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Languages of Bolivia

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Republic of Bolivia, República de Bolivia. 9,182,000. National or official languages: Spanish, North Bolivian Quechua, South Bolivian Quechua, Central Aymara. Literacy rate: 63%–81%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Corsican (60,000), Standard German (160,000), Wichí Lhamtés Vejoz. Information mainly from SIL 1956–2003. Blind population: 1,070. Deaf population: 46,800. Deaf institutions: 9 or more. The number of individual languages listed for Bolivia is 45. Of those, 37 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers, and 7 have no known speakers.
Araona

[aro] 81 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 90 (Adelaar 2000). Northwest, headwaters of Manupari River. Alternate names: Cavina.  Classification: Tacanan, Araona-Tacana, Araona 
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Aymara

[aym] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 2,446,642. 
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Aymara, Central

[ayr] 1,790,000 in Bolivia (1987). Population total all countries: 2,262,900. Whole Altiplano west of eastern Andes. Some migration to yungas and lowlands. Also in Argentina, Chile, Peru. Dialects: Chilean Aymara is very similar to La Paz, Bolivia dialect.  Classification: Aymaran 
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Ayoreo

[ayo] 770 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 856 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Gran Chaco region, Department of Santa Cruz. Alternate names: Ayoré, Moro, Morotoco, Pyeta, Yovai.  Dialects: Tsiricua.  Classification: Zamucoan 
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Baure

[brg] 13 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 631 (Adelaar 2000). Beni Department, northwest of Magdalena. Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana  Nearly extinct.
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Bolivian Sign Language

[bvl] 350 to 400 (1988 E. Powlison). Cochabamba, La Paz, Riberalta, Santa Cruz. Dialects: Based on American Sign Language [ase] with necessary changes for borrowed Spanish lexical items. Some groups in La Paz and Santa Cruz use the same signs with some dialect signs from their own areas. Morgan (2004) gives evidence that Bolivian Sign Language is no more divergent from ASL [ase] than some dialects of ASL.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Callawalla

[caw] 10 or 20 speakers (1995 SIL). Highlands and high valleys, east Andes north of La Paz, Charazani area north of Lake Titicaca. Alternate names: Callahuaya.  Dialects: Seems to have Quechua affixes and syntactic patterns, but distinctive roots from a dialect of the extinct Puquina language.  Classification: Mixed language, Quechua-Puquina 
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Canichana

[caz] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 583 (Adelaar 2000). Lowlands. Alternate names: Kanichana.  Dialects: Said to be of the Tucanoan family.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Cavineña

[cav] 1,180 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 1,736 (Adelaar 2000). North Bolivia, southeast of Riberalta, along Beni River; east of the Beni; 500 in Pando west of the Beni. Classification: Tacanan, Araona-Tacana, Cavinena-Tacana, Cavinena 
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Cayubaba

[cyb] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 794 (Adelaar 2000). Beni Department, west of Mamore River, north of Santa Ana. Alternate names: Cayuvava, Cayuwaba.  Dialects: Ruhlen (1991) and others classify it as Equatorial.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Chácobo

[cao] 550 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 860 (2000 SIL). Northwest Beni, south of Riberaltaon, Alto Ivon River. Classification: Panoan, Southern 
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Chipaya

[cap] 1,200 (1995), increasing. Ethnic population: 1,800. Department of Oruro, Province of Atahuallpa. Alternate names: Puquina.  Dialects: May be Arawakan or distantly related to Mayan.  Classification: Uru-Chipaya 
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Chiquitano

[cax] 5,860 (Adelaar 2000). ISA (2000) lists 2,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 47,086 (Adelaar 2000). East Santa Cruz, east region. Alternate names: Chiquito, Tarapecosi.  Dialects: Concepción, San Ignacio de Velazco, San Javier (Javierano, Xavierano), Santiago, San Miguel.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Chiquito 
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Chorote, Iyo’wujwa

