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Languages of Benin

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Republic of Benin, République du Bénin. Formerly Dahomey. 8,490,000. National or official language: French. Literacy rate: 28%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Mòoré. Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; SIL 1972–2003. Blind population: 175. Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Benin is 54. Of those, all are living languages.
Aguna

[aug] 3,470 (1992 census). Zou Province, Djidja Subprefecture, Agouna village area. Alternate names: Agunaco, Awuna.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Aja

[ajg] 360,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 512,000. Southwest on Mono River. Primarily in Couffo Province (formerly north Mono Province), Aplahoué, Djakotomè, Dogbo, Klouékanmè, Lalo, and Tovinklin Subprefectures; Mono Province (formerly south Mono Province) Athiémè, Comè, and Houéyogbé Subprefectures; Zou Province, Djidja and Agbangnizoun Subprefectures, Cotonou and many towns in the south, villages mixed with other language groups. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Adja, Ajagbe, Hwè.  Dialects: Dogbo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Stado, Sado, Tadou), Sikpi, Tala. The Hwe, Sikpi, Tado, and Tala dialects are linguistically similar; Dogbo linguistically more distinct. Differences are minor. Lexical similarity: 92% with Hwe-Sikpi dialect, 89% with Hwe-Dogbo dialect, Hwe-Tado dialect, and Hwe-Tala dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Anii

[blo] 33,600 in Benin (1992 census). Population total all countries: 45,900. Both sides of Togo-Benin border; south Aracora Province, Bassila Subprefecture. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, Ouinji-Ouinji, Winji-Winji.  Dialects: Gikolodjya, Gilempla, Giseda, Akpe, Balanka. Similar to Akpe [blo] of Togo. Lexical similarity: 89% with Bodo [brx] and 74% with the Balanka dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele 
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Anufo

[cko] 13,800 in Benin (2002 SIL). Atakora Province, Cobly and Boukombe Subprefectures, a few villages. Alternate names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern 
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Baatonum

[bba] 460,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 560,000. Central, north, Borgou Province. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Baatombu, Baatonu, Barba, Barganchi, Bargawa, Bargu, Bariba, Baruba, Berba, Bogung, Burgu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba 
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Biali

[beh] 64,500 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 66,000. Atakora Province, Materi Subprefecture; Borgou Province, Ouessi Subprefecture. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Berba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri.  Dialects: Dassari, Gouande, Materi, Pingou, Tihoun, Tangeta, Porga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Boko

[bqc] 70,000 in Benin (1995 R. Jones). Population total all countries: 110,000. Borgu Province. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Bokonya, Boo.  Dialects: Closely related languages in Nigeria: Busa [bqp], Bokobaru [bus], Shanga [sho]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Busa, 86% with Bokobaru, 52% with Kyenga [tye], 51% with Bissa [bib] in Burkina Faso.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Dendi

[ddn] 30,000 in Benin (1995 SIM). Population total all countries: 32,050. Atakora and Borgou provinces, along Niger River, Medru River to Nigeria border, down to Kandi. Many at Djogou and towns in the north. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Dandawa.  Dialects: Closely related language to Zarma [dje] and Songhay [hmb]. They form a dialect subgroup.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern 
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Ditammari

[tbz] 120,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 147,500. Atakora Province, Boukombe and Natitingou subprefectures; along Djougou-Parakou road. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Ditamari, “Somba” , Tamari.  Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Ede Cabe

[cbj] 80,000 (2006). Borgou Province, Tchaourou Subprefecture; Zou Province, Savè and Ouèssè subprefectures. Alternate names: Caabe, Cabe.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Ica [ica], Ede Idaca [idd], Ife [ife], Ede Ije [ijj], Ede Nago [nqg], Kura Ede Nago [nqk], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 76% with Yoruba (Porto-Novo) [yor].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Ica

[ica] 63,000 (2002 SIL). Zou Province, Bante Subprefecture. Alternate names: Ica.  Dialects: Ica, Ilodji (Ife). One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Idaca [idd], Ife [ife], Ede Ije [ijj], Ede Nago [nqg], Kura Ede Nago [nqk], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 83% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Idaca

