Wilyagali), Bagundji (Baagandji, Bagandji). Bagundji widely understood by others (Oates and Oates 1970).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Baagandji  Nearly extinct.
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Dayi

[dax] 70 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper River, Yirrkala, Lake Evella, Galiwinku, Numbulwam. Alternate names: Dha’i, Dhay’yi.  Dialects: Dhalwangu, Djarrwark.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Dhalandji

[dhl] 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Exmouth Gulf head inland to Ashburton River, West Pilbara. Alternate names: Dalandji, Dalendi, Djalendi, Talaindji, Talandi, Talandji, Talangee, Tallainga, Taloinga, Thalantji, Thalanyji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji  Nearly extinct.
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Dhangu

[dhg] 350 (Black 1983). 200 in Gaalpu, 150 in Wangurri. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Elcho Island. Alternate names: Dangu, Dhangu’mi, Djangu.  Dialects: Dhangu-Djangu, Gaalpu (Kalbu), Wangurri, Ngaymil, Rirratjingu, Golumala.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu 
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Dhargari

[dhr] 6 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Kennedy Range, upper Minilya and lower Lyons rivers, West Pilbara. Alternate names: Dal’gari, Targari, Tarkarri, Thargari, Tharrgari, Tharrkari.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Dhurga

[dhu] Extinct. New South Wales, Bermagui to Jervis Bay. Alternate names: Dhu’rga, Durga, Tharumba, Thoorga.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin 
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Dhuwal

[duj] 3,650 (1996 census). Includes 200 Djapu, 160 Liyagalawumirr (clan names). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper River. Alternate names: Dual, Duala, Wulamba.  Dialects: Dhuwaya, Dhuwal, Liyagawumirr, Marrangu, Marrakulu, Djapu, Liyagalawumirr, Datiwuy.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Dieri

[dif] Extinct. Southern Australia, Leigh Creek. Alternate names: Diyari.  Dialects: Related to Ngamini [nmv] which may have no remaining speakers.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Dirari

[dit] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Southern Australia, east of Lake Eyre North. Alternate names: Dhirari.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Djambarrpuyngu

[djr] 450 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Elcho Island. Alternate names: Djambarbwingu, Jambapuing, Jambapuingo.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Djamindjung

[djd] 30 (Schmidt 1991). Northern Territory, Victoria River. Alternate names: Jaminjung.  Dialects: Ngaliwuru (Ngaliwerra).  Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan  Nearly extinct.
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Djangun

[djf] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Mt. Mulligan south to Alma-den, east to Dimbula, west to Mungana. Alternate names: Adho-Adhom, Butju, Chungki, Chunkumberries, Chunkunburra, Jangun Djanggun, Koko-Mudju, Koko-Tyankun, Mutyu, Ngaigungo.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic 
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Djauan

[djn]  Northern Territory, Bamyili settlement, Katherine. Alternate names: Adowen, Jawan, Jawony, Jawoyn, Kumertuo.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Djauanic 
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Djawi

[djw] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Western Australia, islands from King Sound to Brunswick Bay. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Djeebbana

[djj] 100. West Arnhem Land, Maningrida north coast area. Alternate names: Gunavidji, Ndjébbana.  Dialects: Not closely related to other languages.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran 
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Djinang

[dji] 120 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Ramingining, Goyder, and Blyth rivers. Alternate names: Jandijinung.  Dialects: Djadiwitjibi, Mildjingi, Wulaki, Balurbi, Murrungun, Manyarring.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang 
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Djinba

[djb] 60 (Waters 1989). Includes 70 Ganalbingu (Black 1983). Dabi nearly extinct (1991 SIL). Northern Territory in Ngangalala, Arnhem Land, southeast adjoining Djinang area. Dialects: Ganalbingu, Dabi, Mandjalpingu. Lexical similarity: 60% with Djinang [dji].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Djinang 
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Djingili

[jig] 10 (1997). Northern Territory, Elsey Station, Newcastle Waters, Ash Burton Range area, Elliott. Alternate names: Chingalee, Chunguloo, Djingila, Djingulu, Jingali, Jingulu, Lee, Tchingalee, Tjingilu.  Classification: Australian, West Barkly  Nearly extinct.
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Djiwarli

[djl] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Western Australia, northwest, north of Mount Augustus. Alternate names: Djwarli, Thiin, Tjiwarli.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda 
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Dyaabugay

[dyy] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Barron River south of Mareeba to Kuranda, north to Port Douglas on a plateau. Alternate names: Bulum-Bulum, Check-Cull, Chewlie, Djabugai, Dyabugay, Hileman, Kikonjunkulu, Kodgotto, Koko-Tjumbundji, Kokonyungalo, Ngarlkajie, Orlow, Tjabakai-Thandji, Tjabogaijanji, Tjankir, Tjankun, Tjapukai, Tjapunkandji, Tjunbundji.  Dialects: Njakali (Nyakali, Nyagali), Dyaabugay, Gulay.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic  Nearly extinct.
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Dyaberdyaber

[dyb] Extinct. Western Australia, coast south of Beagle Bay and inland. Alternate names: Jabirr-Jabirr.  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Dyangadi

[dyn] 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). New South Wales, Kempsey area, Armidale, Macleay River. Alternate names: Boorkutti, Burgadi, Dainggati, Dangadi, Dangati, Danggadi, Danggetti, Djan-Gadi, Ghangatty, Tangetti, Thangatti, Thangatty.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi  Nearly extinct.
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Dyirbal

[dbl] 40 (1983 R. Dixon). Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert River headwaters to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa, and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. Alternate names: Djirubal.  Dialects: Dyiru, Girramay (Keramai), Gulnguy (Gulngay), Mamu, Ngadjan (Ngatjan).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic  Nearly extinct.
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Dyugun

[dyd] Extinct. Western Australia, Broome coast area and inland. Alternate names: Jukun.  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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English

[eng] 17,400,000 in Australia (2006).  Dialects: Australian Standard English, Aboriginal English, Neo-Nyungar (Noonga, Noongar, Noogar).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Erre

[err] Extinct. Northern Territory, Red Lily area west of Oenpelli; around East Alligator River, Mt. Howship. Alternate names: Ari, Ere.  Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu 
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Flinders Island

[fln] Extinct. Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, Flinders Island, Princess Charlotte Bay. Alternate names: Yalgawarra.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Flinders Island 
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Gadjerawang

[gdh] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia and Northern Territory, north coast from Wyndham to mouth of Victoria River and inland. Alternate names: Gadjerong, Kajirrawung.  Classification: Australian, Djeragan  Nearly extinct.
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Gagadu

[gbu] 6 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Oenpelli. Alternate names: Abdedal, Abiddul, Gaagudju, Kakadu, Kakakta, Kakdju, Kakdjuan.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gagudjuan  Nearly extinct.
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Gambera

[gma] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Western Australia, Admiralty Gulf, far north Kimberleys area. Alternate names: Gamberre, Gambre, Gamgre, Guwan, Kambera.  Classification: Australian, Wororan 
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Gamilaraay

