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Languages of Canada

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Canada. 32,271,000. First Nations 800,000 and Inuit 32,000 ethnic total (1993): 146,285 L1 speakers (1981 census). 4,120,770 non-English or French first language, or 15.3% (1991 census). National or official languages: English, French. Literacy rate: 96%–99%. Immigrant languages: Afrikaans (2,350), Armenian (32,900), Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (5,000), Belarusan (1,240), Bengali (34,700), Bulgarian (11,000), Central Khmer, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, Corsican, Croatian (71,700), Czech (30,900), Danish (22,300), Dutch (158,000), Eastern Frisian (3,950), Eastern Panjabi (271,000), Eastern Yiddish (37,000), Estonian (10,800), Finnish (25,200), Greek (159,000), Gujarati (80,800), Haitian (76,400), Hebrew (63,700), Hindi (227,000), Hmong Njua, Hungarian (89,300), Icelandic (2,390), Irish Gaelic (6,470), Italian (681,000), Japanese (65,000), Judeo-Moroccan Arabic, Kannada (3,200), Kashubian, Konkani (4,490), Korean (85,100), Lao (18,500), Latvian (9,540), Lithuanian (10,200), Macedonian (25,100), Malay (83,300), Malayalam (9,190), Maltese (9,970), Mandarin Chinese (208,000), Marathi (6,330), Najdi Spoken Arabic (20,000), Northern Kurdish (7,150), Northern Pashto (7,990), Nung, Plains Indian Sign Language, Polish (250,000), Pontic, Portuguese (265,000), Romanian (60,500), Russian (157,000), Scottish Gaelic (6,470), Serbian (50,100), Sindhi (14,300), Sinhala (15,400), Slovak (21,700), Slovene (15,300), Somali (31,300), Southeastern Dinka (15,900), Southwestern Caribbean Creole English, Spanish (611,000), Standard German (636,000), Swahili (25,300), Swedish (16,900), Sylheti, Tagalog (245,000), Tamil (112,000), Telugu (5,390), Thai (9,390), Tigrigna (6,110), Tongan, Turkish (32,500), Turoyo, Ukrainian (201,000), Urdu (139,000), Vietnamese (166,000), Vlaams (7,560), Vlax Romani, Welsh (2,220), Western Farsi (112,000), Western Panjabi, Yue Chinese (399,000). Also includes languages of India and Pakistan (280,000), and of Europe. Information mainly from W. Chafe, 1962, 1965; SIL 1951–2007. Blind population: 27,184. Deaf population: 1,704,551. Deaf institutions: Many. The number of individual languages listed for Canada is 86. Of those, all are living languages.
Abnaki, Western

[abe] 5 (2006 P. Tamburro). Some L1 speakers only passively retain the language and (or) are semi fluent. Ethnic population: 1,800 including Eastern Abnaki in USA (1982 SIL). Odanak, Quebec, at Abenaki Reserve, between Montreal and Quebec City. Alternate names: Abenaki, Abenaqui, St. Francis.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Algonquin

[alq] 2,430, decreasing. Less than 10% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987 SIL). Southwest Quebec, northwest of Ottawa and adjacent areas of Maniwaki and Golden Lake, Ontario. Alternate names: Algonkin.  Dialects: Several dialects. Southern (Miniwaki) and northern varieties (several varieties) very different.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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American Sign Language

[ase]  English-speaking areas of Canada. Alternate names: ASL, Ameslan.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Assiniboine

[asb] 250 in Canada (1997 D. Parks). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1997 D. Parks). West central and southeast Saskatchewan (Mosquito-Grizzly Bear’s Head), south Saskatchewan (part of Carry-the-Kettle and Whitebear). Also in United States. Alternate names: Assiniboin.  Dialects: Very similar to the Assiniboine of Montana. Similar to Stoney [sto]. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 90% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 89% with Lakota [lkt] and Stoney.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Atikamekw

