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Languages of Brazil

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Federative Republic of Brazil, República Federativa do Brasil. 186,831,000. 311,656 American Indians (1995 govt. figure). 155,000 speakers of American Indian languages (1985 Rodrigues). National or official language: Portuguese. There are reports of up to 34 groups without peaceful contact. Literacy rate: 88% (2005). Immigrant languages: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Irish Gaelic, Italian (50,000), Japanese (380,000), Korean (37,000), Latvian, Lithuanian, Standard German (1,500,000), Turoyo, Ukrainian, Vlax Romani. Information mainly from D. Derbyshire and G. Pullum 1998; J. Hopper 1967; A. Jensen 1985; D. Ribeiro 1957; A. Rodrigues 1958; SIL 1957-2008. Blind population: 124,805. Deaf population: 9,624,345. Deaf institutions: 60. The number of individual languages listed for Brazil is 236. Of those, 181 are living languages and 55 have no known speakers.
Acroá

[acs] Extinct. Bahia area. Alternate names: Coroá.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central 
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Agavotaguerra

[avo] Extinct. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, between Curisevo and Culuene rivers, near the Kuikúro. Alternate names: Agavotokueng, Agavotoqueng.  Dialects: Related to Waurá [wau] and Yawalapiti [yaw].  Classification: Unclassified 
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Aikanã

[tba] 180 (2005). Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. Alternate names: Corumbiara, Huari, Kolumbiara, Tubarão, Uari, Wari.  Dialects: Masaká (Massaca).  Classification: Unclassified 
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Amahuaca

[amc] 220 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas. Alternate names: Amawaca, Amawáka, Amenguaca, Sayacu.  Dialects: Inuvaken, Viwivakeu.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Amahuaca 
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Amanayé

[ama] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 192 (2001 ISA). Pará, São Domingos do Capim Municipality, on Capim River. Alternate names: Amanage, Amanajé, Amanyé, Manajo, Manaxo, Manaze, Manazo.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Amundava

[adw] 83 (2003 ISA). Rondônia, Acre, near Jiparaná River. Alternate names: Amondawa, Amundawa.  Dialects: The Amundava, Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], Júma [jua], and Karipuná [kuq] all call themselves ‘Kagwahiva’ (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically very similar.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Anambé

[aan] 7 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 132 (2000 ISA). Pará, Cairari River, tributary of Moju River. Dialects: Similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII  Nearly extinct.
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Apalaí

[apy] 450 (1993 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Pará, mainly on Paru Leste River with fringe groups on Jari and Citare rivers. 20 villages. Alternate names: Apalay, Aparai.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Apiaká

[api] 190 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 192 (2001 ISA). Northern Mato Grosso, upper Rio Tapajos, near confluence of São Manoel, near the border between Pará and Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Apiacá, Apiake.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Apinayé

[apn] 1,260 (2003 FUNASA). Tocantins, near Tocantinópolis. 6 villages. Alternate names: Apinagé, Apinajé.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Apinaye 
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Apurinã

[apu] Ethnic population: 4,087 (2003 FUNASA). Amazonas, Acre; scattered over Purus River from Rio Branco to Manaus. Alternate names: Ipurinãn, Kangite, Popengare.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Arapaso

[arj] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 268 (1992 ALEM). São Gabriel, Iauarete, Amazonas. Alternate names: Arapaço, Araspaso, Koneá.  Dialects: Reportedly a dialect of Tucano [tuo].  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Arára, Mato Grosso

[axg] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (1994 ISA). Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Arára, Pará

[aap] 200 (1998 ISA). Pará in 2 villages. Alternate names: Ajujure.  Dialects: Most similar extant languages are Ikpeng [txi], Bakairí [bkq].  Classification: North Brazil, Carib, Northern 
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Araweté

[awt] 290 (2003 ISA). Amazonas, near Xingú River, near Altamira, at least one sizeable village. Alternate names: Bïde.  Dialects: Similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu], Parakanã [pak], Tapirapé [taf].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Arikapú

[ark] 6 (1998 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio Branco, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Alternate names: Aricapú, Maxubí.  Dialects: Similar to Jabuti [jbt].  Classification: Macro-Ge, Yabuti  Nearly extinct.
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Arikem

[ait] Extinct. Rôndonia state, Candeias and Jamari rivers, tributaries of the upper Madeira. Alternate names: Ariken.  Classification: Tupi, Arikem 
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Aruá

[arx] 12 (1990 YWAM). Ethnic population: 40 (2000 C. Jensen). Rio Branco post, Branco and Guaporé rivers, Rondônia. Dialects: Aruáshi (Aruachi).  Classification: Tupi, Monde  Nearly extinct.
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Arutani

[atx] 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 42. Roraima. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Aoaqui, Auake, Auaqué, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutani.  Classification: Arutani-Sape  Nearly extinct.
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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa

[cpb] 870 in Brazil (2004 CPI-AC). Acre. Alternate names: Campa, Kampa.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Pre-Andine 
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Asurini of Xingu

[asn] 110 (2002 ISA). Rio Piçava off Xingú River near Altamira, Pará, at least one sizeable village. Alternate names: Asuriní de Koatinema, Asurini do Xingú, Awaeté, Awaté.  Dialects: Different from Tocantins Asurini (Akwaya) [asu], Arawete [awt].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Asurini, Tocantins

[asu] 300 (2001 ISA). Pará, on Tocantins River, Trocará near Tucurui. Alternate names: Akwaya, Assuriní, Asuriní, Asuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará.  Dialects: Akwáwa subgroup which also includes Parakanã [pak] and Suruí do Pará [mdz].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Atorada

[aox] Few in Brazil (2000). Roraima. Alternate names: Ator’ti, Atorad, Atorai, Dauri.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan 
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Aurá

[aux] Extinct. Pará, Maranhão in Maranhão. Alternate names: Auré.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani 
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Avá-Canoeiro

[avv] 40 (1998 ISA). Goiás, Island of Bananal, and upper Tocantins River valley. Alternate names: Abá, Avá, Awana, Canoa, Canoe, Canoeiros.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV  Nearly extinct.
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Awetí

[awe] 140 (2006 ISA). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, Rio Culiseu (upper Xingú River). Alternate names: Arauine, Arauite, Aueti, Aueto, Auiti, Awetö.  Classification: Tupi, Aweti 
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Bakairí

[bkq] 950 (1999 ISA). Mato Grosso. 9 or 10 villages. Alternate names: Bacairí, Kurâ.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin 
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Baniwa

[bwi] 5,460 in Brazil (1983 SIL). 4,057 Baniwa, 1,000 Hohodené, 403 Seuci. Population total all countries: 6,070. Amazonas, Middle Içana River. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Dakenei, Issana, Kohoroxitari, Maniba.  Dialects: Carutana, Hohodené (Hohodena, Kadaupuritana), Siusy-Tapuya (Seuci, Siuci, Siusi). The Carutana dialect is extinct. Related to Curripaco [kpc]. Groups on middle Içana and Ayarí rivers speak Baniwa: Hohodené, Kadaupuritana, Sucuriyu-Tapuya, Siusy-Tapuya, Irá-Tapuya, Kawá-Tapuya, Waliperedakenai (Ribeiro 1967).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Borôro