[kld] 3 (1997 Coonabarabran Public School). Central northern New South Wales along Barwon, Bundarra, Balonne rivers, Liverpool Plains and upper Hunter River. Alternate names: Camileroi, Gamilaroi, Kamilaroi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric  Nearly extinct.
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Ganggalida

[gcd] Extinct. All Tangkic languages except Kayardild [gyd] have no remaining speakers. Queensland near Bourketown. Alternate names: Ganggalita, Jakula, Jugula, Kangkalita, Yokula, Yugulda, Yukala, Yukulta.  Dialects: Kangkalita, Nguburindi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic 
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Gangulu

[gnl] Extinct. Queensland around Isaac River, west of Marlborough. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Garawa

[gbc] 110 (1996 census). May be 10 Wanji speakers (2000 N. Adams). Northern Territory, Borroloola; Queensland, Doomadgee. Waanyi originally in North Australia. Alternate names: Gaarwa, Garrwa, Karawa, Leearrawa, Garrawa.  Dialects: Wanji (Wainyi, Waanyi).  Classification: Australian, Garawan 
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Garig-Ilgar

[ilg] Extinct. Last speaker died in 2003. Northern Territory, Mainland of Cobourg Peninsula, Port Essington area. Dialects: Ilgar, Garig.  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic 
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Giyug

[giy] 2 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Anson Bay, Peron Islands, southwest of Darwin. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy  Nearly extinct.
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Gooniyandi

[gni] 100 (Schmidt 1991). Western Australia, Gogo, Fossil Downs, Louisa, and Margaret River stations. Alternate names: Gunian, Guniandi, Guniyan, Guniyandi, Guniyn, Konejandi, Koneyandi, Kunan, Kunian, Kuniyan.  Classification: Australian, Bunaban  Nearly extinct.
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Gudanji

[nji] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Barkly Tableland, northeast of Lake Woods, Tennant Creek, Elliott, and Borroloola. Alternate names: Kurdanji, Ngarnga.  Dialects: Binbinka, Ngarnga.  Classification: Australian, West Barkly  Nearly extinct.
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Gugadj

[ggd] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, north coast, west of Karumba inland on Norman River. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Flinders Pama 
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Gugu Badhun

[gdc] Extinct. Queensland, west of Ingham and Abergowrie almost to Einasleigh. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Gugu Warra

[wrw] Extinct. Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, west bank of Normanby River. Alternate names: Guguwarra, Kuku-Wara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman 
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Gugubera

[kkp] 15 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 50 (Schmidt 1991). Queensland, Mission River mouth area, Mitchell River. Alternate names: Berang, Kok Kaber, Koko Bera, Koko Pera, Kukubera, Paperyn.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Coastal Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Guguyimidjir

[kky] 740 (1996 census). 200–300 know and understand. Ethnic population: 400 (Schmidt 1991). Queensland, Hopevale. Alternate names: Gugu Yimijir, Gugu-Yimidhirr, Guugu Yimithirr, Koko Imudji, Kukuyimidir, Guugu Yimidhirr.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Guugu-Yimidhirr 
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Gumatj

[gnn] 300 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Yirrkala. Alternate names: Gomadj, Gumait, Gumaj.  Dialects: Mangalili.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Gungabula

[gyf] Extinct. Queensland, around Injune. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Gunwinggu

[gup] 1,410 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Oenpelli, Maningrida, Croker Island. Alternate names: Gunawitji, Gunwinjgu, Kunwinjku, Mayali.  Dialects: Gumadir, Muralidban, Gunei, Gundjeipme, Naiali.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic 
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Gunya

[gyy] Extinct. Queensland, around Wyandra. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Gupapuyngu

[guf] 450 (Black 1983). 500 use other Dhuwal varieties. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Milingimbi, Elcho Islands. Alternate names: Gobabingo, Gubabwingu.  Dialects: Gupapuyngu, Madarrpa, Manggalili, Munyuku, Wubulkarra, Walangu. About 45 related dialects. Similar to Gumatj [gnn].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Guragone

[gge] 20 (Schmidt 1991). Arnhem Land, south of Maningrida, Mann River area, northwest of Rembarunga [rmb], east of Gunwinyggu [gup]. Alternate names: Gorogone, Gun-Guragone, Gunagoragone, Gungorogone, Gurrgoni, Gurrogone, Gutjertabia.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran  Nearly extinct.
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Gurdjar

[gdj] 30 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Queensland, Northeast side of Norman River, Normanton. Alternate names: Kurtjjar.  Dialects: Speakers say similar to Kunggari [kgl].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Gureng Gureng

[gnr] Extinct. Queensland, southeast, Abercorn area, north Burnett River District. Alternate names: Gureng-Gureng, Gurreng Gurreng.  Dialects: Gurreng Gurreng dialect uses the trilled ‘r’.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Than 
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Gurinji

[gue] 540 (1996 census). 400 semispeakers. Northern Territory, Victoria River and Wave Hill, Kalkaringi. Alternate names: Gurindji, Wurlayi.  Dialects: Malngin, Wanyjirra (Wandjirra).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin 
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Guwamu

[gwu] Extinct. Queensland, between St. George, Moonie River, Surat, Maranoa River. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Guyani

[gvy] Extinct. South Australia, south Yorke Peninsula. Alternate names: Kijani, Kuyani, Kwiani.  Dialects: Similar to Narungga [nnr].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura 
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Iwaidja

[ibd] 150 (2000 N. Evans). Northern Territory, Croker Island. Alternate names: Eiwaja, Ibadjo, Iwaidji, Iwaydja, Jiwadja, Karadjee, Limba.  Dialects: Iwaydja.  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic 
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Jaru

[ddj] 340 (1996 census). Western Australia, southeast Kimberley region, Halls Creek, Ringers Soak. Alternate names: Djaru, Jaroo, Tjaru, Wawari.  Dialects: Nyininy, Djaru. Nyininy inherently intelligible with Jaru (Black 1983).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin 
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Kala Lagaw Ya

[mwp] 930 (1996 census). Queensland, Western Torres Strait Islands, Mabuiag, Badu, Moa, Kubin, Saibai, Boigu, Dauan, Yam, Sue, Yorke, Coconut, Thursday, Bamaga Islands; Townsville. Alternate names: Kala Lagau Langgus, Kala Lagaw, Kala Yagaw Ya, Langus, Mabuiag, Yagar Yagar, Central Torres Strait.  Dialects: Kalaw Kawaw.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Kala Lagaw Ya 
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Kalarko

[kba] Extinct. Western Australia, Fraser and Bremer ranges area. Alternate names: Galaagu, Kalaaku, Kalako, Kalakul, Malba, Malpa.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning 
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Kalkutung

[ktg] Extinct. Queensland, Mt. Isa area. Alternate names: Galgadungu, Galgaduun, Kalkadoon, Kalkatungu, Kalkutungu.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic 
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Kamu