[atj] 5,000. South central Quebec, between La Tuque, Quebec, and Senneterre, Quebec, 200–400 kms. north of Montreal, along the upper reaches of St. Maurice River, 3 isolated communities on reservations of Manuane, Obedjiwan, Weymontachie. Alternate names: Atihkamekw, Atikamek, Attikamek, Attimewk, Tête de Boule.  Dialects: Nonpalatalized r-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect continuum. Very different from Montagnais [moe] and Naskapi [nsk] nearby.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Babine

[bcr] 500 (1997 S. Hargus). Canada Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier[crx], and Southern Carrier L1 speakers in Canada 20,090 (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 2,200 (1982 SIL and 1997 S. Hargus). West central British Columbia, Burns Lake, Babine Lake, Moricetown areas, towards Takla Lake area. Alternate names: Babine Carrier, Northern Carrier, Witsuwit’en.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
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Beaver

[bea] 300 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 600 (1987 SIL). Northeast British Columbia and northwest Alberta, Chateh (Assumption) on Hay River, and Prophet River south of Fort Nelson. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Beaver-Sekani 
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Bella Coola

[blc] 20 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 700 (Kinkade 1991). Inlet on central British Columbia coast, head of Burke Channel, North Bentinck Arm, mouth of Bella Coola River. Alternate names: Nuxalk.  Classification: Salishan, Bella Coola  Nearly extinct.
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Blackfoot

[bla] 4,500 in Canada (2001 census), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 4,600. Ethnic population: 15,000. South Alberta, Blackfoot, Piegan, and Blood Reserves. Also in United States. Alternate names: Blackfeet, Pikanii.  Dialects: Piegan (Peigan), Blood.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Plains 
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Carrier

[crx] 2,060 (2001 Canada census). Canada Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier[crx], and Southern Carrier L1 speakers in Canada 20,090 (1998 Statistics Canada). Ethnic population: 2,100 (1987 SIL). Central British Columbia, Stuart and Trembleur Lake area. Alternate names: Central Carrier.  Dialects: Necoslie, Pinchie, Tachie, Grand Rapids, Middle River, Portage.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
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Carrier, Southern

[caf] 500 (1987 SIL). 2,055 identified in 2001. Canada Census does not separate Babine [bcr], Central Carrier [crx], and Southern Carrier L1 speakers in Canada 20,090 (1998 Statistics Canada). Central British Columbia, west of Quesnel and south of Cheslatta Lake, toward the Fraser River and its tributaries, and Anahim Lake-Ulkatcho. Dialects: Cheslatta, Prince George, Stoney Creek, Nautley, Stellaquo. Lexical similarity 90% with Central Carrier [crx].  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Babine-Carrier 
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Cayuga

[cay] 50 in Canada (2002 M. Foster). Population total all countries: 60. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1997 Mithun, Foster, Michelson per A. Yamamoto). Six Nations, Ontario. Also in United States. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
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Chilcotin

[clc] 1,140 (2001 census). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,500. South central British Columbia, west of Williams Lake. 7 reserve communities: Alexandria, Toosey, Anahim, Stone, Nemiah, Redstone, Ulkatcho. Alternate names: Tzilkotin.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Carrier-Chilcotin, Chilcotin 
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Chinese, Hakka

[hak] 5,900 in Canada (2001 census).  Alternate names: Hakka.  Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese 
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Chinook Wawa

[chn] 83 in Canada (1962). Population total all countries: 100. British Columbia. Also in United States. Alternate names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin.  Dialects: Many words from Chinook, large admixture of words from Nootka [noo], Canadian French, and English.  Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian  Nearly extinct.
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Comox

[coo] 400. Ethnic population: 850 (1983). British Columbia, Vancouver Island, and coast north of Powell River. Alternate names: Comox-Sliammon.  Dialects: Island Comox, Sliammon. All use Sliammon (mainland) dialect.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Northern 
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Cree

[cre] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 90,714. 
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Cree, Moose

[crm] 4,500. All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1982 SIL). Southern tip of James Bay, Moosonee, Ontario. Moose Cree, East Cree [crl] and [crj], and Swampy Cree [csw] reside in this community and surrounding area (Moose Factory, Ontario). Alternate names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree.  Dialects: Nonpalatalized l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Cree, Northern East

