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Languages of Burkina Faso

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Burkina Faso. Formerly Upper Volta. 13,933,000. National or official languages: French, Moore (regional), Jula (regional). Literacy rate: 19.2%: 29.5% males, 9.2% females (1998 UNESCO). Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Jowulu (1,000). Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; SIL 1973–2003; Institut de Recherche des Sciences Sociales et Humaines and the Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique et Technique (Tiendrebeogo 1983); Tiendrebeogo and Yago 1983. Blind population: 50,000. The number of individual languages listed for Burkina Faso is 69. Of those, 68 are living languages and 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers.
Bambara

[bam] 300 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991), increasing. Kénédougou Province, near N’Dorola. Alternate names: Bamana, Bamanakan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Biali

[beh] 1,500 in Burkina Faso (1991). Tapoa and Gourma provinces, at Benin border, south of Arli. Alternate names: Berba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Burba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Birifor, Malba

[bfo] 108,000 in Burkina Faso (1993). Southwest, Poni Province. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Birifo, Malba-Birifor, Northern Birifor.  Dialects: Wile, Birifor.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor 
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Bissa

[bib] 350,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population does not include the Bissa southern Barka region. Population total all countries: 582,000. South central, Boulgou and Zoundweogo provinces, Garango, Zabré, Gomboussougou, Tenkodogo cities. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo. Alternate names: Bisa.  Dialects: Barka, Lebir, Lere. Related to Samo languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa 
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Bobo Madaré, Southern

[bwq] 312,000 (2000). 15,000 speakers of Zara. Ethnic population: 160,000 to 190,000 (1999 SIL). Mainly Houet Province, west of Bobo Dioulasso to 40 km east, north to Kouka region in Kossi Province. Alternate names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing.  Dialects: Benge, Sogokiré, Voré, Syabéré (Sya), Zara (Bobo Dioula, Bobo Jula).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo 
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Bolon

[bof] 17,000 (1998 SIL). Kénédougou and Houet provinces, N’Dorola and Samorogouan areas. 12 villages. Alternate names: Bo, Boka.  Dialects: Black Bolon (Northern Bolon), White Bolon (Southern Bolon). The White Bolon dialect has higher inherent intelligibility with Jula [dyu] (81%) than the Black Bolon dialect (52%).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding 
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Bomu

[bmq] 56,000 in Burkina Faso (1991). Kossi Province, Soumbara, west of Nouna. Alternate names: Bobo Oule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Wule.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu 
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Buamu

[box] 186,000 (2000). Kossi, Mouhoun, Tuy, Banwa, and Les Balés provinces; 80 km east-west and 200 km north-south. Alternate names: Bouamou, Bwamu, Eastern Bobo Oule, Eastern Bobo Wule, Red Bobo.  Dialects: Ouarkoye.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu 
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Bwamu, Cwi

[bwy] 24,000 (1999 SIL). South of Boromo, Bougouriba and Sissili Province border area, 10 km north-south, and 40 km east- west, Founzan (Bougouriba Province) to Kabourou (Sissili Province). Alternate names: Coo, Cwi, Twi.  Dialects: Intelligibility within Cwi area is over 90%, 50% to 70% with Láá Láá Bwamu [bwj], 30% with Ouarkoye Buamu [box], and 65%–70% with Dakwi Bwamu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu 
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Bwamu, Láá Láá

[bwj] 69,200 (2000). Tuy and Les Balés provinces, Bagassi, Pâ, and Boni villages area. Alternate names: Kàdenbà, Yere.  Dialects: Similar to Ouarkoye dialect of Buamu [box] and Bwamu Twi [bwy].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu 
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Cerma

[cme] 61,400 in Burkina Faso (1991). Population total all countries: 63,100. Comoé Province, north of Ouagadougou along main road to Banfora. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Gouin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma.  Dialects: Banfora-Sienena, Niangoloko-Diarabakoko, Soubakanedougou, Gouindougouba. The Gouindougouba dialect is spoken in 1 or 2 villages. Turka is the most similar language, but not inherently intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama 
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Dagaari Dioula