[crq] 8 in Bolivia (1982). Southeast, Tarija Department. Alternate names: Choroti, Manjui, Manjuy.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Ese Ejja

[ese] 1,300 in Bolivia (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,770. Ethnic population: 1,300 in Bolivia (2000 SIL). Northwestern region; into foothills on Beni and Madre de Dios rivers; Tambopata and Heath rivers around Puerto Maldonado in Peru. Also in Peru. Alternate names: “Chama” , Ese Eja, Ese Exa, Huarayo, Tiatinagua.  Dialects: Each clan has slight dialect differences; all seem inherently intelligible. Most divergent Tacanan language. Tambopata dialect in Peru somewhat different from the Bolivian dialect.  Classification: Tacanan, Tiatinagua 
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Guaraní, Eastern Bolivian

[gui] 33,700 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Population total all countries: 51,230. Ethnic population: 36,917 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). South central Parapeti River area, Tarija. Also in Argentina, Paraguay. Alternate names: “Chawuncu” , “Chiriguano” , Western Argentine Guaraní.  Dialects: Izoceño (Izocenio), Ava.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guaraní, Western Bolivian

[gnw] 7,000. Chuquisaca Department, south to Pilcomayo River, east to Cuevo, north to Monte Agudo. Alternate names: Simba, Simba Guaraní.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guarayu

[gyr] 5,930 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 7,235 (Adelaar 2000). Northeast Guarayos River area. Alternate names: “Guarayo”.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup II 
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Ignaciano

[ign] 4,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,805 with Trinitario (2000 W. Adelaar). South central Beni. Dialects: Limited comprehension of Trinitario [trn], similar to Spanish and Portuguese, with vowel reduction.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Itene

[ite] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 108 (Adelaar 2000). North central Beni Department at junction of Mamoré and Itenez rivers. Alternate names: Iteneo, Itenez, More.  Dialects: Itoreauhip.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Guapore 
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Itonama

[ito] 10 (2000 Crevels). Ethnic population: 5,090 (Adelaar 2000). Beni Department and Itonamas River. Alternate names: Machoto, Saramo.  Dialects: Ruhlen classifies it as Paezan.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Jorá

[jor] Extinct.  Alternate names: Hora.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarayu-Siriono-Jora II 
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Leco

[lec] 20 (2001 S. van de Kerke). Ethnic population: 80 (Adelaar 2000). Lake Titicaca east; Apolo area; scattered on Mapiri-Kaka River in Karura, Candelaria, Tutilimundi and Uyapi; Coroico River in Trapichiponte in KeleKelera. Alternate names: Leko, Rik’a.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Machinere

[mpd] 140 in Bolivia (1994). Ethnic population: 155 in Bolivia. Acre River. Alternate names: Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Movima

[mzp] 1,450 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 6,528 (Adelaar 2000). Central Beni Department, Santa Ana area on Yacuma River. Dialects: Reportedly Tucanoan.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Pacahuara

[pcp] 17 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 18 (Adelaar 2000). Northwest Beni. Alternate names: Pacawara.  Classification: Panoan, Southern  Nearly extinct.
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Pauserna

[psm] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 46 (Adelaar 2000). Southeast Beni on Guapore River. Alternate names: Guarayu-Ta, Paucerne, Pauserna-Guarasugwé.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Pauserna 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 28,600 in Bolivia.  Alternate names: German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Quechua, North Bolivian

[qul] 116,000 in Bolivia (1978 census), increasing. 18,452 monolinguals. Apolo region, La Paz Department. Also in Peru. Alternate names: North La Paz Quechua.  Dialects: Apolo, Charazani, Chuma.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Quechua, South Bolivian

[quh] 2,780,000 in Bolivia (1987). Population total all countries: 3,635,000. Highland and lowland except around Apolo; Northwest Jujuy Quechua in Argentina. Also in Argentina. Alternate names: Central Bolivian Quechua, Quechua Boliviano.  Dialects: Sucre, Cochabamba, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca, Northwest Jujuy. May be intelligible with Chilean Quechua [cqu].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Reyesano