[xmu] Extinct. Northern Territory, south of Darwin, east of Daly River. Alternate names: Gamor.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper 
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Kanju

[kbe] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Central Cape York. Alternate names: Gandanju, Gandju, Jabuda, Kaantyu, Kamdhue, Kandju, Kandyu, Kanyu, Karnu, Neogulada, Yaldiye-Ho.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Karadjeri

[gbd] 12 (1991 SIL). Western Australia, Roebuck Bay and inland, Broome, La Grange mission. Alternate names: Garadjiri, Garadyari, Gard’are, Guradjara, Karajarri, Karrajarri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu  Nearly extinct.
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Kariyarra

[vka] Extinct. Western Australia, south of Port Hedland. Alternate names: Gariera, Kariera, Kariyara, Karriara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda 
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Kayardild

[gyd] Ethnic population: 150 (2000 N. Evans). Queensland, Bentinck Island, Gulf of Carpentaria. Alternate names: Gajadilt, Gajardild, Gayadilt, Gayardild, Gayardilt, Kaiadilt, Malununda.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic  Nearly extinct.
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Kaytetye

[gbb] 200 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, North of Alice Springs. Alternate names: Gaididj, Kaiditj, Kaititj.  Dialects: Related to Alyawarr [aly].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Arandic 
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Kitja

[gia] 410 (1996 census). Western Australia, Near Hall’s Creek and Turkey Creek. Alternate names: Gidja, Kidja, Kija.  Dialects: Most similar to Miriwung [mep].  Classification: Australian, Djeragan 
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Kokata

[ktd] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South Australia, Pimba, Mt. Eba, Coober Peby. Alternate names: Gugada, Kokatha, Kokitta, Koocatho, Koogurda, Kugurda, Kukata, Madutara, Maduwonga, Wanggamadu, Wongamardu.  Dialects: Different from Kukatja [kux].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati  Nearly extinct.
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Kriol

[rop] 10,000 (1991 B. Borneman). Western Australia, Northern Territory, Kimberley region, Roper River, Katherine areas, Ngukurr; Queensland, Gulf Country, Lower Cape York Peninsula. Alternate names: Roper-Bamyili Creole.  Dialects: Roper River Kriol (Roper River Pidgin), Bamyili Creole, Barkly Kriol, Fitzroy Valley Kriol, Daly River Kriol. Both Kriol and Torres Strait Creole [tes] are spreading and are nearly overlapping in Queensland.  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Kukatja

[kux] 580 (1996 census). Western Australia, Balgo, Lake Gregory and east, south of Halls Creek. Alternate names: Gugadja, Kukaja.  Dialects: Different from Kokata [ktd].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Kuku-Mangk

[xmq] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Alternate names: Kugu-Mangk.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Kuku-Mu’inh

[xmp] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Alternate names: Kugu-Mu’inh.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Kuku-Muminh

[xmh] 31 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Alternate names: Kugu, Kugu-Muminh, Wik Muminh, Wik-Mumin.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Kuku-Ugbanh

[ugb] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, west coast Cape York Peninsula below Aurukun. Alternate names: Kugu-Ugbanh.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Kuku-Uwanh

[uwa] 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, east coast south of Aurukun. Alternate names: Kugu-Uwanh.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Kuku-Yalanji

[gvn] 240 (1996 census), increasing. Queensland,Wujal-Wujal, Bloomfield River (Ayton), Daintree and Mossman, between Cooktown and Mossman. Alternate names: Guguyalanji, Koko-Yalanji, Kuku-Yalangi.  Dialects: Kuku-Nyungkul, Kuku-Biraji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic 
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Kumbainggar

[kgs] 10 (2000). New South Wales, Grafton and north coast. Alternate names: Baanbay, Gambalamam, Gumbaingari, Gumbaynggir, Kumbaingeri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Gumbaynggiric  Nearly extinct.
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Kunbarlang

[wlg] 75 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Oenpelli, Maningrida, and Goulburn Island. Alternate names: Gunbalang, Gunbarlang, Gungalang, Walang, Warlang.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gunwinggic  Nearly extinct.
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Kungarakany

[ggk] Extinct. Northern Territory, Finniss River; south of Darwin, Darwin River and Rum Jungle area. Alternate names: Gunerakan, Gungaragan, Gungarakanj, Kangarraga, Kungarakan.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Gungaraganyan 
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Kunggara

[kvs] 10 (SIL). Queensland, Normanton, Delta. Alternate names: Goom-Gharra, Gunggara, Kunggera.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Kunggari

[kgl] Extinct. Queensland, Upper Nebine and Mungallala Creeks. Alternate names: Coongurri, Gungari, Gunggari, Ungorri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Kunjen

[kjn] 20 (1991 B. Sommer). 40 with some knowledge. Ethnic population: 300 (1991 Bruce Sommer). Queensland, Wrotham Park, Kowanyama, Edward River. Alternate names: Guguminjen, Kukumindjen.  Dialects: Ulkulu, Oykangand (Olgol, Olgolo, Olgel, Ogondyan).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Central Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Kurrama

[vku] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, northwest, southeast of Pannawonica. Alternate names: Gurama, Karama, Korama, Kurama.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Kuthant

[xut] Extinct. Queensland, southwest Cape York Peninsula, north of Karumba and Normanton. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Norman Pama 
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Kuuku-Ya’u

[kuy] 21 (1996 census). Queensland, northeastern Cape York Peninsula south of Temple Bay. Alternate names: Bagadji, Koko-Ja’o, Kokoyao, Pakadji, Ya’o, Gugu Yau.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Kwini

[gww] 50 (Black 1983). Western Australia, Kalumburu. Alternate names: Cuini, Gunin, Gwiini, Gwini, Kunan, Wunambal.  Classification: Australian, Wororan  Nearly extinct.
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Lamu-Lamu

[lby] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Bamiga, and Coen. Alternate names: Lama-Lama, Lamalama, Lamulamul, Mba Rumbathama.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic 
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Laragia

[lrg] Extinct. Northern Territory, Darwin area. Alternate names: Gulumirrgin, Laragiya, Larakia, Larakiya.  Classification: Australian, Laragiyan 
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Lardil

[lbz] 2 (2000 N. Evans). Queensland, Mornington Island. Alternate names: Kunana, Ladil, Laierdila, Lardill.  Dialects: Related to Kayardild [gyd], Nyangga [nny], Ganggalida [gcd].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Lardil  Nearly extinct.
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Leningitij

[lnj] Extinct. Queensland, Winduwinda area. Alternate names: Linngithig, Linngithigh.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama 
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Limilngan

[lmc] Extinct. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, between Mary River and W. Alligator River, coast and inland. Alternate names: Manadja, Minitji.  Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna 
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Madngele

[zml] 15 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly River, west bank of Muldiva River. Alternate names: Maangella, Madngela, Mandella, Matngala, Matngele, Muttangulla, Warat.  Dialects: Related to Kamu [xmu].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Daly Proper  Nearly extinct.
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Malay, Cocos Islands