[idd] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Collines Province (north half of former Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume and Glazoué Subprefectures. Alternate names: Idaaca, Idaasa, Idaca, Idáìtsà.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Ica [ica], Ife [ife], Ede Ije [ijj], Ede Nago [nqg], Kura Ede Nago [nqk], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Ije

[ijj] 50,000 (2000 SIL). Plateau Province (north part of former Oueme Province), Pobe and Ketou subprefectures; Zou Province, Ouihni Subprefecture. Rural districts between Ketou and Pobe towns, westward to Oueme River; villages in Zou Province, Zogbodome Subprefecture, south of Zogbodome town. Alternate names: Holi, Ije.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Ica [ica], Ede Idaca [idd], Ife [ife], Ede Nago [nqg], Kura Ede Nago [nqk], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 85% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor], 91% with Ede Nago [nqg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Nago

[nqg] 200,000 (2002 SIL). Southeast, Plateau Province (formerly north Weme Province), Ketou, Pobe, Adja-Ouere, Ifangni, and Sakete subprefectures. Alternate names: Nago, Nagot, Nagots.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Ica [ica], Ede Idaca [idd], Ife [ife], Kura Ede Nago [nqk], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 87 to 91% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Nago, Kura

[nqk] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Donga Province (formerly south Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture. Aledjo Koura is main center. Alternate names: Nago.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Ica [ica], Ede Idaca [idd], Ife [ife], Ede Ije [ijj], Ede Nago [nqg], Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago [xkb]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 78% with Ife of Tchetti, 76% with Manigri-Kambole Ede Nago, 68% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 65% with Ede Nago.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Ede Nago, Manigri-Kambolé

[xkb] 30,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 70,000. Donga Province (formerly south Atakora Province), Bassila Subprefecture south and west of Bassila town, Bante Subprefecture south of Bassila along route RNIE3. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Ana, Manigri.  Dialects: One of 8 languages comprising the Ede language subgroup (Yorboid) spread over southwestern Nigeria, southern and central Benin, and southern and central Togo. The subgroup also includes Ede Cabe [cbj], Ede Ica [ica], Ede Idaca [idd], Ede Ije [ijj], Ife [ife], Ede Nago [nqg], Kura Ede Nago [nqk]. The various people groups seek to maintain their individual identities yet recognize the wider Yoruba community. Lexical similarity: 87%–91% with Ede Nago, 77% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 78% with Ife of Tchetti.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Fon

[fon] 1,400,000 in Benin (2006), increasing. Population total all countries: 1,435,500. Zou Province, Atlantic Province, south Abomey-Calavi and Ouidah Subprefectures; Littoral Province, Cotonou. Interspersed with other groups south and in towns north. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fongbe, Fonnu.  Dialects: Agbome, Arohun, Gbekon, Kpase.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon 
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Foodo

[fod] 24,500 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 25,500. Atakora Province, Ouake Subprefecture, Semere town. Also in Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang 
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French

[fra] 16,700 in Benin (Johnstone 1993).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Borgu

[fue] 280,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,200. Atakora and Borgou provinces, villages, and encampments; Borgou region, Bakuure north of N’Dali; central and south Borgou region, Parakou area, Korakuure; north, Atacora region, Djougoure, from Djougou north to Burkina border. May extend west into north Togo; Tchabankeere in Zou region. Also in Nigeria, Togo. Alternate names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulbe-Borgu, Peul, Peulh.  Dialects: Bakuure, Korakuure, Djougoure (Juguure), Tchabankeere (Caabankeere).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, West Central 
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Fulfulde, Gorgal

[fuh] 30,000 in Benin. Northernmost Borgou Province. Alternate names: Fulfulde, Western Niger Fulfulde, Peul, Peulh.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, East Central 
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Gbe, Ayizo

[ayb] 227,000 (2006). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ayizo, Ayizo-Gbe, Ayzo.  Dialects: Kadagbe (Kada-Gbe), Ayizo-Seto, Ayizo-Tori, Ayizo-Kobe. Similar to Fon [fon].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Gbe, Ci