[crl] 5,310 (1997 Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux). All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 Canada census). West central Quebec, east coast of lower Hudson Bay and James Bay. Whapmagoostui, Chisasibi, Wemindji, and most in Eastmain communities. Alternate names: Eastern James Bay Cree Northern Dialect, James Bay Cree Northern.  Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Cree, Plains

[crk] 34,000 in Canada (1982 SIL). All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 census). Population total all countries: 34,100. Ethnic population: 53,000. North central Manitoba west across Saskatchewan and central Alberta to the foot of Rocky Mountains. Also in United States. Alternate names: Western Cree.  Dialects: Plains Cree, Western York Cree, Northern Alberta Cree. Nonpalatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Cree, Southern East

[crj] 7,310 (1997 Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services Sociaux). All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 census). Quebec, southeastward from James Bay, inland to the watershed east of Lake Mistissini. Coastal communities of Waskaganish, some in Eastmain. Inland, in Mistissini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, Ouje-Bougoumo. Alternate names: Eastern James Bay Cree Southern Dialect, James Bay Cree Southern Dialect.  Dialects: Palatalized y-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. Sometimes classified as Montagnais.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Cree, Swampy

[csw] 4,500 (1982 SIL). All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 5,000. Ontario, Hudson Bay coast, James Bay northwest coast, inland into Saskatchewan. Alternate names: West Main Cree, West Shore Cree, York Cree.  Dialects: Eastern Swampy Cree, Western Swampy Cree. Both nonpalatalized n-dialect and l-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Cree, Woods

[cwd] 35,000 (1982 SIL). All Cree L1 speakers in Canada 97,230 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 53,000 (1982 SIL). Far north Manitoba into Saskatchewan, inland southwest from Churchill. Dialects: Nonpalatalized th-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Dakota

[dak] 3,880 in Canada. Population of Dakota and Lakota [lkt] 4,950 (2001 census). Southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Oak River and Oak Lake, Long Plain west of Winnipeg, Standing Buffalo, Birdtail, Stony Wahpeton, and Moose Woods. May be at Wood Mountain. Alternate names: Sioux.  Dialects: Dakota (Santee), Nakota (Yankton).  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Dene

[chp] 9,030. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Krauss 1995). Northern Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, southeastern Northwest Territories (Snowdrift and Fort Resolution), Fort Smith, Fort Chipewyan, Wolliston Post, Buffalo Narrows, Brochet, and Reindeer Lake some communities. Alternate names: “Chipewyan” , Dëne Súline.  Dialects: Yellowknife.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Chipewyan 
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Dogrib

[dgr] 2,110 (2001 SIL). 12% monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,220. Northwest Territories, between Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake. 6 communities: Rae-Edzo, Whati (formerly Lac la Martre), Gameti, Wekweti, Detah and Ndilo (a subcommunity of Yellowknife). Rae is center. Dialects: Detah-Ndilo. Detah-Ndilo dialect developed from intermarriage between Yellowknife Subdivision of the Dëne [chp] and Dogrib. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Slavey [xsl], 82% with Northern Slavey [scs].  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
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English

[eng] 20,000,000 in Canada (2001 census). 820,000 L1 speakers in Quebec (1995 Statistics Canada); plus another 1,500,000 in Quebec whose L1 or L2 is English (1995 Statistics Canada).  Dialects: Newfoundland English.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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French

[fra] 6,700,000 in Canada (2001). 300,000 speak Acadien, 500,000 speak Franco-Ontarien. Québéco in Quebec; Franco-Ontarien Ontario; Acadian Caraquet; Shippagan, east coast of New Brunswick, pockets in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Some Québécois in Manitoba and Newfoundland. Alternate names: Français.  Dialects: Québécois, Franco-Ontarien, Acadian (Acadien), Shippagan.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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German, Pennsylvania

[pdc] 15,000 in Canada (1995). Kitchener-Waterloo area, Ontario. Alternate names: Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanisch.  Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German, Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Pennsylvanisch Deitsch).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German 
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Gitxsan