[coa] 1,000 in Australia. 495 in Cocos Islands (1987), 558 on Christmas Island (1987). Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Christmas Island. Alternate names: Cocos, Kokos, Kukus.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Sumbawan, North and East, Malayic, Malay, Trade 
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Malgana

[vml] Extinct. Western Australia, Shark Bay, south of Wooramel River to near Hamelin Pool. Alternate names: Maldjana, Maljanna, Malkana.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Malgana 
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Manangkari

[znk] Extinct. Northern Territory, Cobourg Peninsula. Dialects: Similar to Iwaidja [ibd].  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic 
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Manda

[zma] 25 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, coast southwest of Anson Bay, southwest of Darwin. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy  Nearly extinct.
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Mandandanyi

[zmk] Extinct. Queensland, Roma area, Maranoa River to near Miles and Wandoan. Alternate names: Mandandanjnjdji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Mangala

[mem] Extinct. Western Australia, southewest, Fitzroy, West Pilbara, Broome, Jurgurra Creek, Edgar Range. Alternate names: Djawali, Djuwali, Jiwali, Jiwarli, Koalgurdi, Manala, Mangalaa, Mangarla, Minala, Yalmbau.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mangala 
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Mangarayi

[mpc] 50 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Mataranka and Elsey stations. Alternate names: Mangarai, Mangarrayi, Manggarai, Mungarai, Mungerry, Ngarrabadji.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Mangarayic  Nearly extinct.
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Mangerr

[zme] Extinct. Arnhem Land, Oenpelli area. Alternate names: Giimbiyu, Mangerei, Mangeri, Mengerrdji, Mennagi.  Dialects: Similar to Urningangg [urc].  Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu 
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Mara

[mec] 15 (1991 M. Sharpe). Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper River area. Alternate names: Leelalwarra, Leelawarra, Mala, Marra.  Dialects: Related to Wandarang [wnd].  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara  Nearly extinct.
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Maranunggu

[zmr] 15 (Black 1983). Southwest of Darwin, inland from Anson Bay, east of Manda. Alternate names: Emmi, Merranunggu, Warrgat.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy  Nearly extinct.
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Margany

[zmc] Extinct. Queensland, between Quilpie and Wyandra, Bulloo River and Paroo River. Alternate names: Marrganj.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Margu

[mhg] 1 (2000 N. Evans). Northern Territory, Croker Island. Alternate names: Ajokoot, Croker, Island, Jaako, Marrgu, Raffles Bay, Terrutong, Terutong, Yaako, Yako.  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Margic  Nearly extinct.
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Maridan

[zmd] 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Southwest of Darwin, north of Moyle River, east of Magadige. Alternate names: Meradan.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Maridjabin

[zmj] 20 (Oates and Oates 1970). Northern Territory, inland from Anson Bay, south of Mariyedi and Manda, southwest of Darwin. Alternate names: Maredyerbin, Maretyabin, Maridyerbin, Maritjabin.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Marithiel [mfr] or Maringarr [zmt].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Marimanindji

[zmm] 15 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, south of Darwin and Daly River, west of Muldiva River, near headwaters. Alternate names: Maramanandji, Maramarandji, Marimanindu, Marramaninjsji, Murinmanindji.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Maringarr

[zmt] 30 (Black 1983). Northern Territory south of Moyle River, southwest of Darwin. Alternate names: Marenggar, Maringa.  Dialects: Maranunggu (Marranunga, Maramanunggu, Merranunggu, Warrgat). May be intelligible with other Bringen languages. Lexical similarity: 40% with Mullukmulluk [mpb] and Murrinh-Patha [mwf].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Marithiel

[mfr] 25 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, south of Daly River and central Daly River; Daly River Mission, Bagot, Delissaville, Roper River Mission. Alternate names: Berringen, “Bringen” , “Brinken” , Maridhiel, Maridhiyel, Marithiyel, Marrithiyel.  Dialects: Marithiel, Nganygit, Mare-Ammu (Mari-Ammu).  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Mariyedi

[zmy] 20 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Inland from Anson Bay, south of Manda, southwest of Darwin. Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Marriammu

[xru] 5 (2006 A. Brown). Northern Territory, Wadeye, Belyuen. Alternate names: Mareammu.  Dialects: Similar to Maridjabin [zmj].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Marriammu  Nearly extinct.
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Marti Ke

[zmg] 3. Ethnic population: 100. Northern Territory, Wadeye, coast south from Moyle River estuary to Port Keat, southwest of Darwin. Alternate names: Magadige, Magati Gair, Magati-Ge, Mati Ke.  Dialects: Similar to Maringarr [zmt], Marithiel [mfr].  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Bringen  Nearly extinct.
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Martu Wangka

[mpj] 720 (1991 SIL). 100 in Wankajunga (1991). Western Australia, Jigalong area, west side of Lake Disappointment, Great Sandy Desert. Alternate names: Mardo, Targudi.  Dialects: Manyjilyjara (Mantjiltjara), Kartujarra (Kartutjara, Kardutjara, Kadaddjara, Kardutjarra, Kiadjara, Gardudjara, Gagudjara), Puditara (Budidjara, Putujara), Yulparitja (Yilparitja, Yulbaridja), Wangkajunga (Wangkajungka). Manyjilyjara and Kartujarra are 2 ethnic groups speaking almost identical dialects. High inherent intelligibility between the Yulparitja and Wangkajunga dialects. The Puditara dialect is extinct.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Martuyhunira

[vma] 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, northwest coast southwest of Dampier and inland. Alternate names: Martuthunira.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Maung

[mph] 240 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Goulburn Island, Arnhem Land. Alternate names: Gun-Marung, Gunmarung, Mawung, Mawng.  Dialects: Garig-Ilgar [ilg] reportedly related.  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic 
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Mayaguduna

[xmy] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Ruhlen 1987 and Wurm 2003). Queensland, near north coast, inland between Leichhardt and Flinders rivers. Alternate names: Mayi-Kutuna.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic 
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Maykulan

[mnt] Extinct. Queensland, Canobie. Alternate names: Mayi-Kulan, Mayi-Thakurti, Mayi-Yapi, Wunamara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic 
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Mbabaram

[vmb] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003).  Alternate names: Mbara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama 
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Mbara

[mvl] Extinct.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Mbara 
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Mbariman-Gudhinma

[zmv] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, Princess Charlotte Bay southwest coast. Alternate names: Rimang-Gudinhma.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mbariman 
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Meriam

[ulk] 320 (1996 census). Queensland, Murray Island, Eastern Torres Strait Islands. Alternate names: East Torres, Mer, Mir, Miriam, Miriam-Mir, Meriam Mir.  Dialects: Boigu, Bulgai, Buglial, Tagota.  Classification: Eastern Trans-Fly 
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Miriwung

[mep] 110 (1996 census). Western Australia, Kununurra, Turkey Creek. Alternate names: Merong, Miriwoong, Miriwun, Mirung.  Classification: Australian, Djeragan  Nearly extinct.
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Miwa