[bor] 1,020 (1997 ISA). Central Mato Grosso. 8 villages. Alternate names: Boe.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper 
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Brazilian Sign Language

[bzs]  São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, elsewhere. Alternate names: LSB, São Paulo Sign Language.  Dialects: Dialects appear inherently intelligible. Northern dialects above the Amazon show greater differences. Some relationship to North American [ase] and European sign languages.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Cafundo Creole

[ccd] 40 (1978 M. Gnerre). Cafundo, 240 km from São Paulo. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based  Nearly extinct.
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Caló

[rmr] 10,000 in Brazil.  Alternate names: Calo, Gitano, Iberian Romani.  Dialects: Brazilian Calão.  Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani 
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Canela

[ram] 1,800 (2001 ISA). 1,337 Ramkokamekra (2001 ISA), 458 Apanjekra (2000 ISA). Maranhão, southeastern Pará. Alternate names: Kanela.  Dialects: Apanjekra (Apanhecra, Apaniekra), Ramkokamekra.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Carib

[car] 100 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,794 in Brazil (2004 ISA). State of Amapá. Alternate names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kalihna, Kalinya, Maraworno, Marworno.  Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib).  Classification: Carib, Northern, Galibi 
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Cashinahua

[cbs] 400 in Brazil (2003). Ethnic population: 1,400 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Acre. Alternate names: Cashinahuá, Caxinawá, Kaxinauá, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa.  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Chiripá

[nhd] 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 8000 to 10,000 in Brazil (2003 ISA). Mato Grosso do Sul state, Paraná, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo. Alternate names: Apytare, Guaraní, Nhandeva, Ñandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá.  Dialects: Apapocuva.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Cinta Larga

[cin] 1,300 (ISA). Western Mato Grosso. Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] 50 in Brazil (2000 C. Jensen). Ethnic population: 411 in Brazil (2000 D. Moore). Amazonas. Alternate names: Cocama, Kokama.  Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla (Kokamilla, Pambadeque), Xibitaona.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Cubeo

[cub] 150 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Northwest Amazonas, near São Gabriel. Alternate names: Cubeu, Cuveo, Hehenawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kobéwa, Kubwa, Pamié, Pamiwa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan 
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Curripaco

[kpc] 1,250 in Brazil (2001 ISA). Northwest Amazonas, Içana. Alternate names: Curipaco, Koripako, Korispaso, Kuripako, Cumata, Ipeca, Pacu, Paku-Tapuya, Palioariene, Pato Tapuia, Pato-Tapuya, Payualiene, Payuliene, Ipeka-Tapuia.  Dialects: Ipeka-Tapuia, Korripako (Karupaka), Unhun (Cadauapuritana, Enhen), Waliperi (Veliperi).  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Dâw

[kwa] 83 (1994 ALEM). Amazonas, across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, just below the confluence of the Vaupés and Negro rivers. Alternate names: Kamã Makú, “Kamã”.  Classification: Maku 
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Dení

[dny] 750 (2002 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Dani.  Dialects: Inauini.  Classification: Arauan 
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Desano

[des] 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,420. Northwestern Amazonas. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Boleka, Desâna, Dessano, Kusibi, Oregu, Uina, Wina, Wirã.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Dutch

[nld]  Paraná. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian 
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Enawené-Nawé

[unk] 320 (2000 ISA). Northwestern Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Eneuene-Mare, Salumã.  Dialects: Related to Parecís [pab].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Gavião do Jiparaná

[gvo] 470 (2002 SIL). Rondônia (Gavião). Alternate names: Digüt, Gavião do Rondônia, Ikõro.  Dialects: Gavião, Zoró (Panginey, Cabeça Seca). Partially intelligible with Suruí [sru].  Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Gavião, Pará

[gvp] Ethnic population: 338 Parakatêjê (ISA), 473 Pukobjê (2005 ISA). Pará state; new village called ‘Kaikoturé’, near Marabá; scattered in or near original locations in Maranhão. Alternate names: Parakatêjê, Pukobjê.  Dialects: Related to Krinkati-Timbira [xri], Canela [ram], Krahô [xra].  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Guajá

[gvj] 370 (1995 AMTB). Maranhão, babassu palm area near Gurupi and Upper Pindaré rivers; Serra Canastra, Tocantins, and Guamá Post in Pará. At least 6 isolated groups. Alternate names: Awá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Guaxare, Wazaizara.  Dialects: Related to Guajajára [gub].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Guajajára

[gub] 15,000 (2000 SIL). Maranhco, Pindaré, Grajaú, Mearim, and Zutiua rivers. 81 villages. Alternate names: Guazazzara, Tenetehar, Tenetehára.  Dialects: Pindare, Zutiua, Mearim, Tembe of Gurupi.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Guana

[gqn] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 250 (2005 ISA). Mato Grosso do Sul, near the Terêna. Alternate names: Chana, Chuala, East Paraná, Equinao, Kinihinao, Kinikinao.  Dialects: Related to Terêna [ter], Irantxe [irn].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Guanano

[gvc] 550 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Population total all countries: 850. Northwest Amazonas. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Anana, Kótedia, Kótirya, Uanana, Wanâna, Wanano.  Dialects: Similar to Piratapuyo [pir], but the two groups do not intermarry.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Guaraní, Mbyá

[gun] 6,000 in Brazil (2003 ISA). Population total all countries: 25,450. Southwestern Paraná, southeastern São Paulo, Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul, Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais. 35 villages in 7 states. Also in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay. Alternate names: Bugre, Mbiá, Mbua, Mbyá.  Dialects: Tambéopé, Baticola. Lexical similarity: 75% with Paraguayan Guaraní [gug].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Guarequena

[gae] 340 in Brazil (1983 NTM). Amazonas, Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana near Venezuelan border. Alternate names: Arequena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekéna, Werekena, Werikena.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Guató

[gta] 40 (1993 SIL). Ethnic population: 382 (1993 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul and Bolivian border, banks of the Paraguai and up São Lourenço River. Classification: Macro-Ge, Guato  Nearly extinct.
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Himarimã

[hir] 40. Amazonas, Tapauá Valley, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Hixkaryána

[hix] 600 (2000 SIL). 89 Xereuyana (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2000). Amazonas, upper Nhamunda River to Mapuera and Jatapú rivers. Alternate names: Chawiyana, Faruaru, Hichkaryana, Hishkaryana, Hixkariana, Kumiyana, Parucutu, Parukoto-Charuma, Sherewyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Xereu, Xerewyana.  Dialects: Similar to Waiwai [waw]. No dialectal variation. The Sherewyana speak Hixkaryana but some live with the Waiwai.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Hunsrik

[hrx] 3,000,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 5,000,000 in Brazil. Widespread with high concentrations in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. Also in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay. Alternate names: Hunsriker, Rio Grand Hunsriker.  Dialects: Originally derived from Hunsrücker (Westpfälzisch) German speech variety; influenced by Portuguese. Several dialects, probably due to being language of communication for many other Germanic language speakers such as Swabian [swg], Bavarian [bar] and others as well as immigrants from Switzerland and Austria.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic 
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Hupdë