[dgd] 21,000 (1999 SIL). Diébougou, To, Boromo, Soukoulaye, Silly, Pa, Dano, Leo, Gao, Dissin, Wessa, Fara, French Hamele. Alternate names: Dagaari Jula, Dagari Dyoula, Jari, Wala, Yari.  Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Dagaare, Jula [dyu], or Mòoré [mos]. Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Northern Dagaare [dgi].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari 
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Dagara, Northern

[dgi] 388,000 (2001 Johnstone and Mandryk). Southwest, Poni, Bougouriba, Sissili, Mouhoun provinces. Alternate names: Dagaare, Dagaari, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Northern Dagaare.  Dialects: Lober (Lobr), Wule, Nura (Lawra Lobi). Dagara and Birifor [bfo] are partly intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari 
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Dogon, Jamsay

[djm]  North border with Mali. Alternate names: Dyamsay Tegu.  Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogon, Tomo Kan

[dtm]   Alternate names: Tomo-Kan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon 
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Dogosé

[dos] 20,000. Southwest, Comoé Province, Sidéradougou Subdistrict, Ouo, Sidéradougou, Kouere, Koro, and Sirakoro. Alternate names: Doghose, Doghosié, Dokhobe, Dokhosié, Dorhossié, Dorhosye, Doro Doghosié, Dorobé, Dorosie, Dorossé.  Dialects: Klamaasise, Mesise, Lutise, Gbeyãse, Sukurase, Gbogorose. Different from Bambadion dialects Dogoso [dgs] and Khe [kqg]. Regional dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 82% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Kaansa [gna], 15% with Dogoso, 14% with Khe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose 
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Dogoso

[dgs] 9,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Dandougou, Torokoro, Sokoura, Bondokoro, Tolandougou, Sakédougou, near the Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Khe [kqg]. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Bambadion-Dogoso, Bambadion-Dokhosié, Black Dogose, Dorhosié-Finng, Dorhosié-Noirs, Dorossié-Fing.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 56% with Khe [kqg], 15% with Dogosé [dos], 16% with Khisa [kqm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe 
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Dyan

[dya] 14,100 (Vanderaa 1991). Bougouriba Province, Dolo, near Diébougou. Alternate names: Dan, Dian, Dya, Dyane, Dyanu.  Dialects: Zanga. Zanga is a dialect or closely related language. Not similar enough to Lobi [lob] to be intelligible. Distinct from Dan [daf] (Gio, Yacouba).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dyan 
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Dzùùngoo

[dnn] 13,400 (1998 P. Solomiac). 30% monolinguals. Kénédougou Province, Samorogouan and Samogohiri departments, west of Bobo-Dioulasso near Orodara town; Samogo-Iri, Saraba, Diomou, Gnalé, Sokouraba, Todié, and Samogogouan. Alternate names: Eastern Duun, Kpango, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro.  Dialects: Kpango (Samorogouan), Dzùùngoo (Samogohiri). Dialects mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo 
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French

[fra]   Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso

[fuh] 750,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Northeast corner. Dialects: Barani (Barain, Baraniire), Gourmantche, Bogandé, Jelgoore, Liptaakoore, Barkoundouba, Seeba-Yaga (Yaaga) Ouhiguyua, Fada Ngurma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Gourmanchéma

[gux] 600,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 813,000. East, Gourma, Tapoa, Gnagna, Komandjari, Yagha, and Kompienga provinces, below scrub land that blends into the Sahara. Also in Benin, Niger, Togo. Alternate names: Goulmacema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gulmancema, Gurma, Migulimancema.  Dialects: Northern Gourmanchema, Central Gourmanchema, Southern Gourmanchema. Central and eastern dialects are inherently intelligible; northern only with difficulty.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Hausa