[cib] 25,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Lalo Subprefecture. Alternate names: Ayizo-Ci, Ci, Cigbe, Tchi.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Ci is very similar linguistically to Fon [fon] and is considered the same by Ci Gbe speakers. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon, 77% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 59% with Aja [ajg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Defi

[gbh] 13,500 (2002 SIL). Southeast corner, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture between Oueme River north, Cotonou-Porto-Novo railroad west, Gulf of Guinea south, and into Nigeria east. Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Defi is similar linguistically to Gun [guw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Gbe, Eastern Xwla

[gbx] 80,000 (2002 SIL). Southeast along coast, Oueme Province, Seme-Kpodji Subprefecture. Alternate names: Houla, Kpla, Offra, Ophra, Phla, Pla, Popo, Xwla.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gun [guw], 82% with Fon [fon], 68% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Gbesi

[gbs] 65,000 (2002 SIL). Atlantic Province, Kpomasse, Alada, and Tori-Bossito Subprefectures, individual and mixed villages; Mono Province, Bopa Subprefecture along Lake Aheme. Dialects: Gbokpa. A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 91% with Kotafon [kqk], 85% with Fon [fon], 73% with Aja [ajg], 70% with Gen [gej].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Kotafon

[kqk] 100,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, mainly Lokassa and Athieme subprefectures; Bopa Subprefecture north and south of Bopa along Lake Aheme; Grand Popo Subprefecture, north of Grand-Popo, a few villages. Alternate names: Ko, Kogbe.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 82% with Gbe Ayizo [ayb], 81% with Fon [fon], 69% with Gen [gej], 65% with Aja [ajg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Maxi

[mxl] 66,000 in Benin (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 91,300. Collines Province (formerly north Zou Province), Dassa-Zoume, Savalou, Bante, Glazoue, and Ouessi subprefectures. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Mahi, Maxi, Maxi-Gbe.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon [fon], 68% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 51% with Aja [ajg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon 
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Gbe, Saxwe

[sxw] 6,270 (2000 WCD). Mono Province. Alternate names: Saxwe, Saxwe-Gbe.  Dialects: Saxwe, Daxe, Se.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Tofin

[tfi] 66,000 (2006). Atlantique Province, So-Ava Subprefecture. Alternate names: Tofi, Tofin, Tofingbe.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 88% with Gun [guw], 87% with Fon [fon], 82% with Eastern Xwla Gbe [xwe], 75% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 66% with Gen [gej].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Gbe, Waci

[wci] 110,000 in Benin (Johnstone 1993). Mono Province. Alternate names: Ouatchi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Weme

[wem] 60,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Weme and Atlantic provinces. Alternate names: Weme, Weme-Gbe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Gbe, Western Xwla

[xwl] 50,000 in Benin (2002 SIL). Population total all countries: 71,000. South, Mono Province along west coast, Grand-Popo Subprefecture; Atlantique Province, Ouidali Subprefecture; Littoral Province, Cotonou. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Phla, Xwla, Xwla-Gbe.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 86% with Gun [guw], 84% with Fon [fon], 73% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg], 90% with Eastern Xwela Gbe [gbx], 88% with Saxwe Gbe [sxw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gbe, Xwela

[xwe] 65,000 (2002 SIL). Mono Province, Come Subprefecture near Lake Aheme, southernmost Bopa Subprefecture; Atlantic Province, Kpomasse and Ouidah subprefectures. Alternate names: Houeda, Peda, Phera, Xwela, Xwela-Gba.  Dialects: A member of the Gbe language subgroup. Lexical similarity: 90% with Western Xwla [xwl], 85% with Fon [fon], 71% with Gen [gej], 82% with Saxwe [sxw], 68% with Aja [ajg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe 
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Gen

[gej] 126,000 in Benin (2006). Mono and Atlantique provinces. Alternate names: Ge, Gegbe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo.  Dialects: Anexo, Agoi, Gen, Gliji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina 
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Gourmanchéma

[gux] 62,000 in Benin (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). North, Atakora Province, primarly Tanguieta and Kerou subprefectures; some villages in Materi and Cobly subprefectures; Borgou Province, Banikoara and Karimama subprefectures. Alternate names: Goulmancema, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Gun