[vmi] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Western Australia, Drysdale River, far north Kimberleys area. Alternate names: Bagu.  Classification: Australian, Wororan 
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Mudbura

[mwd] 120 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Victoria River to Barkly Tablelands. Alternate names: Karranga, Mudburra, Pinkangama.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin  Nearly extinct.
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Mullukmulluk

[mpb] 9 (1988 SIL). Northern Territory, Daly River north bank. Alternate names: Malagmalag, Malak-Malak, Ngolak-Wonga, Nguluwongga.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper  Nearly extinct.
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Muluridyi

[vmu] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Mitchell River headwaters to Mt. Carbine, Rumula, Mareeba, Woodville. Alternate names: Binjara, Kokomoloroij, Kokomoloroitji, Kookanoona, Molloroidyi, Mooloroiji, Mularitchee, Mullridgey, Mulurutji, Waluridji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yalandyic 
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Murrinh-Patha

[mwf] 1,430 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Port Keats area, Wadeye. Alternate names: Garama, Murinbada, Murinbata.  Dialects: Murrinhpatha, Murrinhkura, Murrinhdiminin.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha 
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Muruwari

[zmu] Extinct. Queensland and New South Wales from Bollon, Dirranbandi, Weilmoringle, Bourke, almost to Cunnamulla. Alternate names: Murawari, Muruwarri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Muruwaric 
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Nakara

[nck] 75 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Maningrida, Arnhem Land, Goulburn Island. Alternate names: Kokori, Nagara, Nakkara.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Burarran 
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Nangikurrunggurr

[nam] 220 (1996 census). 40 Ngengiwumerri (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Mission, Tipperary Station, Flora and Daly rivers junction, Daly River. Alternate names: Nangikurunggurr, Ngangikarangurr, Ngankikurrunkurr, Ngenkikurrunggur.  Dialects: Tyemeri (Moil, Ngankikurrunkurr), Ngenkiwumerri (Nangumiri, Nangiomeri, Angomerry, Marewumiri, Nangimera, Ngangomori), Ngangi-Tjemerri, Ngangi-Wumeri. Lexical similarity: 84% with the Ngengiwumerri dialect.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Murrinh-Patha 
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Narrinyeri

[nay] Extinct. South Australia. Alternate names: Ngarinyeri, Ngarrindjeri, Yaralde.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Ngarinyeric-Yithayithic 
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Ngaanyatjarra

[ntj] 990 (1996 census). Western Australia, Warburton Ranges. Alternate names: Ngaanjatjarra, Ngaanyatjara, Nyanganyatjara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Ngadjunmaya

[nju] 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Eyre’s Sand Patch, Goddard Creek to Port Malcolm, to Fraser Range, to Naretha and Point Culver, at Mount Andres, Russell Range, Balladonia, and Norseman. Alternate names: Badonjunga, Bardojunga, Ngadju, Ngadjumaja, Ngadjunmaia, Ngatju, Ngatjumay, Tchaakalaaga.  Dialects: Related to Kalarko [kba].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Mirning  Nearly extinct.
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Ngalakan

[nig] Extinct. Northern Territory, Roper River area. Alternate names: Hongalla, Ngalangan, Ngalakgan.  Dialects: Related to Ngalkbun [ngk], Rembarunga [rmb].  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic 
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Ngalkbun

[ngk] 20 (2000 N. Evans). Northern Territory, Katherine area, Oenpell, Arnhem Land. Alternate names: Bouin, Boun, Buan, Buin, Buwan, Dalabon, Dangbon, Gundangbon, Nalabon, Ngalabon, Ngalkbon.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Ngalkbun  Nearly extinct.
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Ngamini

[nmv] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). South Australia, Narburton Creekarea. Alternate names: Karangura, Yarluyandji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Ngandi

[nid] Extinct. Northern Territory, Upper Wilton River. Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa 
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Nganyaywana

[nyx] Extinct. New South Wales, northeast, between Inverell, Ashford, and Glen Innes. Alternate names: Aniwan, Nganjaywana.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyangadi 
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Ngarinman

[nbj] 170 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Victoria River around Jasper Creek. Alternate names: Airiman, Hainman, Ngaiman, Ngrarmun.  Dialects: Bilinara (Pilinara).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin 
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Ngarinyin

[ung] 82 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Derby to King River, Kimberley. Alternate names: Ungarinjin, Ungarinyin.  Dialects: Wilawila, Wolyamidi, Guwidj, Wurla (Worla, Worlaja, Wula, Ola, Walar, Wuladja, Wuladjangari).  Classification: Australian, Wororan 
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Ngarla

[nlr] 8 (1991 SIL). 10 semispeakers. Western Australia, Port Hedland area. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Ngarluma

[nrl] 21 (1996 census). Western Australia, northwest coast around Roebourne and inland. Alternate names: Gnalluma, Gnalouma, Ngallooma, Ngaluma.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Ngawun

[nxn] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, southwest of Croydon, between Flinders River and Norman River. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Mayabic 
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Ngura

[nbx] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Northwest New South Wales, southwest Queensland. Dialects: Punthamara (Bundhamara), Kalali (Galali, Garlali), Wongkumara (Wangkumara, Wangumarra), Badjiri, Bidjara, Dhiraila, Garandala, Mambangura, Mingbari, Ngurawarla, Yarumarra. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list the dialects as separate languages.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Ngura 
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Ngurmbur

[nrx] Extinct. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, between West and South Alligator rivers, northeast of Umbugarla. Alternate names: Gnormbur, Gnumbu, Koarnbut, Ngormbur, Ngumbur, Oormbur.  Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur 
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Nhanda

[nha]  Western Australia, Shark Bay coast south to Kalbarri. Alternate names: Nanda, Nanta, Nhanta, Nubda, Nunta.  Dialects: Bulinya.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda  Nearly extinct.
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Nhuwala

[nhf] 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, northwest, Barrow and Monte Bello Islands and nearby coast. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Nijadali

[nad] 6 (1990 SIL). Western Australia, Marblebar, possibly Nulagine. Alternate names: Bailko, Balgu, Balygu, Jauna, Njijapali, Nyiyabali, Nyiypali, Paljgu, Palyku.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nijadali  Nearly extinct.
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Nimanbur

[nmp] Extinct. Western Australia, southwest of King Sound, and inland. Alternate names: Nimanburru.  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Nugunu

[nnv] Extinct. South Australia, south of Gugada [ktd] to coast west to Fowler’s Bay and east to Streaky Bay, east Spencer Gulf. Alternate names: Doora, Njuguna, Nokunna, Noocoona, Nookoona, Nuguna, Nukana, Nukuna, Nukunnu, Nukunu, Pukunna, Tjura, Tyura, Wallaroo, Warra, Wongaidya.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yura 
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Nungali

[nug] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Northern Territory, Upper Daly River area. Classification: Australian, Djamindjungan 
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Nunggubuyu