[hau] 500 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Boulgou and Gourma provinces. Alternate names: Haoussa.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Jalkunan

[bxl] 500 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 800 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Leraba Province west of Banfora, Blédougou near Sindou town. Alternate names: Blé, Dyala, Dyalanu, Jalkuna.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 19% with Jula [dyu], 17% with Bolon [bof].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jeri-Jalkuna 
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Jula

[dyu] 1,000,000 in Burkina Faso (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,229,000. Comoé, Kénédougou, Houet, and Leraba provinces. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. Alternate names: Dioula, Dioula Véhiculaire, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan, Trade Jula.  Dialects: Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam] and Malinke [mlq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Kaansa

[gna] 6,000 (1990 S. Showalter). Poni Province, Gaoua Subdistrict, Loropéni Department, bounded by Loropéni west, Derbi east, Djigoué south, and Yérifoula north. Alternate names: Gã, Gan, Gane, Kaan, Kaanse, Kãasa, Kan.  Dialects: Kaansa, Kpatogo (Kpatogoso, Gbadogo, Padoro, Padogho, Padorho, Bodoro). Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 71% with Khisa [kqm], 68% with Dogosé [dos].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose 
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Kalamsé

[knz] 9,570 in Burkina Faso (1985 census). Sourou Province, Tougan Subdistrict, 540 square km bordering Mali. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmòmá.  Dialects: Kasoma (East Kalamsé), Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Kantosi

[xkt]   Alternate names: Dagaari Dioula, Kantonsi, Yare, Yarsi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast 
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Karaboro, Eastern

[xrb] 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 40,610. South, Comoé Province, east of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Kar, Ker, Kler.  Dialects: Kar dialect averages 70% comprehension by Western Karaboro [kza], but the reverse is 30%.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro 
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Karaboro, Western

[kza] 30,200 (Vanderaa 1991). South, west of main Ferké to Bobo-Dioulosso road and Banfora. Alternate names: Syer-Tenyer.  Dialects: Tenyer, Syer.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Karaboro 
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Kasem

[xsm] 120,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Population total all countries: 250,000. Nahouri Province, Po and Tiébélé towns. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Kasena, Kasim, Kassem, Kassena.  Dialects: East Kasem, West Kasem. West and East Kasem mutually inherently intelligible. Similar to Nuni [nuv], Lyélé [lee].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Khe

[kqg] 1,300 in Burkina Faso (1983 SIL). Noumoukiedougou, Tiébata, Moromoro, Boli, Sessagbo, and Lobo, near Dogose [dos], Khisa [kqm], and Dogoso [dgs]. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Bambadion-Kheso, Kheso.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 56% with Dogoso [dgs] (Bambadion-Dogoso), 14% with Dogosé [dos], 13% with Khisa [kqm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Dogoso-Khe 
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Khisa

[kqm] 3,000 in Burkina Faso (1991 SIL). Southwest, near Côte d’Ivoire border, Comoé Province, Mangodara Prefecture. 25 villages. Alternate names: Khi, Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose 
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Konabéré

[bbo] 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 60,000. Banwa Province. Tansilla is center, with a 25 km radius. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fign, Bobo Fing, Northern Bobo Madare.  Dialects: Yaba, Sankuma (Sarokama), Jèrè, Tankri, Kure, Kukoma (Koma). Northern Bobo Madaré has 20%–30% intelligibility of Southern Bobo Madaré. All dialects of Northern understand Yaba, centered in Tansilla. Separate literature may be needed for the Mali dialect. Some linguists treat Bobo as a separate major branch of Mande. Sya is the prestige dialect in Mali and used for literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo 
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Koromfé

[kfz] 196,000 in Burkina Faso (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 198,000. Yatenga Province, Titao Subdistrict; Soum and Oudalan provinces, Djibo-Aribinda Subdistrict. Koromba is east; Fulse west. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Fula, Fulse, Kuruma, Kurumfe.  Dialects: Koromba, Fulse.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe 
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Kusaal