[jup] 1,210 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,360. northwest Amazonas, Rio Auari. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Hup, Hupda, “Hupdá Makú” , Jupde, “Jupdá Macú” , “Macú de Tucano” , “Makú-Hupdá” , Ubdé.  Dialects: Hupdë, Tuhup, Nëhup. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligible with Yahup [yab].  Classification: Maku 
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Iapama

[iap] 200 (2006). Pará and Amapá border region. Classification: Unclassified 
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Iatê

[fun] 2,930 (1999 ISA). Pernambuco. Alternate names: Carnijó, Fornió, Fulniô, Furniô, Yatê.  Dialects: Fulniô, Yatê. Lexical similarity: 98% between Fulniô and Yatê dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Fulnio 
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Ikpeng

[txi] 320 (2002 ISA). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Chicao, Tonore, Tunuli, Txikân, Txikão.  Dialects: Similar to Pará Arara [aap].  Classification: Carib, Northern, Northern Brazil 
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Ingarikó

[ake] 670 in Brazil (1997 ISA). Roraima. Alternate names: Acahuayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawaio.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon 
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Irántxe

[irn] 190 (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 326 (2000 ISA). Mato Grosso, headwaters of the Rio Cravari, tributary of the Rio Sangue, which is a tributary of the Rio Juruena. Alternate names: Iranche, Iranxe, Münkü.  Dialects: Münkü (Mynky, Menku, Kenkü, Myy), Irántxe.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Unclassified 
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Jabutí

[jbt] 5 (1990 YWAM). Rio Branco Post, Rondônia. Alternate names: Djeoromitxi, Jabotí, Yabutí.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Yabuti  Nearly extinct.
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Jamamadí

[jaa] 480 (2005 SIL). 12 Mamoria, 100 Banawá, 180 Jaruára. Amazonas in Jaruara, 7 villages in Lábrea Municipality; Banawá River area; the rest scattered over a large area. Alternate names: Canamanti, Kanamanti, Madi, Yamamadí.  Dialects: Bom Futuro, Jurua, Pauini, Mamoria (Mamori), Cuchudua (Maima), Tukurina, Jaruára (Jarawara, Yarawara), Kitiya (Banawá, Banauá, Banavá, Jafí). Other groups called ‘Jamamadí’ are more similar to Kulina [cul] or Dení [dny]. Tukurina dialect may be a separate language. Related to Karipuna [kuq].  Classification: Arauan 
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Júma

[jua] 4 (1998). There were 300 in 1940. Amazonas, Mucuim River, Rio Açuã tributary. Alternate names: Arara, Kagwahibm, Kagwahiph, Kagwahiv, Kavahiva, Kawahip, Kawaib, Yumá.  Dialects: The Júma, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], and Karipuná [kuq] all call themselves ‘Kagwahiva’ (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically similar.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Jurúna

[jur] Ethnic population: 278 (2001 ISA). North Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, near mouth of the Maritsauá-Mitau River. 2 villages. Alternate names: Iuruna, Jaruna, Yudya, Yurúna.  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna 
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Kaapor

[urb] 800 (1998 ISA). Maranhão, Gurupi River. 8 to 10 villages scattered over 2,800 sq. mi. Alternate names: Caapor, Ka’apor, Kaaporté, “Urubú” , Urubú-Kaapor.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Kaapor Sign Language

[uks] 7 (1986 J. Kakumasu). Maranhão. Alternate names: “Urubú Sign Language”.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Kabixí

[xbx] 100 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso, Planalto dos Parecís slopes, right bank of upper Guaporé, near Vila Bela. Alternate names: Cabichí, Cabishi.  Dialects: Related to Maxakali [mbl].  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Guapore 
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Kadiwéu

[kbc] 1,590 (1998 ISA). Mato Grosso do Sul, around Serra da Bodoquena 3 villages. Alternate names: Caduvéo, Ediu-Adig, Mbaya-Guaikuru.  Classification: Mataco-Guaicuru, Guaicuruan 
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Kaimbé

[xai] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,100 to 1,400 (1986 SIL). Bahía. Classification: Unclassified 
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Kaingang

[kgp] Ethnic population: 25,875. São Paulo north of Paranapena River, 3 reservations, Paraná between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers, 9 reservations, Santa Catarina between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers, 8 reservations, Rio Grande do Sul south of the Uruguay River; Southeast dialect. 5 reservations east of Passo Fundo River; Southwest Dialect, 7 reservations; also east of Passo Fundo River; outskirts of important cities in Rio Grande do Sul. 32 reservations plus scattered locations. Alternate names: Bugre, Caingang, Coroado, Coroados.  Dialects: Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang 
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Kaingáng, São Paulo

[zkp] Extinct. São Paulo. Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern 
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Kaiwá

[kgk] 18,000 in Brazil (2003 ISA). Population total all countries: 18,510. Mato Grosso do Sul. Also in Argentina. Alternate names: Caingua, Caiua, Caiwa, Cayua, Kaiova, Kayova.  Dialects: Teüi, Tembekuá, Kaiwá. Some comprehension of Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Pai Tavytera [pta] of Paraguay.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I 
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Kamakan

[vkm] Extinct. Bahia area. Alternate names: Ezeshio.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Kamakan 
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Kamayurá

[kay] 360 (2002 ISA). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Camaiura, Kamaiurá, Kamayirá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VII 
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Kamba

[xba] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso do Sul, near Corumbá. Alternate names: Camba.  Dialects: May have been Tupí [tpw].  Classification: Unclassified 
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Kambiwá

[xbw] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,108 (1995 SIL). Pernambuco. Classification: Unclassified 
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Kanamarí

[knm] 1,650 (2006 ISA). Amazonas, upper regions of Jurua, Jutai, Itaquai rivers. Alternate names: Canamarí, Kanamaré.  Dialects: Tshom-Djapa (Txunhuã-Djapá, Txunhuã Dyapá), Tsohon-Djapa.  Classification: Katukinan 
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Kanoé

[kxo] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (2000 C. Jensen). Rondônia, Guaporé River. Alternate names: Canoé, Guaratégaya, Guarategaja, Koaratira, Guaratira, Amniapé, Kapixaná, Kapixana, Kapishanã, Canoê.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Kapinawá

[xpn] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 354 (1995 AMTB). Pernambuco. Classification: Unclassified 
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Karahawyana

[xkh] 40 (1995 SIL). Amazonas, near the Waiwai. Dialects: Probably Cariban.  Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Karajá

[kpj] 3,600 (1999 ISA). 919 Javaé (2000 ISA). Goiás, Pará, Mato Grosso, Araguaia River, Bananal Island, and Tocantins. Alternate names: Chamboa, Xambioá, Ynã.  Dialects: Javaé (Javahe). Men and women speak different dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Karaja 
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Karapanã

[cbc] 50 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Amazonas, São Gabriel and Pari-Cachoeira. Alternate names: Carapana, Carapanã, Mextã.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
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Karipúna

[kgm] Extinct. Amapá, on French Guiana border. Alternate names: Karipúna do Amapá, Karipúna do Uaçá.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Karipuna

[kuq] 14 (2004 ISA). Rondônia, Acre, banks of Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers. Alternate names: Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuná de Rondônia, Karipuná do Guaporé.  Dialects: Jacaria, Pama (Pamana). The Karipuná, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Tenharim [pah] all call themselves ‘Kagwahiva’ (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically very similar.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI  Nearly extinct.
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Karipúna Creole French