[nuy] 360 (1996 census). 400 semispeakers or L2 only. Northern Territory, Numbulwar, east Arnhem Land. Alternate names: Nunggubuju, Wubuy, Yingkwira.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Enindhilyagwa 
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Nyamal

[nly] 20 (1991 SIL). Western Australia, northwest, Bamboo Creek area, Marble Bar, Nullagine, to coast just east of Port Hedland. Alternate names: Gnamo, Namel, Njamal, Njamarl, Nyamel.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Nyangga

[nny] Extinct. Queensland, Gilbert River head, south of Forsayth to Gledswood, Gregory Range to Oak Park and Glenora; Northern Territory, coast east of Robinson River. Alternate names: Jang-Kala, Janga, Jangaa, Jangga, Njangga, Njanggala, Yangarella, Yanggal, Yangkaal, Yuckamurri.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Tangic 
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Nyangumarta

[nna] 260 (1996 census). Western Australia, Marble Bar, Port Hedlund, Tjalku Wara. Alternate names: Nyangumarda, Nyangumata.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Marngu 
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Nyawaygi

[nyt] Extinct. Northeast Queensland, Herberton south to Herbert River headwaters, to Cashmere, at Ravenshoe, Millaa Millaa and Woodleigh, east to Tully Falls. Alternate names: Nawagi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic 
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Nyigina

[nyh] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Lower Fitzroy River. Alternate names: Njigina, Nyikina.  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan  Nearly extinct.
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Nyulnyul

[nyv] Extinct. Western Australia, West Kimberley, coast around Beagle Bay. Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Nyunga

[nys] 170 (1996 census). Southwest Australia. Alternate names: Neo-Nyunga, Nyungar.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Nyungar  Nearly extinct.
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Pakanha

[pkn] 10 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, central Cape York Peninsula, south of Coleman River. Alternate names: Bakanha.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Panytyima

[pnw] 50 (1972 B. Geytenbeek). Western Australia, northwest, east southeast of Tom Price. Alternate names: Bandjima, Banjima, Pandjima, Panjima, Panjtjima, Panyjima.  Dialects: Related to Ngarla [nir], Tjurruru [tju] which may have no remaining speakers, and Nyamal [nly].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda  Nearly extinct.
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Pini

[pii] 10. Western Australia, Three Rivers. Alternate names: Bini, Birni, Piniritjara, Pirniritjara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati  Nearly extinct.
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Pinigura

[pnv] 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, northwest, inland on Duck Creek. Alternate names: Binigura, Pinikura.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Dhalandji  Nearly extinct.
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Pintiini

[pti] 250 (Black 1983). Western Australia, north edge of Nullabor Plain from north of Hughes. Alternate names: Pindiini, Wangada, Wanggaji, Wangkatja, Wonga, Wongai-I, Wonggaii.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Pintupi-Luritja

[piu] 390 (1996 census). 90% monolingual. Western Australia, Northern Territory, Papunya settlement, Yuendumu and Kintore, Balgo Hills. Alternate names: Binddibu, Loridja, Pintubi, Pintupi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Pirlatapa

[bxi] Extinct. South Australia, Lake Blanche area, Lake Callabonn. Alternate names: Biladaba.  Dialects: Similar to Dieri [dif].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Pitcairn-Norfolk

[pih]   Alternate names: Pitcairn English.  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Pitjantjatjara

[pjt] 2,120 (1996 census). 80% monolingual. Northwest South Australia, Pitjantjatjara Freehold lands, Yalata. Alternate names: Pitjantjara.  Dialects: Yankunytjatjara, Pitjantjatjara (Pithantjatjarra).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Pitta Pitta

[pit] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Boulia. Alternate names: Bida-Bida, Bidhabidha, Pita Pita, Pitha-Pitha.  Dialects: Related to Wanggamala [wnm].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku 
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Rembarunga

[rmb] 69 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Roper River area, Maningrida and outstations, Katherine area. Alternate names: Kaltuy, Rainbargo, Rembarranga, Rembarrnga.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Rembargic 
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Ritarungo

[rit] 94 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Eastern Arnhem Land (Rose River, Roper River). Alternate names: Ridarngo, Ridharrngu, Ritarnugu, Ritharngu, Ritharrngu, Wagelak, Wawilag.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhuwal 
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Thayore

[thd] 150 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1982 A. Hall). Queensland, west Cape York, between Edward and Coleman rivers. Alternate names: Behran, Gugudayor, Kuktayor, Kukudayore, Kuuk Thaayoore, Kuuk Thaayorre, Taior, Thaayore, Thayorre.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Western Pama 
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Thaypan

[typ] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, central Cape York Peninsula, Coleman River. Alternate names: Kuku-Thaypan.  Dialects: Related to Takalak.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Rarmul Pama 
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Thurawal

[tbh] Extinct. New South Wales, Port Hacking to Shoalhaven River. Alternate names: Dharawaal, Dharawal, Turrubul.  Dialects: Wadiwadi (Wodiwodi).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuin 
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Tiwi

[tiw] 1,830 (1996 census). Nonfluent speakers. Northern Territory, Bathurst and Melville Islands, Nguiu. Classification: Australian, Tiwian 
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Tjurruru

[tju] Extinct. Western Australia, northwest, Hardey River, southwest of Tom Price. Alternate names: Tjururu.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda 
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Torres Strait Creole

[tcs] 23,400 (Holm 1989). Torres Strait Islands, towns on upper Cape York, some towns on north Queensland east coast. Alternate names: Cape York Creole, Lockhart Creole, Torres Strait Broken, Torres Strait Pidgin, West Torres.  Dialects: Ap-Ne-Ap, Modern Langus. Lexical similarity: 80% with English.  Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific 
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Tyaraity

[woa] 10 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Delissaville. Originally near Reynold River mouth. Alternate names: Daktjerat, Djeradj, Djerag, Dyeraidy, Kuwema, Tjerait.  Classification: Australian, Daly, Malagmalag, Malagmalag Proper  Nearly extinct.
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Umbindhamu

[umd] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, north of Coen. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Umbindhamuic 
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Umbugarla

[umr] Extinct. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, southeast of Limilngan, between Mary River and South Alligator River. Alternate names: Mbakarla.  Classification: Australian, Umbugarla-Ngumbur 
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Umbuygamu

[umg] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, Princess Charlotte Bay east coast. Alternate names: Moroba-Lama.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Lamalamic 
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Umpila

[ump] 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Cape Sidmouth north nearly to Night Island. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northeastern Pama 
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Uradhi

[urf] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, northeast Cape York Peninsula, North Alice Creek. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Northern Pama 
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Urningangg

[urc] Extinct. Arnhem Land, northwest; upper reaches of Alligator River. Alternate names: Uningangk, Wuningak.  Dialects: Similar to Mangerr [zme].  Classification: Australian, Giimbiyu 
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Wadjiginy