[kus] 17,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). South central, Nahouiri, Boulgou provinces, villages south of Zabré. Alternate names: Koussassé, Kusale, Kusasi.  Dialects: Toende (Western Kusaal).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast, Kusaal 
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Lobi

[lob] 286,000 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 442,000. Poni Province, Gaoua southwest border area. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. Alternate names: Lobiri, Miwa.  Dialects: Gongon Lobi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi 
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Lyélé

[lee] 130,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). North and central Sanguié Province: Réo, Kyon, Tenado, Dassa, Didyr, Godyr, and Kordie Subdistricts, Réo principal center. Thousands of migrants in neighboring countries, especially Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Lele.  Dialects: Southern Lyélé (Reo), Central Lyélé, Northern Lyélé, Kandéré. Most Central and Northern Lyélé speakers have nearly 100% comprehension of the Southern Lyélé, the one being developed. Kandéré have 75% comprehension of Southern Lyélé; Southern Lyélé understand all dialects except Kandéré well. Similar to Nuni [nuv], but low mutual inherent intelligibility.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Marka

[rkm] 200,000 in Burkina Faso (1992 CMA). Population total all countries: 225,000. Kossi and Mouhoun provinces, northwest, Nouna, Dedougou areas. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Marka Dafing, Meka.  Dialects: Safané, Nouna, Gassan. More than 80% inherent intelligibility of the southeastern dialect around Safané, except for those in the northwestern dialect region, who have 70%. The central dialect around Dembo village is also well understood. Reportedly similar to Bambara [bam] or a variant of Jula [dyu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin 
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Moba

[mfq] 1,800 in Burkina Faso (Vanderaa 1991). Boulgou Province, Ouargaye Subdistrict. Alternate names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba 
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Mòoré

[mos] 5,000,000 in Burkina Faso. 15,700 Yana (1991). Population total all countries: 5,061,700. Central Ouagadougou area; widespread. Also in Benin, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Senegal, Togo. Alternate names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi.  Dialects: Saremdé, Taolendé, Yaadré, Ouagadougou, Yaande, Zaore (Joore), Yana (Yanga, Jaan). Yana dialect has over 90% intelligibility with the Ouagadougou dialect 75%–80% with the Joore dialect. Joore with Ouagadougou varies from 88% in Tibga to 95% in Diabo. Yanga is in Togo, completely intelligible with Central Mòoré.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest 
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Natioro

[nti] 2,400 (Vanderaa 1991). Léraba Province, Sindou Subdistrict, west of Banfora, Sindou town area; Dinaoro, Timba, and Kawara. Alternate names: Koo’ra, Natjoro, Natyoro.  Dialects: Kaouara-Timba-Sindou-Koroni, Ginaourou. Similar to Wara [wbf], but not inherently intelligible.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro 
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Ninkare

[gur] 25,100 in Burkina Faso (1991). Nahouri Province, Zecco and Ziou subdistricts. Alternate names: Frafra, Gurenne, Gurne, Nankani.  Dialects: Gudeni, Nankani, Booni, Frafra, Nankana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest 
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N’ko

[nqo]   Classification: Mixed language 
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Nuni, Northern

[nuv] 50,000 (1995 SIL). 15,000 to 25,000 in Northwestern Nuni, 25,000 to 35,000 in Northeastern Nuni. Sissili and Sanguié provinces, near Boromo. Dialect dividing line is Mouhoun River. Alternate names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma.  Dialects: Northwestern Nuni, Northeastern Nuni. Northern Nuni users have no comprehension of Southern Nuni [nnw]. Similar to Kasem [xsm], Lyélé [lee].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Nuni, Southern

[nnw] 168,000 (2000 WCD). Sissili Province, Léo area; east Mouhoun Province; south Boulkiemdé and Sanguié provinces; west Nahouri and Kossi provinces. Over 100 villages. Alternate names: Nibulu, Nouni, Nounouma, Nuna, Nune, Nunuma, Nuruma.  Dialects: Micari, Basinyari (Sundoni), Yatini, Gori, Bwana, Sankura. Similar to Kasem [xsm] and Lyélé [lee].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Pana