[kmv] 1,710 (2000 ISA). Amapá, on French Guiana border. Alternate names: Crioulo.  Dialects: Conflicting reports about difference from Guianese Creole French [gcr]. Different from Haitian [hat].  Classification: Creole, French based 
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Karirí-Xocó

[kzw] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,062 (1995 SIL). Alagoas. Alternate names: Karirí, Kariri Xucó, Kipeá, Xocó, Xokó, Xokó-Karirí, Xukurú, Xukuru Kariri.  Dialects: Kipeá (Quipea), Kamurú (Camuru), Dzubukuá (Dzubucua), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial (Greenberg 1959), Macro-Carib (Swadesh 1959), Macro-Ge (Rodrigues 1975), Isolate (Rivet and Loukotka 1952, Larsen 1984).  Classification: Unclassified 
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Karitiâna

[ktn] 320 (2005 ISA). Rondônia, Candeias River, tributary of the upper Madeira River. Alternate names: Caritiana.  Classification: Tupi, Arikem 
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Karo

[arr] 170 (2004 ISA). Rondônia, and Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Arára, Arára de Rondonia, Arára do Jiparaná, Arara-Karo, Itanga, Itogapuc, Itogapúk, Ntogapid, Ntogapig, Ramarama, Uruku, Urukú.  Dialects: Arara, Uruku.  Classification: Tupi, Ramarama 
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Katawixi

[xat] 10 (1986 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Catauichi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catawixi, Jacareúba.  Classification: Katukinan  Nearly extinct.
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Katukína

[kav] 1 (1976 SIL). Ethnic population: 289 (2000 ISA). Acre. Alternate names: Catuquina, Katukina do Jutaí, Pidá-Djapá.  Dialects: Cutiadapa (Kutia-Dyapa).  Classification: Katukinan  Nearly extinct.
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Katukína, Panoan

[knt] Ethnic population: 315 (1998 ISA). Amazonas, Acre. Alternate names: Catuquina, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Katukina do Juruá, Waninnawa.  Dialects: Arara-Shawanawa (Shawanawa-Arara), Ararapina, Ararawa, Sanainawa (Saninawacana). Possibly intelligible with Marúbo [mzr].  Classification: Panoan, Southeastern 
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Kaxararí

[ktx] 270 (2001 ISA). Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna, Acre, Rondônia, Amazonas. Alternate names: Kaxariri.  Classification: Panoan, Eastern 
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Kaxuiâna

[kbb] Extinct. 1986 SIL population figure of 434 included 300 Warikyana, 134 Kaxuiâna. Northwest Para, Imabu River near perimetral norte, on Trombetes River near junction with Mapuwera. Most with the Trió [tri]; a few among Hixkaryána [hix]. Alternate names: Kachuana, Kashujana, Kashuyana, Kaxúyana, Warikiana, Warikyana.  Dialects: Pawiyana (Pawixi).  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Kayabí

[kyz] 1,000 (1999 ISA). North Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, and south Para; Teles Pires River and Tatui. Alternate names: Caiabi, Kajabí, Maquiri, Parua.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup V 
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Kayapó

[txu] 7,100 (2003 ISA). 3,950 monolinguals. 469 Xikrin (1986 SIL). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, south Pará, both sides of the Xingú River, west up to the Iriri and tributaries, and west bank to the Fresco and Zinho rivers. 14 villages. Alternate names: Kokraimoro.  Dialects: Xikrin (Xukru, Diore), Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú. Dialects only slightly different from village names.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kayapo 
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Kepkiriwát

[kpn] Extinct. Rôndonia, formerly on Pimenta Bueno River. Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Korubo

[xor] 250 (2000 ISA). Amazonas. Alternate names: Caceteiros.  Dialects: Most similar to and may be the same as or a dialect of Matis [mpg].  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Krahô

[xra] 2,000 (1999 ISA). Maranhão, southeastern Pará, Tocantins. 5 villages. Alternate names: Craô, Kraô.  Dialects: Different from Canela [ram], but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Krenak

[kqq] 150 (1997 ISA). Mato Grosso, Paraná, left bank of Doce River; reservations in east São Paulo. Classification: Macro-Ge, Botocudo 
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Kreye

[xre] 30 (1995 SIL). Maranhão and Pará. Alternate names: Crange, Crenge, Crenye, Creye, Krem-Ye, Tage, Taze.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira  Nearly extinct.
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Krinkati-Timbira

[xri] 420 (1995). Southeast Pará, Maranhão, Tocantins; Municipality of Amarante, Governador village. Alternate names: Krikati-Gaviao, Krikati-Timbira, Krinkati-Gaviao.  Dialects: Krinkati (Karakati), Timbira. Krinkati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Timbira 
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Kuikúro-Kalapálo

[kui] 870 (2002 ISA). 450 Kuikúro and 417 Kalapálo. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, 3 villages along Culuene River. Alternate names: Apalakiri, Apalaquiri, Cuicutl, Guicurú, Kalapalo, Kuikuru, Kurkuro.  Dialects: Kuikúro and Kalapálo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin 
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Kulina

[cul] 2,540 in Brazil (2002 ISA). Population total all countries: 2,940. Amazonas, Acre. Also in Peru. Alternate names: Corina, Culina, Kulína, Kulyna, Madihá, Madija.  Dialects: Minor changes from Peruvian dialect.  Classification: Arauan 
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Kulina Pano

[xpk] 32 (2007 SIL). West Brazil Vale do Javari Indigenous Territory, Curuça River, Aldeia Pedro Lopes village. Migrating to Tabatinga town near where Javari River meets the Amazon. Alternate names: Culina Pano.  Dialects: Different from Kulina [cul] in the Arauan family. Similar to Matis [mpq] and Matses [mcf].  Classification: Panoan, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Kuruáya

[kyr] 10. Ethnic population: 115. Pará, tributaries of the lower Xingú River. Alternate names: Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia.  Classification: Tupi, Munduruku  Nearly extinct.
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Kwaza

[xwa] 25 (SIL 2005). Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway, same reserve as Aikanãs [tba] and Latundês [ltn]. Alternate names: Coaia, Koaiá, Koaya, Quaiá.  Classification: Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Lakondê

[lkd] 1 (2007). Rondonia, Vilhena village. Dialects: Similar to Latundê [ltn], Tawandê [xtw].  Classification: Nambiquaran, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Latundê

[ltn] 20 (2007). Rondonia, Aikaná-Latundê Indigenous Reserve. Alternate names: Leitodu.  Dialects: Similar to Lakondé [lkd], Tawandê [xtw].  Classification: Nambiquaran, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Machinere

[mpd] 260 in Brazil (1999 ISA). Population total all countries: 400. Acre. Also in Bolivia. Alternate names: Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri.  Dialects: Distinct from Yine [pib] (Piro) in Peru. The Manitenére dialect may be different from Machinere.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Purus 
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Macuna

[myy] 100 in Brazil (1973 RC). Rio Chié, Amazonas. Alternate names: Baigana, Buhagana, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Wuhána, Yebamasã, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yepá-Mahsá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
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Macushi