[rey] 4,600 (2006). Possibly a few speakers (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 4,118 (Adelaar 2000). Beni Department, west central around San Borja, near Reyes. Alternate names: San Borjano.  Classification: Tacanan, Araona-Tacana, Cavinena-Tacana, Tacana Proper 
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Saraveca

[sar] Extinct. Eastern jungle. Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Shinabo

[snh] Extinct.  Classification: Panoan, Southern 
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Sirionó

[srq] 400 (Adelaar 2000), increasing. 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 419 (Adelaar 2000) to over 600 (2000 P. Priest). Eastern Beni and northwestern Santa Cruz Departments, Ibiato (Eviato) village; along the Río Blanco in farms and ranches. Alternate names: Mbia Chee, Mbya.  Dialects: Similar to Yuqui [yuq].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup II 
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Spanish

[spa] 3,480,000 in Bolivia (1995).  Dialects: Afro-Yungueño (Black Spanish).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Tacana

[tna] 1,820 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 5,058 (Adelaar 2000). Beni and Madre de Dios rivers, jungle, some in foothills. Alternate names: Takana.  Classification: Tacanan, Araona-Tacana, Cavinena-Tacana, Tacana Proper 
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Tapieté

[tpj] 70 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 74 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Southeast, Samayhuate and Cutaiqui towns. Alternate names: Guasurango, Ñanagua, Tirumbae, Yanaigua.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarani I 
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Toba

[tob] 100 in Bolivia.  Alternate names: Qom.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan 
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Toromono

[tno] 200 (1983 Varese). Ethnic population: 200 (Adelaar 2000). Northwest, close to the Araona, between the upper Madidi and River Heath. Alternate names: Toromona.  Classification: Tacanan, Araona-Tacana, Cavinena-Tacana, Tacana Proper 
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Trinitario

[trn] 5,500 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 20,805 with Ignaciano (Adelaar 2000). South central Beni. Alternate names: Mojos, Moxos.  Dialects: Loreto (Loretano), Javierano.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Tsimané

[cas] 5,320 (Adelaar 2000). Includes 585 Moseten speakers. Ethnic population: 5,907. Southwest Beni Department and along Maniqui River; San Miguel de Huachi and Santa Ana de Alto Beni. Alternate names: Chimané, Mosetén.  Dialects: Tsimané, Mosetén. Mosetén move into Tsimané communities and function with seemingly no communication difficulties (2002 NTM).  Classification: Language isolate 
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Uru

[ure] 2 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 142 (Adelaar 2000). Department of Oruro, Province of Atahuallpa, near Lake Titicaca, near where the Desaguadero River comes out of Titicaca, near Iruitu. Alternate names: Iru-Itu, Morato, Muratu.  Classification: Uru-Chipaya  Nearly extinct.
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Wichí Lhamtés Nocten

[mtp] 1,810 in Bolivia (1994). Population total all countries: 1,910. Ethnic population: 2,081 (1994). North central Tarija Department, southwest of Pilcomayo River, Cordillera de Pirapo. Also in Argentina. Alternate names: “Mataco” , Bolivian, “Mataco Nocten” , Nocten, Noctenes, Oktenai, Weenhayek.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Mataco 
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Yaminahua

[yaa] 140 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 161 in Bolivia (Adelaar 2000). Northwest corner Pando Department. Alternate names: Jaminawa, Yamanawa, Yaminawa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yuqui

[yuq] 120 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 138 (Adelaar 2000). Foothills north of Cochabamba; Chimoré River. Alternate names: Bia, Yuki.  Dialects: Similar to Sirionó [srq].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Guarayu-Siriono-Jora II 
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Yuracare

[yuz] 2,680 (Adelaar 2000). Ethnic population: 3,333 (Adelaar 2000). Beni and Cochabamba departments, primarily along Chapare River. Alternate names: Yura.  Dialects: Mansinyo, Soloto.  Classification: Language isolate 
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