[git] 1,330. West central British Columbia, Gitxsan, middle Skeena River. Alternate names: Giklsan, Gitksan, Gityskyan.  Dialects: Gitxsan (Eastern Gitxsan), Gitsken (Western Gitsken). High comprehension of Nisga’a [ncg].  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
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Gwich’in

[gwi] 500 in Canada. Population total all countries: 800. Northwest Territories: Aklavik, Inuvik, Tsiigehtchic, Fort McPherson. Also in United States. Alternate names: Kutchin, Loucheux, Tukudh.  Dialects: Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Takudh, Tukudh, Loucheux), Arctic Red River.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin 
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Haida

[hai] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 10. 
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Haida, Northern

[hdn] 30 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Population of 270 reported in Canada Census 2001 may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Population total all countries: 45. Ethnic population: 1,100 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Also in United States. Alternate names: Masset.  Dialects: Borderline inherent intelligibility with Southern Haida [hax].  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
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Haida, Southern

[hax] 10 (Krauss 1995). Population of 270 reported in Canada Census 2001 may include Northern [hdn] and Southern [hax] Haida. Ethnic population: 500 (Krauss 1995). Queen Charlotte Islands, Skidegate. Alternate names: Skidegate.  Dialects: Borderline intelligibility with Northern Haida [hdn].  Classification: Na-Dene, Haida  Nearly extinct.
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Haisla

[has] 25 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Central British Columbia coast inlet, Douglas Channel head, near Kitimat. Dialects: Kitimat (Kitamat). Related to Heiltsuk [hei], Kwakiutl [kwk].  Classification: Wakashan, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Halkomelem

[hur] 200 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Population total all countries: 225. Southwest British Columbia. Also in United States. Alternate names: Holkomelem.  Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Halkomelem 
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Han

[haa] 7 in Canada (Krauss 1997). Ethnic population: 300. Alaska-Canada border, Dawson, Yukon River area. Alternate names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Moosehide.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Han-Kutchin  Nearly extinct.
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Heiltsuk

[hei] 300 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1977 SIL). Central British Columbia coast, Rivers Inlet including Ooweekeeno. Dialects: Bella Bella (Northern Heiltsuk), Ooweekeeno (Southern Heiltsuk). Related to Haisla [has], Kwakiutl [kwk].  Classification: Wakashan, Northern 
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Hutterisch

[geh] 33,000 in Canada. Population total all countries: 45,000. 347 colonies in Canada. About 95 people per colony. Also in United States. Alternate names: Hutterian German, Hutterite German, Tirolean, Tyrolese, Carinthian German.  Dialects: About 50% intelligible to Pennsylvania German [pdc], Plautdietsch [pdt], or Standard German speakers. Although called ‘Tirolean’, it is not a pure Tirolean dialect but contains Carinthian and Russian words.  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian 
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Inuktitut

[iku] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 18,000. 
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Inuktitut, Eastern Canadian

[ike] 14,000 (1991 L. Kaplan). All Inuktitut varieties 32,775. Ethnic population: 17,500 (1991 L. Kaplan). West of Hudson Bay, east through Baffin Island, Quebec, and Labrador. Alternate names: “Eastern Arctic Eskimo” , “Eastern Canadian Eskimo” , Inuit.  Dialects: Mittimatalik (“Baffinland Eskimo” ), Labrador Inuttut (Labrador Inuttitut, “Labrador Eskimo” ), Rigolet Inuttut, Tarramiut (“Quebec Eskimo” ).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
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Inuktitut, North Alaskan

[esi] All Inuktitut varieties 32,775. Mackenzie delta region including Aklavik and Inuvik, into Alaska, USA. Alternate names: “Eskimo” , Inupiaq, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inupiat.  Dialects: West Arctic Inupiatun (Western Iñupiaq, Mackenzie Inupiatun, Mackenzie Delta Inupiatun), North Slope Inupiatun.  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
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Inuktitut, Western Canadian