[mbc] 19,000 in Brazil (2001 ISA). Population total all countries: 29,100. Contingo, Quino, Pium, and Mau rivers, northeast Roraima and Rio Branco. Also in Guyana, Venezuela. Alternate names: Macusi, Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teueia, Teweya.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Pemon [aoc] or Patamona [pbc].  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Macushi 
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Makuráp

[mpu] 110 (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 267. Pororoca Post, Guaporé, and Mequéns rivers, Branco, Rondônia. Alternate names: Macuráp, Macurapi, Makurápi, Massaka.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Mamaindé

[wmd] 330 (2007). Mato Grosso, between Cabixi and Pardo rivers. Dialects: Negaroté. Similar to Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], Tawandê [xtw].  Classification: Nambiquaran, Northern 
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Mandahuaca

[mht] 3 in Brazil (1993 ALEM). Amazonas, upper Cauaboris, tributary of the Rio Negro, Colombia border. Alternate names: Ihini, Maldavaca, Mandauaca, Mandawáka.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Mapidian

[mpw] 50 in Brazil (1986 Howard). Roraima, with the Waiwai [waw]. Also in Guyana. Alternate names: Mahuayana, Maiopitian, Maopityan, Mawayana.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 10% with Wapishana [wap] and 20% with Atorada [aox].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan  Nearly extinct.
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Maquiritari

[mch] 430 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Roraima. Alternate names: Makiritare, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Mayongong, Pawana, Soto.  Dialects: Cunuana, De’cuana (Wainungomo), Ihuruana, Maitsi, Mayongong (Ye’cuana, Yekuana).  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southern Guiana 
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Maritsauá

[msp] Extinct. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, Manitsaua-Missu, a tributary of the Upper Xingú. Alternate names: Manitsawá, Mantizula.  Dialects: Arupai (Urupaya).  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna 
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Marúbo

[mzr] 1,040 (2000 ISA). Amazonas, along headwaters of Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí, tributaries, near the Peru border. Alternate names: Kaniuá, Marova, Maruba.  Dialects: No comprehension of Matsés (Mayoruna) [mcf] reported. Possibly intelligible with Panoan Katukína [knt].  Classification: Panoan, North-Central 
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Matipuhy

[mzo] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 119. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Mariape-Nahuqua, Matipu.  Dialects: Matipuhy, Nahukuá (Nakukwa, Nafukwá, Nahuqua).  Classification: Carib, Southern, Xingu Basin 
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Matís

[mpq] 240 (2000 ISA). Amazonas, Javari Valley, Municipality of Atalaia do Norte, on the border with Peru. Dialects: Different from Matsés [mcf].  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Matsés

[mcf] 800 in Brazil (2006 SIL). Amazonas. Alternate names: Matse, Mayoruna.  Classification: Panoan, Northern 
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Maxakalí

[mbl] 800 (1997 ISA). Minas Gerais, 160 km inland from coast. 14 villages. Alternate names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Macuni, Monaxo, Monocho.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Maxakali 
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Mehináku

[mmh] 200 (2002 ISA). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Mahinaku, Mehinaco, Minaco.  Dialects: Waurá-kumá. Somewhat intelligible with Waurá [wau]. There is a dialect of Mehinaku called Waurá-kumá which is influenced by Waurá [wau].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Miraña

[boa] 610 in Brazil (1997 ISA). Amazonas near the Solimões, between Tefé and Caiçara rivers, and along Brazilian Rio Iça. Alternate names: Bora, Boro.  Dialects: Miranha (Miraña, Mirãnia).  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
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Miriti

[mmv] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 55 (1995 AMTB). Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua, Amazonas. Alternate names: Miriti Tapuyo, Miriti-Tapuia, Neenoá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Miriti 
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Mondé

[mnd] 30 (1995 AMTB). Apidia River, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, near Pimenta Bueno, Rondônia. Alternate names: Salamãi, Salamaikã, Sanamaica, Sanamaiká, Sanamaykã.  Dialects: Related to Arua [arx], Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo].  Classification: Tupi, Monde  Nearly extinct.
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Morerebi

[xmo] 100 (2000). Amazonas, Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. Dialects: Very similar linguistically to Amundava [adw], Tenharim [pah], and Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz]. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Mundurukú

[myu] 10,100 (2002 FUNASA). Pará, Amazonas, middle and upper Tapajós and middle Madeira rivers. 22 villages. Alternate names: Caras-Pretas, Monjoroku, Mundurucu, Paiquize, Pari, Weidyenye.  Classification: Tupi, Munduruku 
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Nadëb

[mbj] 300 (1986 SIL). Amazonas, 3 locations on Uneiuxi River: a tributary of Negro River, on Japura and Negro rivers. Alternate names: Anodöub, Kabari, Kabori, Makú Nadëb, Makunadöbö, Nadeb Macu, Nadöbö, Xiriwai, Xuriwai.  Classification: Maku 
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Nambikuára, Southern

[nab] 1,150 (2000 SIL), increasing. 950 monolinguals. Northwest Mato Grosso, along Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway about 300 km. 10 villages. Alternate names: Alaketesu, Anunsu, Nambikwara, Nambiquara.  Dialects: Manduka, Khithaulhu, Halotesu, Saxwentesu, Wakalitesu, Serra Azul, Hahaintesu, Wasusu, Alatesu, Waikisu, Galera, Sarare, Alaketesu, Anunsu.  Classification: Nambiquaran 
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Nhengatu

[yrl] 3,000 in Brazil (1998). Population total all countries: 8,000. Amazonas, Lower Vaupés, Içana, and Negro River areas. Also in Colombia, Venezuela. Alternate names: Coastal Tupian, Geral, Língua Geral, Modern Tupí, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Nyengatú, Ñeegatú, Waengatu, Yeral.  Dialects: Based on Tupinambá [tpn], developed by Portuguese during 17th and 18th centuries as language of communication.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Ninam

[shb] 470 in Brazil (1976 UFM). Most are monolingual. 236 in southern dialect, 230 in northern dialect. Population total all countries: 570. Mucajai, upper Uraricáa, and Paragua rivers, Roraima. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Crichana, Jawaperi, Jawari, Kasrapai, Shiriana Casapare, Xirianá, Yanam.  Dialects: Southern Ninam (Shirishana, Mukajai), Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua).  Classification: Yanomam 
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Nukuini

[nuc] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 425 (1999 ISA). Acre, northwest, Juruá, from the upper Mõa to the Rio Sungarú. Alternate names: Nuquini.  Dialects: Cuyanawa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Unclassified 
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Ofayé

[opy] 15. Ethnic population: 62 (2005 ISA). Mato Grosso do Sul, along Verde, Vacaris, and Ivinhema rivers, around Brazilândia. Alternate names: Ofaié-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, Opayé.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Opaye  Nearly extinct.
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Omagua

[omg] 156 (2000 ISA) may refer to the whole ethnic population. Ethnic population: 156. Amazonas. Alternate names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Janbeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata.  Dialects: Aizuare (Aissuari), Curacirari (Curazicari), Curucicuri (Curuzicari), Paguana (Paguara).  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III  Nearly extinct.
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Oro Win