[wdj] 12 (1988 SIL). Southwest of Darwin along coast and inland along Finniss River. Alternate names: Wagaydy, Wogaity.  Dialects: Pungupungu (Kuwama, Patjtjamalh, Kandjerramal).  Classification: Australian, Daly, Bringen-Wagaydy, Wagaydy  Nearly extinct.
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Wadjigu

[wdu] Extinct. Queensland, southwest of Fairbairn Reservoir. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Wagaya

[wga] Extinct. Northern Territory, Avon Downs, Camooweal, Austral Downs, area north of Lake Nash. Alternate names: Leewakya, Ukkia, Waagai, Waagi, Wagai, Wagaja, Waggaia, Wakaja, Wakaya, Wakkaja, Warkya, Worgai, Worgaia, Workia.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa 
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Wageman

[waq] 10 (2000). Northern Territory, South of Pine Creek, Tipperary Station, and Bagot. Alternate names: Wagiman, Wogeman.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Wagiman  Nearly extinct.
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Wajarri

[wbv] 50 (1981 W. Douglas). Ethnic population: 200 or fewer (1981 W. Douglas). Western Australia, Mt. Magnet to Geraldton. Alternate names: Wadjari, Wadjeri, Watjari, Watjarri.  Dialects: Related to Badimaya [bia].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wadjari  Nearly extinct.
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Wakawaka

[wkw] Extinct. Nanango north to Mt. Perry, west to Boyne River; Queensland, Kingaroy, Murgon, and Gayndah. Alternate names: Enibura, Nukunukubara, Waga, Waga-Waga, Wagawaga, Wakka.  Dialects: Duungidjawu, Wagawaga. Related to Wuliwuli [wlu].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan 
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Walmajarri

[wmt] 860 (1996 census). Western Australia, Fitzroy River valley area, Lake Gregory and La Grange. Alternate names: Pililuna, Walmajiri, Walmatjari, Walmatjiri, Wolmeri.  Dialects: Djuwarliny (Juwaliny, Tjuwalinj). The western group speaks the Juwaliny dialect.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngumbin 
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Wambaya

[wmb] 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Barkly Tableland, Limmen Bight and McArthur rivers headwaters; east of Lake Woods. Alternate names: Umbaia, Wambaia, Wambaja, Wom-By-A, Wombya, Yumpia.  Dialects: Wambaya, Binbinga (Binbinka), Gudandji. Black (1983) says dialects inherently intelligible.  Classification: Australian, West Barkly  Nearly extinct.
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Wamin

[wmi] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, south central Cape York Peninsula, Einasleigh River, northwest of Einasleigh. Alternate names: Agwamin.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Southern Pama 
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Wandarang

[wnd] Extinct. Northern Territory, Arnhem Land, Roper River area. Alternate names: Wandaran, Warndarang, Wuyarrawala.  Dialects: Related to Mara [mec].  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Maran, Mara 
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Wangaaybuwan-Ngiyambaa

[wyb] 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). New South Wales, Darling River, Barwon River, Yanda Creek, Bogan River. Dialects: Wangaaybuwan (Wongaibon, Wombungee, Wongagibun, Wonghibon, Wonghi, Wonjhibon), Ngiyambaa (Giamba, Narran, Noongaburrah, Ngeumba, Ngiamba, Ngiumba, Ngjamba, Ngumbarr), Wayilwan (Waljwan).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric  Nearly extinct.
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Wanggamala

[wnm] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Northern Territory, Hay River, south of Andegerebinha. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku 
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Wangganguru

[wgg] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Northern Territory, southeast corner. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Palku 
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Wanman

[wbt] 20 (1973 SIL). Western Australia, Marble Bar area, Nullagine Station, Strelley. Alternate names: Nanidjara, Nyaani, Warnman.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati  Nearly extinct.
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Waray

[wrz] Extinct. Northern Territory, Adelaide River area. Alternate names: Arwur, Awarai, Awarra, Warrai, Warray.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Warayan 
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Wardaman

[wrr] 50 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, upper Daly River. Alternate names: Wadaman, Waderman, Waduman, Warda’man, Wardman, Warduman, Wartaman, Wordaman.  Dialects: Similar to Yangman [jng] and Dagoman [dgn], which have no remaining speakers.  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic  Nearly extinct.
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Wariyangga

[wri] Extinct. Western Australia, southeast of Mount Augustus, West Pilbara. Alternate names: Warriyangka.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Inland Ngayarda 
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Warlmanpa

[wrl] 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Northern Territory, Mount Leichhardt area. Alternate names: Walmala.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga  Nearly extinct.
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Warlpiri

[wbp] 2,670 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Yuendumu, Ali Curung Willowra, Alice Springs, Katherine, Darwin, and Lajamanu. Alternate names: Elpira, Ilpara, Ngaliya, Ngardilpa, Wailbri, Walbiri, Walmama, Walpiri.  Dialects: Related to Warlmanpa [wrl].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Ngarga 
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Warluwara

[wrb] Extinct. Queensland, Roxborough Downs. Alternate names: Kapula, Maula, Mauula, Mawula, Parnkarra, Walookera, Walugera, Waluwara, Wollegara, Yunnalinka.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa 
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Warrgamay

[wgy] 3 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, coast south of Hinchinbrook Island, and inland along Herbert River. Alternate names: Biyay.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Dyirbalic  Nearly extinct.
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Warrwa

[wwr] Extinct. Western Australia, West Kimberley, Derby region. Alternate names: Warrawai, Warwa.  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan 
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Warumungu

[wrm] 520 (1996 census). Northern Territory, Tennant Creek area. Alternate names: Warramunga.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Warumungic 
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Warungu

[wrg] Extinct. Queensland, northeast of Einasleigh. Alternate names: Gudjala, Gugu-Badhun, Warrungu.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Maric 
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Wikalkan

[wik] 86 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Aurukun. Alternate names: Wik-Ngathara, Wik-Ngatharra, Wik-Ngathrr, Wikngatara.  Dialects: Wik-Ngandjara (Ngandjara), Ngadanja.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Wik-Epa

[wie] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Alternate names: Wik-Ep.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Wik-Iiyanh

[wij] 40 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, central Cape York Peninsula, southwest of Coen. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Wik-Keyangan

[wif] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Wik-Me’anha

[wih] 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, southeast of Aurukun. Alternate names: Wik-Em’an.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Wik-Mungkan

[wim] 840 (1996 census). Queensland, Edward River to Aurukun. Alternate names: Munkan, Wik-Mungkhn, Wik-Munkan.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Wik-Ngathana

[wig] 130 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, Cape York Peninsula, west coast below Aurukun. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama 
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Wikngenchera

[wua] 50 (Oates and Oates 1970). Queensland, Aurukun. Alternate names: Nantjara, Ngandjara, Ngantjeri, Njinturawik-Nganhcara, Wik, Wik-Nantjara.  Dialects: Related to Wikalkan [wik].  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Middle Pama  Nearly extinct.
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Wilawila

[wil] Extinct. Unlikely any speakers remain (Wurm 2003). Western Australia, central Kimberleys. Alternate names: Wila-Wila.  Classification: Australian, Wororan 
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Wiradhuri