[ikt] 4,000 (1981). Central Canadian Arctic, west to Mackenzie Delta and coastal area, including Tuktoyaktuk on the Arctic coast north of Inuvik (but not Inuvik and Aklavik, and coastal area). Alternate names: Western Canadian Inuit.  Dialects: Copper Inuktitut (“Copper Eskimo” , Copper Inuit), “Caribou Eskimo” (Keewatin), Netsilik, Siglit (Siglitun).  Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit 
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Kaska

[kkz] 400 (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 900 (Krauss 1995). Southeast Yukon Territory, Watson Lake, Ross River, and Lower Post; northern British Columbia border area, Lower Post, Fireside, Good Hope Lake, Dease Lake, Muncho Lake. Alternate names: Caska, Eastern Nahane, Nahane, Nahani.  Dialects: Similar to Tahltan [tht].  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska 
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Kutenai

[kut] 6 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Population total all countries: 12. Southeast British Columbia, Columbia Lake, Lower Kootenay, St Mary’s, Tobacco Plains. Also in United States. Alternate names: Kootenai, Kootenay, Ktunaxa.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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Kwakiutl

[kwk] 190 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Population total all countries: 270. British Columbia, North Vancouver Island and adjacent mainland. Also in United States. Alternate names: Kwagiutl, Kwak’wala.  Dialects: Related to Haisla [has], Heiltsuk [hei].  Classification: Wakashan, Northern 
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Lakota

[lkt] 190 in Canada. Wood Mountain. Those at Wood Mountain may be Dakota. Alternate names: Lakhota, Teton.  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Lillooet

[lil] 200 (2002 W. Poser). South British Columbia, Lillooet and middle Fraser River area. Alternate names: St’at’imcets.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
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Malecite-Passamaquoddy

[pqm] 1,100 in Canada (2001 census). Population total all countries: 2,060. Ethnic population: 3,000 to 4,000 (1998 SIL). New Brunswick, villages along Saint John River. Malecite mainly in Canada, Passamaquoddy in Maine, USA. Also in United States. Alternate names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy.  Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Maritime Sign Language

[nsr]  Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Alternate names: Nova Scotian Sign Language.  Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
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Michif

[crg] 600 in Canada (1998). Canada Census (2001) includes Michif among 995 Algonquin speakers not counted elsewhere. Scattered locations. Alternate names: French Cree, Métis.  Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree 
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Micmac

[mic] 8,960 in Canada, decreasing. Population total all countries: 9,290. Ethnic population: 14,200 in Canada (1998 SIL). In Canada, 1,500 are in mainland Nova Scotia, 4,000 on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, 800 on Prince Edward Island and Lennox Island, 4,550 on the east coast of New Brunswick, 3,150 on the Gaspe Peninsula, Quebec, 200 in Newfoundland. Central and north Nova Scotia. 6 major villages and 1 small village on mainland: Afton, Pictou, Truro, Shubenagadie, Bear River, and Yarmouth, some small communities; 5 major villages on Cape Breton Island: Memberto, Eskasoni, Chapel Island, Wakmatkug, Waikoqomaq. Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick east coast: Fort Folly, Big Cove, Indian Island, Burnt Church, Eel Ground, Red Bank, Pabino Falls, and Eel River Bar; Quyebec, east Gaspe Peninsula, 3 villages: Gespe’q, Gesgapeqiaq, Listuguj; Newfoundland, at Conn River. Also in United States. Alternate names: Mi’gmaq, Mi’kmaq, Miigmao, Restigouche.  Dialects: Northern Micmac, Southern Micmac. Generally dialects are intelligible, but there are lexical, inflectional, word order, and spelling differences.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern 
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Mohawk

[moh] 760 in Canada (2001 census). Population total all countries: 3,760. Ethnic population: 24,000 in Canada, 30,000 including USA (1999 SIL). Southwest Quebec, south Ontario. Also in United States. Alternate names: Kanien’kéha.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
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Montagnais