[orw] 5 (1996 SIL). Ethnic population: 55 (1998). Pacaas-Novos River headwaters, a tributary of Mamoré River, along the Brazil-Bolivia border. Dialects: Related to Tora [trz], Itene [ite] (More), Pakaasnovos [pav] (Wari), but not mutually inherently intelligible.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira  Nearly extinct.
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Oti

[oti] Extinct. São Paulo. Alternate names: Chavante, Euchavante.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Oti 
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Otuke

[otu] Extinct. Mato Grosso lowlands into eastern Bolivia. Alternate names: Louxiru, Otuque, Otuqui.  Dialects: Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, Tapii; all extinct.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Otuke 
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Pakaásnovos

[pav] 1,930 (1998 ISA). Rondônia. 7 villages. Alternate names: Jaru, Oro Wari, Pacaas-Novos, Pacahanovo, Pakaanova, Pakaanovas, Uomo, Wari.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira 
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Palikúr

[plu] 920 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Population total all countries: 1,420. Northern coastal tip along rivers, Amapá. Also in French Guiana. Alternate names: Palicur, Palijur, Palikour.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Eastern Maipuran 
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Panará

[kre] 250 (2004 ISA). Northern Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Kreen Akarore, Kren Akarore.  Dialects: Not a dialect of Kayapó [txu]; possibly more similar to Canela [ram].  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Kreen-Akarore 
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Pankararé

[pax] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1500. Bahía. Alternate names: Pankaré.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Pankararú

[paz] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 5880. Pernambuco, Alagoas. Alternate names: Pancaré, Pancaru, Pankarará, Pankaravu, Pankaroru, Pankarú.  Dialects: Possibly related to Xukuru [xoo].  Classification: Language isolate 
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Papavô

[ppv] 170 (2000). Acre, Taramacá River. Classification: Unclassified 
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Parakanã

[pak] 900 (2004 ISA). Pará, lower Xingú River, near São Felix and Altamira towns. Alternate names: Awaeté, Parakanân, Parocana.  Dialects: A member of the Akwáwa subgroup.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Paranawát

[paf] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 50 to 100 (1986 SIL). Rondônia, tributaries of the Jiparaná (Machado) River and Sono River. Alternate names: Majubim, Paranauat, Pawaté.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Parecís

[pab] 1,290 (1999 ISA). Mato Grosso, 6,000 square kilometers. 15 to 20 villages. Alternate names: Haliti, Paresí, Paressí.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe

[pth] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2,950 (1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais, Bahía, Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality. Alternate names: Patashó, Pataxi, Pataxó-Hãhaãi, Patoxó.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Paumarí

[pad] Ethnic population: 870. Amazonas, Purus River. 3 villages. Alternate names: Purupurú.  Dialects: Paumarm (Pammari), Kurukuru (Curucuru), Uaiai. 3 inherently intelligible dialects.  Classification: Arauan 
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Pemon

[aoc] 680 in Brazil. 220 Taulipang dialect, 459 Ingarikó dialect. Rio Branco, Roraima, near Guyana border. Alternate names: Pemong.  Dialects: Taulipang (Taurepan), Camaracota (Ipuricoto), Arecuna (Aricuna, Arekuna, Jaricuna), Ingarikó (Ingaricó).  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Macushi-Kapon, Kapon 
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Pirahã

[myp] 360 (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 SIL). Pirahã small group, Múra larger. Amazonas, along Maici and Autaces rivers. Alternate names: Múra-Pirahã.  Dialects: Múra.  Classification: Mura 
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Piratapuyo

[pir] 620 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 1,070. Amazonas. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Pira-Tapuya, Uaiana, Uaicana, Uaikena, Uainana, Waikhara, Waikino, Waina.  Dialects: Similar to Guanano [gvc] but ethnically distinct. The two groups do not intermarry. Lexical similarity: 99% with Guanano (SIL).  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 5,960 in Brazil (1985 SIL).  Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Pokangá

[pok] 100 (1983 SIL). Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés, Amazonas. Alternate names: Bará, Bara Sona, Barasano, Pakang, Pokangá-Tapuya.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Portuguese

[por] 163,000,000 in Brazil (1998). Widespread. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician 
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Potiguára

[pog] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 10,837. Paraíba, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on the Baía da Traição, Mamanguape Municipality. Alternate names: Pitonara.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Poyanáwa

[pyn] 12 (1992). Ethnic population: 403 (1999 ISA). Acre, upper Rio Môa, Jumá tributary. Alternate names: Poianáua, Puinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua  Nearly extinct.
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Puri

[prr] Extinct. Espíritu Santo, Minas Gerais and nearby. Alternate names: Coroado.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Puri 
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Puruborá

[pur] 2 (2002 SIL). Rondônia, headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of the right bank of the Guaporé. Alternate names: Aurã, Burubora, Cujubi, Kuyubi, Miguelenho, Migueleno, Pumbora, Puroborá, Puruba.  Classification: Tupi, Purubora  Nearly extinct.
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Rikbaktsa

[rkb] 910 (2001 ISA). Mato Grosso, confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between the Arinos and Sangue rivers, and Posto Escondido on the west bank of the Juruena 700 km north. 9 villages, 14 settlements. Alternate names: Aripaktsa, Canoeiro, Erikbatsa, Erikpatsa.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Rikbaktsa 
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Sabanês

[sae] 1 (2005 SIL). Mato Grosso. Alternate names: Sabanê, Sabones, Sowainte.  Classification: Nambiquaran  Nearly extinct.
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Sakirabiá

[skf] 23 (2005 ISA). Ethnic population: 70 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste muicipalities, Mequens River. Alternate names: Sakirabiát, Sakirabiáp, Sakiriabar, Sakirabiák, Sakirap, Mekens.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari  Nearly extinct.
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Salumá

[slj] 240 (2000). Northwest Pará, upper Anamu, source of the Trombetas, along the Suriname border. Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana 
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Sanumá

[xsu] 1,800 in Brazil (2006 D. Borgman). ISA (2000) gives 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil. Auaris River, Roraima. Alternate names: Guaika, Sanema, Tsanuma.  Dialects: Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Auaris, Yanoma (Samatari, Samatali, Xamatari, “Kohoroxitari” ).  Classification: Yanomam 
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Sateré-Mawé

[mav] 7,130 (2000 ISA). Pará, Amazonas, Andirá, and Maués rivers, between lower Tapajós and lower Madeira rivers. More than 14 villages. Alternate names: Andira, Arapium, Mabue, Maragua, Maué, Mawé, Sataré.  Classification: Tupi, Mawe-Satere 
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Sharanahua

[mcd] 3 in Brazil (2007 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 200. Acre, Marináwa, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá, Cruziero do Sul municipality, on Rio Humaitá off Juará River. Alternate names: Acre Arara.  Dialects: Marinahua (Marináwa), Chandinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Shenenawa

[swo] 360 (2002). Acre, near Feijo City. Classification: Unclassified 
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Sikiana

[sik] 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 48. Northwest Pará, between Rio Cafuini and headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near the Suriname border. Also in Suriname, Venezuela. Alternate names: Chikena, Chiquena, Chiquiana, Shikiana, Sikiâna, Sikïiyana, Xikiyana, Xikujana.  Dialects: Similar to Salumá [slj].  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai, Sikiana  Nearly extinct.
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Siriano