[pnq] 5,000 in Burkina Faso (1998). Population total all countries: 7,800. Sourou Province, Kassoum Subdistrict, Oué town area, Sourou River valley entering from Mali, border due north of Dedougou. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Sama.  Dialects: Pana North, Pana South.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern 
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Phuie

[pug] 14,300 (2000). Tuy, Ioba, Bougouriba, and Poni provinces; north and west of Diébougou; northeast of Dano. Scattered villages in Dagaari territory. Alternate names: Buguli, Buguri, Phuien, Pougouli, Puguli, Pwa, Pwe, Pwie, Pwien, Pwo.  Dialects: Phuie is closely related to Winye [kst] and Sisaala [sld].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western 
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Samo, Matya

[stj] 105,000 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIM). Sourou Province, Mouna and Solenzo areas; Ouaga, Bobo, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Northwestern Samo, San, Sane, Tougan, West Central Goe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo 
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Samo, Maya

[sym] 38,000 (1999). North central, Sourou Province. Alternate names: Northeastern Samo, Sa, San.  Dialects: Bounou, Kiembara (Northeastern Goe), Bangassogo, Gomboro. Intelligibility with Matya Samo [stj] varies between 28% and 50%, depending on the village and text tested; with Southern Samo [sbd] it is less than 10%.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo 
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Samo, Southern

[sbd] 85,000 (1998). Nayala Province, Nouna and Solenzo areas; Ouaga, Bobo, Dedougou, and Koudougou cities. Toma is in Toma, Yaba, Gossina, Ye, Kougny, and Gassan departments. Alternate names: San, Sane.  Dialects: Toma (Nyaana, Makaa). Intelligibility low across Samo varieties.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo 
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Seeku

[sos] 17,000. 5,000 in the northern dialect (4 villages), 12,000 in the southern (7 villages). Houet Province, Bobo-Dioulasso Department, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, Karankasso, Bouendé, Torosso, Banzo, Tiara, Bama villages. Alternate names: Sambla, Samogho, Sembla, Southern Samo.  Dialects: Northern Seeku (Timiku), Southern Seeku (Gbeneku). Dialects have good inherent intelligibility. Similar to Dzùùngo [dnn]. 3 minor dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo 
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Sénoufo, Nanerigé

[sen] 50,000 (1985 census). North Kénédougou Province, from Djigouéra and north. Alternate names: Naani, Nandereke, Nandergé, Nanergé, Nanergué.  Dialects: Some intelligibility with Sicite Senoufo [sep]. No significant dialects or subgroups.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Sénoufo, Senara

[seq] 50,000 (1995 SIL). Southwest, Leraba Province. Alternate names: Niangolo, Sénoufo.  Dialects: Intelligibility testing of Cebaara Senoufo [sef] varies from 51% in Konadougou to 71% in Niankorodougou.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari 
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Sénoufo, Sìcìté

[sep] 35,000 in Burkina Faso (1999 SIL). Population total all countries: 38,000. Kénédougou Province, Tagouara Plateau, Koloko and Ouelaní prefectures, west of Bobo-Dioulasso, to Mali border. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. Alternate names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba.  Dialects: Intelligibility low with Nanerige Senoufo [sen].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Siamou

[sif] 20,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Population total all countries: 40,000. Kénédougou Province, 80 km west of Bobo-Dioulasso; Orodara is center, Tin, Diossogou, Diéri, Kotoudéni, Diéridéni, Didéri, Lidara, and Bandougou small villages. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali. Alternate names: Seme, Sému, Siémou, Siemu, Syémou.  Dialects: Bandougou. Minor dialect differences between villages and within Orodara. The Bandougou dialect is considered different, but intelligibility among dialects seems adequate. No closely related languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Seme 
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Sininkere