[moe] 8,480 (1987). Ethnic population: 10,000. Quebec and Labrador, Lake St. John east along Saguenay Valley to north shore St. Lawrence River and Gulf of St. Lawrence east to St. Augustin, north to height of land at Schefferville and inland Labrador (Goose Bay, Lake Melville). 11 communities. Western Montagnais in 4 communities: Mashteuiatsh (near Roberval, Quebec), Betsiamites, Uashat-Maliotenam (near Sept-Iles, Quebec), Matimekosh (near Schefferville, Quebec). Eastern Montagnais in Mingan, Natashquan, La Romaine, Pakuashipi (St Augustine, Quebec, sometimes called Pakuashipu), Sheshatshiu (North-West River, Labrador). Alternate names: Innu, Innu Aimun.  Dialects: Western Montagnais, Eastern Montagnais. Palatalized l-dialect and palatalized n-dialect within Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi language complex or dialect subgroup. There are possibly 3 dialects based on the shifting of Proto-Algonquian *l within Western Montagnais to ‘n’ 2 Western Montagnais communities (Mashteuiatsh, Betsiamites) use ‘l’ as the reflex of Proto-Algonquian *l, and the other Western Montagnais (Uashat-Maliotenam, Matimekosh) use ‘n’. Uashat-Maliotenam and Matimekosh could be classified as Central Montagnais. All Eastern Montagnais speakers use ‘n’.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Munsee

[umu] 7 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 400 (Kinkade 1991). South Ontario, Moraviantown Reserve. Alternate names: Delaware, Ontario Delaware.  Dialects: Similar to Unami [unm] in USA.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern  Nearly extinct.
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Naskapi

[nsk] 1,180. Ethnic population: 1,177 (1996). Quebec and Labrador. 2 communities. Kawawachikamach about 10 km northeast of Schefferville in northeastern Quebec at watershed. On December 15, 2002 most of the Mushuau Innu moved from Utshimassits (Davis Inlet) to Natuashish on the mainland, an isolated community in Labrador. Alternate names: Innu Aimun, Iyuw Iyimuuun.  Dialects: Western Naskapi (Kawawachikamach), Eastern Naskapi (Natuashish).  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Cree-Montagnais-Naskapi 
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Nisga’a

[ncg] 920. Ethnic population: 5,400 (Krauss 1997). British Columbia, Lower Nass River Valley, Aiyansh (Ay’ans), Canyon City (Gitwinksihlkw), Greenville (Laxtalts’ap or Gitxat’in), Kincolith (Gingolx) villages. Alternate names: Nass, Nishga, Nishka, Nisk’a, Niska.  Dialects: Variation within Nisga’a not great enough to be considered dialects. High degree of inherent intelligibility between Nisga’a and Gitxsan [git].  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
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Nootka

[noo] 200 (2002 W. Poser). Includes 30 Nitinat (1991 M. Dale Kinkade). Canada Census (2001) lists 505. Ethnic population: 3,500 (1977 SIL). Southwest British Columbia, Pacific side of Vancouver Island, Nitinat, Nitinat Lake. Alternate names: Nutka, Nuuchahnulth.  Dialects: Nitinat (Ditinat, Didinaht, Nitinaht).  Classification: Wakashan, Southern 
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Ojibwa

[oji] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 79,360. 
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Ojibwa, Central

[ojc] 8,000 (2007 SIL). Canada Census (2001) lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,505 population. Central Ontario, Lake Nipigon in west to Lake Nipissing in east. Alternate names: Central Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Dialects: An area of transitional dialects.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Ojibwa, Eastern

[ojg] 25,900 (1998 Statistics Canada). Canada Census (2001) lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,505 population. Southern Ontario, north of Lake Ontario and east of Georgian Bay. East of north-south line through Bruce Peninsula base. Alternate names: Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Ojibwa, Northwestern

[ojb] 20,000 (2000 UBS). Canada Census (2001) lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,505 population. Southern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. Alternate names: Northern Ojibwa, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Dialects: Berens River Ojibwa (Saulteaux), Lac Seul Ojibwa, Albany River Ojibwa, Lake of the Woods Ojibwa, Rainy River Ojibwa.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Ojibwa, Severn

[ojs] 10,500. Northern northwest Ontario into Manitoba. Alternate names: Cree, Northern Ojibwa, Oji-Cree, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Ojicree.  Dialects: Winisk River Ojibwa, Severn River Ojibwa.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Ojibwa, Western