[sri] 10 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Amazonas, São Gabriel. Alternate names: Sarirá, Siriana, Siriane, Surianá, Surirá, Suryana.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
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Suruahá

[swx] 130 (1995 AMTB). Amazonas. Alternate names: Mndios do Coxodoá, Suruwahá, Zuruahá.  Classification: Arauan 
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Suruí

[sru] 920 (2003 ISA). Rondônia-Mato Grosso border. 10 villages and scattered locations. Alternate names: Paiter, Suruí de Rondônia, Suruí do Jiparaná.  Dialects: Related to Cinta Larga [cin], Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo].  Classification: Tupi, Monde 
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Suruí do Pará

[mdz] 180 (1997 ISA). Araguaia in Pará, São João municipality, 110 km from Marabá. Alternate names: Aikewara, Akewara, Akewere, “Mudjétira” , “Mudjetíre” , “Mudjetíre-Suruí” , Suruí.  Dialects: Different from Suruí do Jiparaná [sru]. Member of Akwáwa subgroup. Probably similar linguistic relationship to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu] and Parakanã [pak].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Suyá

[suy] 330 (2002 ISA). 334 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (ISA 1995). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, headwaters of Rio Culuene. Tapayúnas in Pará, TI Capoto or Jarina reservation, Kayapó villages (ISA 2002). Alternate names: Kisêdjê.  Dialects: Beiço de Pau (Tapayúna), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku).  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Northwest, Suya 
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Talian

[vec] 4,000,000 in Brazil (2006 Palmerini and Silva). Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina. Alternate names: Taliano, Venetian, Veneto, Vèneto.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian 
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Tapeba

[tbb] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2491. Ceará River, Caucaia, Ceará. Alternate names: Tabeba.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Tapirapé

[taf] 500 (2003 FUNASA). Northeast Mato Grosso, mouth of Tapirapé and Araguaia rivers. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Tariana

[tae] 100 in Brazil (Aikhenvald 1996). Population total all countries: 430. Ethnic population: 1,500 in Brazil (Rodrigues 1986). Amazonas, Middle Vaupés River, Santa Rosa (Juquira), Iauarete, Periquitos, and Ji-Ponta. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Taliáseri, Tariano, Tariáno, Tarîna.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
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Tawandê

[xtw]  Rondonia, Pyrineus de Souza village, near Vilhena town. Alternate names: Tawaindê, Da’wan’du.  Dialects: Similar to Lakondê [lkn] and Latundê [ltn].  Classification: Nambiquaran, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Tembé

[tqb] 180 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 820 (1999 ISA). Maranhão and Gurupi rivers. In Gurupi about 100 of 170 speak Tembé. Alternate names: Tenetehara.  Dialects: Intelligible with Guajajára [gub].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup IV 
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Tenharim

[pah] 790 (ISA 2000). ISA (2000) gives 585 Tenharim, 156 Parintintin, 50 Diahhoi. Amazonas. Diahói are on Rio Marmelos; Karipuna in Rondônia on Jaci Paraná River Post; Morerebi on Rio Preto and Marmelos. 2 villages. Alternate names: Kagwahiv, Kawaib, Tenharem, Tenharin.  Dialects: Tenharim (Tenharem, Tenharin), Parintintín, Kagwahiv (Kawaib), Karipuna Jaci Paraná, Mialát, Diahói (Jahui, Giahoi). The Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Karipuná [kuq] all call themselves ’Kagwahiva’ (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all linguistically very similar.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Terêna

[ter] 15,000 (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 16,000. Mato Grosso do Sul. 20 villages and 2 cities. Alternate names: Etelena, Tereno.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Southern Maipuran, Bolivia-Parana 
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Ticuna

[tca] 32,600 in Brazil (1998 ISA). Population total all countries: 48,600. West Amazonas. Also in Colombia, Peru. Alternate names: Magüta, Tikuna, Tukuna.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Tingui-Boto

[tgv] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 350. Alagoas. Alternate names: Carapató, Karapató, Tingui.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Torá

[trz] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 51. Amazonas, lower Rio Marmelos, tributary of Rio Madeira. Alternate names: Toraz.  Classification: Chapacura-Wanham, Madeira 
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Tremembé

[tme] Extinct. Almofa, la Ceará. Classification: Unclassified 
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Trió

[tri] 900 in Brazil (2003 ISA). Pará, Rio Mapari. Alternate names: Tirió, Tiriyó.  Dialects: Pianocotó.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Truká

[tka] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1333. Pernambuco, Bahía. Classification: Unclassified 
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Trumai

[tpy] 100 (2006). Ethnic population: 120. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park, source of Xingú River, villages along banks. Dialects: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Tucano

[tuo] 2,630 in Brazil (1986 SIL). 46 Wasona speakers, 16 of them intermarried with other groups (González de Pérez 2000). Population total all countries: 4,630. Amazonas. Wasonas primarily in Yacayacá village. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: Daxsea, Takuna, Tukána.  Dialects: Yohoraa (Curaua), Wasona (Uasona), Pisamira, Papiwa, Papihua, “Pisatapuyo” , “Pisa-tapuyo” .  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
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Tukumanféd

[tkf] Extinct. Rondônia, mouth of Cacoal tributary of the Jiparaná. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Tuparí

[tpr] 300 (2000). Ethnic population: 378. Rondônia, Branco River, tributary of the Guaporé, Pororoca Post. Classification: Tupi, Tupari 
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Tupí

[tpw] Extinct. Along coast around what is now São Paulo. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Tupinambá

[tpn] Extinct. Along coast from Rio de Janeiro north to Amazon River. Alternate names: Brasiliano, Brasilica, Old Tupí, Tupí, Tupí Antigo.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Tupinikin

[tpk] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1386. Espirito Santo, Bahia. Alternate names: Tupinaki, Tupinikim, Tupiniquim.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
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Turiwára

[twt] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL). Pará, with the Tembé on Acará-miri River. Alternate names: Turiuara.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Tuxá

[tud] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1630. Bahía, Pernambuco. Alternate names: Todela, Tusha.  Classification: Language isolate 
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Tuxináwa

[tux] Extinct. Acre. Alternate names: Tuchinaua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Tuyuca

[tue] 460 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas. Alternate names: Dochkafuara, Doka-Poara, Doxká-Poárá, Tuiuca, Tuyuka.  Dialects: Tsola.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Uamué

[uam] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 2473. Pernambuco, vicinity of Floresta. Alternate names: Aticum, Atikum, Huamuê.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Umotína

[umo] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 124. Mato Grosso, along Paraguay River. Alternate names: Barbados, Umutina.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Bororo, Bororo Proper 
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Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau

[urz] 87 (2003 ISA). Rondônia, on upper Jaciparaná, Cautário, and Jamari rivers. Alternate names: Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Kagwahiva, Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Uruewawau.  Dialects: Mutually intelligible dialect with Amundava [adw]. Similar to Tenharim [pah].  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Urumi

[uru] Extinct. Rondônia, Marmelos River, tributary of the middle Madeira. Classification: Tupi, Ramarama 
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Uru-Pa-In

[urp] 200 (1995 SIL). Rondônia, Ariquemes Municipality. Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Waimaha