[skq] 6,000 (1999 SIL). Sanmatenga Province, near Pensa. Alternate names: Silanke, Silinkere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding 
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Sissala

[sld] 13,000 (1991 SIL). Sissili Province, between Léo and Hamale. 30 villages. Alternate names: Sisaali.  Dialects: All one dialect in Burkina Faso. A separate language from the Sisaala languages in Ghana, although most similar to Western Sisaala [ssl].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western 
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Songhay

[hmb] 125,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Population total all countries: 140,000. Hombori area, halfway between Gao and Mopti. Also in Mali. Alternate names: Central Songai, Humburi Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai.  Dialects: Marensé (Maransé, Koroboré). Closely related languages: Koyraboro Senni Songhay [ses], Zarma [dje], Dendi [ddn], Tadaksahak [dsq].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Tamasheq, Kidal

[taq] 31,200 in Burkina Faso (2000). Oudalan Province. Alternate names: Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, Tuareg.  Dialects: Timbuktu (Tombouctou, Tanaslamt), Tadghaq (Kidal).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern 
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Téén

[lor] 2,000 in Burkina Faso (1999). Poni Province, Kampti Subdistrict, 2 pockets just west of Kampti. Alternate names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen 
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Tiéfo

[tiq] 1,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 to 15,000 (1995 SIL). Comoé Province, east of Toussiana, Dramandougou Tiéfo, 1 village. Ethnic Tiéfo in about 20 villages, into Houet Province. Alternate names: Kiefo, Tyefo, Tyeforo.  Dialects: Noumoudara-Koumoudara, Dramandougou-Nyarafo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tiefo 
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Toussian, Northern

[tsp] 19,500 (1995 SIL). 1,000 in Wenteene dialect, 18,500 in the other dialects. Comoé Province, north, east, and south of Oradara. Alternate names: Tusia, Tusian.  Dialects: Ter, Tru, Kebeenton, Wenteene. Northern region dialects inherently intelligible to speakers but have 45% inherent intelligibility with Southern Toussian [wib].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia 
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Toussian, Southern

[wib] 19,500 in Burkina Faso (1995 SIL). Comoé and Houet provinces, halfway between Banfora and Bobo-Dioulasso; Toussiana is center area. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Tusia, Tusian, Win.  Dialects: 40% inherent intelligibility of Northern Toussian [tsp]. The Nianha dialect is central. Each village has a separate dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Tusia 
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Turka

[tuz] 37,000 in Burkina Faso (1998 SIL). Comoé Province, north and west of Banfora. Principal villages are dialect names. Also in Côte d’Ivoire. Alternate names: Curama, Cuuramã, Tchourama, Tourka, Turuka, Tyurama.  Dialects: Douna, Beregadougou-Toumousseni. Most similar to Cerma [cme].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama 
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Viemo

[vig] 8,000 (1995 SIL). Houet Province, Karankasso Vigué Department, 40 km southeast of Bobo Dioulasso. Alternate names: Vige, Vigué, Vigye.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Viemo 
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Wara

[wbf] 4,500 (Johnstone 1993). Comoé Province, west of Banfora, Sindou town area. Main village is Néguéni. Alternate names: Ouala, Ouara, Samoe.  Dialects: Negueni-Klani, Ouatourou-Niasogoni, Soulani, Faniagara. The Negueni dialect has over 95% intelligibility with the Niansogoni dialect, but Niansogoni below 80% with Negueni. No intelligibility of Natioro [nti].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Wara-Natioro 
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Winyé

[kst] 20,000 (1999 SIL). Bali Province, Boromo Subdistrict, Boromo area, halfway between Bobo-Dioulosso and Ouagadougou on main route. 17 to 18 villages. Alternate names: Kõ, Kols, Kolsi.  Dialects: Similar to Sisaala [sld].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western 
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Zarma

[dje] 600 in Burkina Faso (1987 SIL).  Alternate names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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