[ojw] 10,000 (2002 W. Poser). Canada Census (2001) lists all Ojibwa varieties together as 30,505 population. Ethnic population: 60,000 (1997 SIL). West from Lake Winnipeg into Saskatchewan with groups as far west as British Colombia. Alternate names: Ojibway, Ojibwe, Plains Ojibway, Saulteaux.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Okanagan

[oka] 400 in Canada (1977 SIL). Population total all countries: 510. South central British Columbia, east of Fraser Valley and west of Kootenai. Also in United States. Alternate names: Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan.  Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Southern 
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Oneida

[one] 200 in Canada (Kincade 1991). Population total all countries: 250. Ethnic population: 1,500 to 2,000 (1997 H. Woodbury). Southern Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Mohawk-Oneida 
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Onondaga

[ono] 75 in Canada (1991 H. Dale Kinkade). Population total all countries: 90. Ethnic population: 18,173 (1997 H. Woodbury). Southern Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. Alternate names: Onandaga.  Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Onondaga 
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Ottawa

[otw] 7,100 in Canada. Ethnic population: 60,000. Islands, areas surrounding Lake Huron, from Manitoulin Island to southern Ontario north of Lake Erie. Walople Island Reserve. West of a north south line through base of Bruce Peninsula. Also in United States. Alternate names: Odawa, Ojibway, Ojibwe.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central, Ojibwa 
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Plautdietsch

[pdt] 80,000 in Canada (Kloss and McConnell 1978). Population total all countries: 402,900. Ontario, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta, British Columbia. Also in Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Germany, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Paraguay, Russian Federation (Europe), United States, Uruguay. Alternate names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennoniten Platt.  Dialects: 50% intelligible with other Low German languages, Standard German, Pennsylvania German [pdc], Hutterite German [geh]. Plautdietsch has some major differences from the European Low German dialects still spoken along the North Sea and the Baltic Ocean because of the various places where the Mennonites have lived during the past 150 years (Epps 1996).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon 
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Potawatomi

[pot] 1,250 in Canada (1996). Southern Ontario, Walpole Island Reserve. Alternate names: Pottawottomi.  Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Central 
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Quebec Sign Language

[fcs]  Quebec; Ontario, nothern Ontario, Ottawa; New Brunswick, Bathurst; British Columbia, Vancouver; Alberta, Edmonton. Alternate names: Langue des Signes, Langue des Signes du Québec, Langue Signe Quebecars, LSQ, Québécoise.  Dialects: Related to French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl].  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Salish, Straits

[str] 20 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 3,020 (2001 Census). British Columbia, Southeast tip of Vancouver Island. Also in United States. Alternate names: Straits.  Dialects: Saanich, Samish, Lummi, Ts’ooke, Semiahmoo, Songish. Most use Saanich dialect.  Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Straits  Nearly extinct.
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Sarsi

[srs] 50 (Kinkade 1991). Ethnic population: 600 (1977 SIL). Alberta, near Calgary. Alternate names: Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Sarcee  Nearly extinct.
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Sechelt

[sec] 40 (1990 D. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 550 (1977 SIL). British Columbia coast north of Vancouver. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Northern  Nearly extinct.
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Sekani

[sek] 35 (1997 S. Hargus). Ethnic population: 600 (1982 SIL and 1997 S. Hargus). North central British Columbia, McLeod Lake, Ware (Finlay River), Ingenika. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Beaver-Sekani  Nearly extinct.
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Seneca

[see] 25 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations, Seneca-Onondaga, Seneca-Cayuga 
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Shuswap

[shs] 500 (2002 W. Poser). 1,255 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 6,500 (1990 D. Kinkade). British Columbia, east central. Alternate names: Secwepemc.  Dialects: Eastern Shuswap, Western Shuswap.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
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Slave

[den] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 3,920. 
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Slavey, North