[wrh] Extinct. New South Wales, Murray River to Macquarie River, Lachlan River area from junction with Murrumbidgee River to Parkes. Alternate names: Berrembeel, Warandgeri, Werogery, Wiiratheri, Wira-Athoree, Wiradhurri, Wiradjuri, Wiraduri, Wiraidyuri, Wirajeree, Wirashuri, Wiratheri, Wirracharee, Wirrai’yarrai, Wooragurie, Wordjerg.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wiradhuric 
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Wirangu

[wiw] 2 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). South Australia, coast between head of Bight and Streaky Bay head, and inland to Ooldea region. Alternate names: Nhawu, Njangga, Nyangga, Warrangoo, Wirongu, Wironguwongga, Wirrung, Wirrunga.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wirangu  Nearly extinct.
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Worimi

[kda] Extinct. New South Wales, between Hunter and Hastings rivers, from Port Macquarie to Hawkesbury River. Alternate names: Birbay, Gadang, Gadhang, Gadjang, Kattang, Warimi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Worimi 
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Worora

[unp] 20 (Schmidt 1991). Western Australia, Derby area, Collier Bay. Alternate names: Worrorra.  Dialects: Worora, Unggumi.  Classification: Australian, Wororan  Nearly extinct.
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Wuliwuli

[wlu] Extinct. Queensland, southwest, Dawson River, Baralaba, Banana, Theodore. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Waka-Kabic, Miyan 
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Wulna

[wux] 1 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Arnhem Land around Darwin, mouth of Adelaide River and inland. Classification: Australian, Limilngan-Wulna  Nearly extinct.
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Wunambal

[wub] 20 (Schmidt 1991). Western Australia, Kalumburu, Wyndham and Mowanjum. Alternate names: Jeidji, Jeithi, Unambal, Wumnabal, Wunambullu, Yeidji, Yeithi.  Dialects: Wunambal, Gambera, Miwa.  Classification: Australian, Wororan  Nearly extinct.
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Wurrugu

[wur] Extinct. Northern Territory, Cobourg Peninsula. Dialects: Similar to Iwaidja [ibd].  Classification: Australian, Yiwaidjan, Yiwaidjic 
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Yalarnnga

[ylr] Extinct. Queensland, Burke River area, Dajarra. Alternate names: Jalanga, Yalarrnga, Yelina, Yellanga, Yellunga.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Galgadungic 
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Yandruwandha

[ynd] Extinct. South Australia Moomba area, and east into Queensland. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Yangman

[jng] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, Elsey Creek and Katherine. Alternate names: Dagoman, Jungman.  Dialects: Very similar to Wardaman [wrr].  Classification: Australian, Gunwingguan, Yangmanic 
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Yankunytjatjara

[kdd] 73 (1996 census). South Australia, Yalata, Musgrave, and Everard Ranges, and east Pitjantjatjara freehold lands and surrounding areas. Alternate names: Jangkundjara, Kulpantja, Yankunjtjatjarra, Yankuntatjara.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Wati 
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Yan-nhangu

[jay] 40 (Black 1983). Northern Territory, 2 of westernmost Crocodile Islands, adjacent to Cape Stewart, Maningrida and Milingimbi. Alternate names: Jarnango, Nangu, Yanangu.  Dialects: Garmalangga, Gurjindi.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yuulngu, Dhangu  Nearly extinct.
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Yanyuwa

[jao] 52 (1996 census). Ethnic population: 113 (2000 WCD). Queensland, Borroloola, Northern Territory, Doomadgee. Alternate names: Aniula, Anula, Anyula, Janjula, Leeanuwa, Wadiri, Yanula, Yanyula.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yanyuwan 
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Yawarawarga

[yww] Extinct. South Australia and Queensland, north of Cooper Creek, southeast of Lake Yamma Yamma. Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Karnic, Karna 
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Yawuru

[ywr] 30 (2001 K. Hosokawa). Western Australia, coast south of Broome and inland. Alternate names: Jaudjibara, Jawadjag, Jawdjibaia, Jawdjibara, Winjawindjagu, Yaudijbaia, Yaudjibara, Yawjibara.  Dialects: Northern Yawuru, Southern Coastal Yawuru, Eastern Inland Yawuru. Related to Nyigina [nyh], Warrwa [wwr], Nimanbur [nmp], Dyaberdyaber [dyb], Nyulnyul [nyv], Bardi [bcj].  Classification: Australian, Nyulnyulan  Nearly extinct.
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Yidiny

[yii] 12 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Queensland, formerly Atherton region. A few at Palm Island Babinda, north to Gordonvale. Alternate names: Boolboora, Deba, Eneby, Gerrah, Gijow, Gillah, Guwamal, Idin Idindji, Idin-Wudjar, Idinji, Indindji, Jidindji, Kitba, Maimbie, Mungera Ohalo, Pegullo-Bura, Warra-Warra, Warryboora, Woggil, Yetinji, Yiddinji, Yidin, Yidindji, Yidini, Yitintyi, Yukkaburra.  Dialects: Gunggay, Yidiny, Madyay.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yidinic  Nearly extinct.
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Yindjibarndi

[yij] 330 (1996 census). Western Australia, Roebourne area. Alternate names: Jindjibandi, Yinjtjipartnti.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Coastal Ngayarda 
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Yindjilandji

[yil] Extinct. Northern Territory, northeast of Wonarah. Alternate names: Bularnu, Dhidhanu, Injdjiladji.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Wagaya-Warluwaric, Warluwara-Thawa 
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Yinggarda

[yia] 5 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Western Australia, Shark Bay coast between Gascoyne and Wooramel rivers, inland to Red Hill, West Pilbara. Alternate names: Ingara, Ingarda, Ingarra, Ingarrah, Inggarda, Inparra, Jinggarda, Kakarakala, Yingkarta.  Dialects: Related to Malgana [vml] which has no remaining speakers.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, South-West, Yinggarda  Nearly extinct.
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Yir Yoront

[yiy] 15 (1991 B. Sommer). Queensland, west central Cape York Peninsula, just southeast of Edward River. Alternate names: Gwandera, Jir Joront, Kokomindjen, Mandjoen, Millera, Mind’jana, Mundjun, Myunduno, Yir Yiront.  Dialects: Dangedl (Dhanu’un, Djudjan, Dudjym), Gorminang, Jir’jorond (Jirmel Mel-Jir, Ngamba’wandh, Yirmel, Yirtangettle, Yir Thangedl, Yirtutiym).  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Paman, Yir Yoront  Nearly extinct.
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Yugambal

[yub] Extinct. Queensland, Logan and Albert River basins from Jimboomba to MacPherson Range. Alternate names: Jugumbir, Jukamba, Manaldjali, Minjanbal, Ngarrbal, Ngarrubul, Yugabeh, Yugambeh, Yugumbal.  Classification: Australian, Pama-Nyungan, Yugambal 
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