[bao] 100 in Brazil (1998). Amazonas, Prelazia Rio Negro. Alternate names: “Bará” , Barazana, Northern Barasano, Waimaja.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Waimiri-Atroarí

[atr] 930 (2001 ISA). Amazonas border with Roraima Alalau and Camanau, Jatapu and Jauaperi rivers. 24 villages. Alternate names: Atroahy, Atroaí, Atroarí, Atrowari, Atruahí, Ki’nya.  Dialects: Atruahi, Waimirí (Uaimirí, Wahmirí), Jawaperi (Yauaperi).  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waimiri 
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Waiwai

[waw] 2,910 in Brazil (2005 ISA). Population total all countries: 3,110. Amazonas, Pará, Roraima. Also in Guyana. Alternate names: Ouayeone, Uaieue, Uaiuai.  Dialects: Katawian (Katwena, Katawina, Catawian, Catauian, Parucutu, Parukutu, Katuena, Cachuena, Tunayana, Tonayana). Related to Salumá [slj]. Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Katawian as a separate language.  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Waiwai 
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Wajiara

[yui] 50 in Brazil (1991 SIL). Amazonas, Iauarete. Alternate names: Juriti, Juruti, Juruti-Tapuia, Luruty-Tapuya, Yuriti, Yuriti-Tapuia, Yuruti.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
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Wakoná

[waf] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 500 to 1,000 (1995 SIL). Alagoas. Classification: Unclassified 
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Wapishana

[wap] 6,500 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Roraima. Alternate names: Uapixana, Vapidiana, Wapishiana, Wapisiana, Wapixiana, Wapixiána.  Dialects: Amariba, Atorai.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Wapishanan 
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Wasu

[wsu] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,447. Alagoas. Alternate names: Waçu.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Waurá

[wau] 330 (2001 ISA). Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Aura, Uaura, Wauja.  Dialects: Partially intelligible with Mehináku [mmh].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran 
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Wayampi

[oym] 530 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Includes 520 speakers of Amapari, 10 of Oiapoque. Population total all countries: 1,180. West central Amapá and northern Pará, tributaries of the upper Amapari River. 8 villages. Also in French Guiana. Alternate names: Guaiapi, Guayapi, Oiampí, “Oiampipucu” , Oyampí, Oyampík, “Oyampipuku” , Oyanpík, Waiampi, Waiãpi, Wajapae, Wajapuku, Wayapae, Wayãpi.  Dialects: Oiyapoque Wayampi, Amapari Wayampi, Jari.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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Wayana

[way] 150 in Brazil. Amapá, among the Apalaí. Alternate names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Uaiana, Upurui, Wayâna.  Dialects: Rucuyen (Roucouyenne), Urucuiana (Urucena).  Classification: Carib, Northern, East-West Guiana, Wayana-Trio 
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Wayoró

[wyr] 80 (2000 SIL). Rondônia, Pororoca Post, Guapore River. Alternate names: Ajurú, Ayurú, Uaiora, Wajaru, Wayurú.  Classification: Tupi, Tupari  Nearly extinct.
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Wiraféd

[wir] Extinct. Rondônia, on Riosinho and Muquí tributaries of the Jiparaná. Alternate names: Uirafed, Wiroféd.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VI 
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Xakriabá

[xkr] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 4,643 (1995 AMTB). Minas Gerais. Alternate names: Chakriaba, Chikriaba, Shacriaba.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xavánte

[xav] 10,000 (2000 SIL). 7,000 monolinguals. Mato Grosso. 6 noncontiguous reservations, 80 villages. Alternate names: A’uwe Uptabi, A’we, Akuên, Akwen, Chavante, Crisca, Pusciti, Shavante, Tapacua.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xerénte

[xer] 1,810 (2000 ISA). Tocantins, between Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. Alternate names: Sherenté.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Ge, Central, Acua 
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Xetá

[xet] 3 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 8. Paraná, among Kaingang [kgp]. Alternate names: Aré, Cheta, Seta, Sheta.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup I  Nearly extinct.
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Xipaya

[xiy] 2 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 595 (2002 ISA). Pará, lower Xingú River. Alternate names: Shipaja, Xipaia.  Classification: Tupi, Yuruna  Nearly extinct.
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Xipináwa

[xip] Extinct. Southern Amazonas and Acre. Alternate names: Shipinahua.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Xiriâna

[xir] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 903 (2000 WCD). Amazonas, Demeni and Rio Negro tributaries, near Venezuela border. Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
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Xokleng

[xok] 760 (1998 ISA). Ethnic population: 784 (2000 WCD). Santa Catarina, along tributary of Itajaí River. Alternate names: Aweikoma, Botocudos, Bugre.  Classification: Macro-Ge, Ge-Kaingang, Kaingang, Northern 
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Xukurú

[xoo] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 6,363. Pernambuco, Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near Cimbres City, Bahía. Alternate names: Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Yabaâna

[ybn] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL). Amazonas, headwaters of the Marauia and Cauaboris, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. Alternate names: Jabaana, Yabarana.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Unclassified 
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Yalakalore

[xyl] Extinct.  Alternate names: Yalakalodu.  Classification: Nambiquaran, Northern 
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Yaminahua

[yaa] 500 in Brazil (ISA). Acre. Alternate names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yamináwa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yanomámi

[wca] 9,000 (1994 SIL). ISA (2000) gives 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil. Roraima, Waicá post, Uraricuera River; Amazonas, Toototobi post; Roraima, Catrimani River. Alternate names: Parahuri, Surara, Waicá, Waiká, Xurima, Yanoam, Yanomam, Yanomamé.  Dialects: Yanamam (Patimitheri, Waika), Yanomam (Naomam, Guadema, Wadema, Warema), Yanomay (Toototobi), Nanomam (Karime), Jauari (Joari, Yoari, Aica). Related to Yanomamö [guu] of Brazil and Venezuela.  Classification: Yanomam 
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Yanomamö

[guu] 1,940 in Brazil. ISA (2000) gives 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil. Amazonas, upper tributaries of Rio Negro. Alternate names: Guaharibo, Guaica, Shaathari, Shamatri, Yanomami.  Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco).  Classification: Yanomam 
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Yawalapití

[yaw] 7 (2005 Vogel). Ethnic population: 220. Mato Grosso, Xingú Park. Alternate names: Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti.  Dialects: Related to Waurá [wau], Mehináku [mmh].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Central Maipuran  Nearly extinct.
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Yawanawa

[ywn] 450 (1999 ISA). Includes 356 Shanenawa (2002 FUNAI). Scattered; only 1 village of 100 people. Acre. Alternate names: Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua.  Dialects: Shanenawa.  Classification: Panoan, South-Central, Yaminahua-Sharanahua 
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Yuhup

[yab] 360 in Brazil (1995). Amazonas, Vaupés River tributary. Also in Colombia. Alternate names: “Maku” , Makú-Yahup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, Yëhup.  Dialects: Limited intelligibility with Hupdë [jup]. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave [pui].  Classification: Maku 
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Zo’é

[pto] 150 (1998 ISA). Pará, Obidos Municipality, Cuminapanema River. Alternate names: Buré, Poturu, Poturujara, Tupí of Cuminapanema.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup VIII 
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