[guw] 320,000 in Benin (2006). Population total all countries: 579,000. Southeast, Weme Province, Akpro-Misserete, Avrankou, Adjara, and Porto-Novo subprefectures. Also in Nigeria. Alternate names: Alada, Alada-Gbe, Egun, Goun, Gu, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Seto-Gbe, Toli-Gbe.  Dialects: Ajra, Alada, Seto, Toli.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja 
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Hausa

[hau] 800,000 in Benin (2006). Atacora and Borgou provinces, mainly larger towns and market villages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 
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Ifè

[ife] 80,000 in Benin (1990 SIL). Collines Province (north former Zou Province), Savalou Subprefecture; Tchetti is main center. Alternate names: Ana, Ana-Ife, Anago, Baate, Ede Ife.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Kabiyé

[kbp] 30,000 in Benin (Vanderaa 1991). Donga Province (formerly south Atakora Province), Ouake, Djougou, and Bassila subprefectures, scattered villages. Alternate names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Kyenga

[tye] 1,000 in Benin (1995 SIM). Alibori Province (formerly north Borgou Province), Segbana Subprefecture, Tungan Bage, scattered villages. Alternate names: Cenka, Tyenga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa 
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Lama

[las] 60,000 in Benin (2006). Atakora Province, Boukombe Subprefecture, north west of Boukombe, scattered villages; Donga Province (formerly South Atakora Province), Djougou and Bassila subprefectures. Alternate names: Lamba, Losso.  Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Lukpa

[dop] 50,000 in Benin (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 63,600. West Djougou and border areas, Atakora Province. Primarily Kémérida area. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Mbelime

[mql] 24,500 (Vanderaa 1991). Atakora Province, Cobly Subprefecture, and 5 villages in Boukombe Subprefecture. Alternate names: Mbilme, “Niende” , “Niendi”.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Miyobe

[soy] 7,000 in Benin (1991). Population total all countries: 8,700. Atakora Province. Also in Togo. Alternate names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Meyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 27% with Moba [mfq], 25% with Ditammari [tbz], 47% with Ngangam [gng].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Mokole

[mkl] 65,500 (Vanderaa 1991). Borgou Province, Kandi and villages north and east. Alternate names: Féri, Mokollé, Mokwale, Monkole.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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Nateni

[ntm] 66,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Atakora Province. Natemba in Toukountouna District; Tayaba in Tanguiéta District; Kuntemba in Kobly, Matiri, and Tanguiéta districts; Okoma in Tanguiéta and Kouandé districts. Tayakou is center of traditional beliefs and practices. Dialects: Nateni (Natemba, Natimba), Tayari (Tayaba), Kunteni (Kuntemba), Okoni (Okoma).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Ngangam

[gng] 20,000 in Benin (2002 SIL).  Alternate names: Dye, Gamgan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma 
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Notre

[bly] 1,500 (2002 SIL). Atakora Province, Tanguiéta Subprefecture, northwest, north, and northeast of Tanguiéta town, including Yarka section northeast. Alternate names: Boulba, Bulba, Burusa, Nootre.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre 
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Tchumbuli

[bqa] 2,500 (2000 SIL). Département des Collines, Save and Ouessi subprefectures, 3 villages: Okounfo, Edaningbe, and Gbede. Alternate names: Basa, Chombulon, Tchombolo, Tshummbuli.  Dialects: Cobecha, Tchumbuli. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chumburung [ncu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan 
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Tem

[kdh] 50,000 in Benin (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).  Alternate names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Tembe, Tim, Timu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern 
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Waama

[wwa] 50,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 20,000 monolinguals. Atakora Province, at least 20 villages. Natitingou is cultural center. Several thousand in Cotonou, Parakou area, and west Nigeria. Alternate names: Yoabou, Yoabu.  Dialects: Waama, Tangamma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern 
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Yom

[pil] 74,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Atakora Province, Djougou area. Alternate names: Kpilakpila, Pila, Pilapila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm 
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Yoruba

[yor] 465,000 in Benin (Johnstone 1993). Porto-Novo and widespread in towns and major villages. Alternate names: Ede-Yoruba, Yariba, Yooba.  Dialects: Egba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri 
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