[scs] 1,030. Ethnic population: 1,600 (Krauss 1995). Northwest Territories, Mackenzie District, middle Mackenzie River from Fort Norman north, around Great Bear Lake; Mackenzie Mountains in Deline, Fort Good Hope, Tulita, Colville Lake, Norman Wells; Yellowknife. Alternate names: Dene, Dené, Mackenzian, “Slave” , “Slavi”.  Dialects: Hare, Bearlake, Mountain Slavey. North and South Slavey [xsl] part of dialect continuum.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
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Slavey, South

[xsl] 2,890. Ethnic population: 3,600 (Krauss 1995). Northwest Alberta, Great Slave Lake, upper Mackenzie River and drainage in Mackenzie District; northeast British Columbia in Fort Liard, Fort Providence, Fort Simpson, Fort Smith, Hay River, Hay River Dene (reserve), Jean Marie River, Nahanni Butte, Trout Lake, Wrigley and Yellowknife. Alternate names: Dene, Dené, Denetha, Mackenzian, “Slave” , “Slavi”.  Dialects: North [scs] and South Slavey part of dialect continuum which includes Hare, Bear Lake, Mountain, South Slavey, northern Alberta Slavey and Fort Nelson Slavey.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Canadian, Hare-Chipewyan, Hare-Slavey 
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Squamish

[squ] 15 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 2,300. Southwest British Columbia, north of Vancouver. Classification: Salishan, Central Salish, Squamish  Nearly extinct.
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Stoney

[sto] 2,300 (2001 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,200 (1987 SIL). Southern Alberta, west and northwest of Calgary, and central Alberta, west of Edmonton. Alternate names: Nakoda, Stony.  Dialects: Southern Stoney, Northern Stoney. Dialects nearly 100% mutually intelligible. Northern dialect is spoken at Duffield (Paul Band) and Lac St. Anne (Alexis Band). Lexical similarity: 89% with Assiniboine [asb], 86% with Dakota [dak] of Manitoba, 85% with Dakota [dak] of North Dakota, 83% with Lakota [lkt].  Classification: Siouan, Siouan Proper, Central, Mississippi Valley, Dakota 
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Tagish

[tgx] 2 (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 400 possibly (Krauss 1995). South Yukon, west or west-northwest of the Tlingit; some at Carcross. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska  Nearly extinct.
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Tahltan

[tht] 35 (2002 W. Poser). Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL). Northwest British Columbia, Telegraph Creek. Dialects: Similar to Kaska [kkz].  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tahltan-Kaska  Nearly extinct.
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Tanana, Upper

[tau] 10 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 40 (1995 M. Krauss). Southwest Yukon Territory, Beaver Creek. Alternate names: Nabesna.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tanana-Upper Kuskokwim, Tanana  Nearly extinct.
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Thompson

[thp] 720 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). British Columbia, south central, Fraser River north of Yale, lower Thompson River and tributaries. Alternate names: Nklapmx, Ntlakapamux, Ntlakapmuk.  Classification: Salishan, Interior Salish, Northern 
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Tlingit

[tli] 230 in Canada (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,000 in Canada (Krauss 1995). Northwest British Columbia, Atlin; southern Yukon, Carcross, Teslin. Alternate names: Thlinget, Tlinkit.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Tlingit 
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Tsimshian

[tsi] 750 in Canada (2002 W. Poser). 1 Southern Tsimshian. Canada Census (2001) lists 505 in Canada. Population total all countries: 930. Ethnic population: 3,200 in Canada (Krauss 1995). North coast British Columbia. Southern Tsimshian at southern end on coast at Klemtu. Also in United States. Alternate names: Chimmezyan, Tsimpshean, Zimshian.  Dialects: Southern Tsimshian (Sguxs, Old Klemtu), Coast Tsimshian (Sm’algyax).  Classification: Penutian, Tsimshian 
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Tuscarora

[tus] 7 in Canada (Kinkade 1991). Population total all countries: 11. Ontario, Six Nations Reserve. Also in United States. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway  Nearly extinct.
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Tutchone, Northern

[ttm] 200 (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Krauss 1995). Central Yukon, Mayo-Stewart, Selkirk-Pelly, Carmacks, Whitehorse, and White River areas. Alternate names: Selkirk.  Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tutchone 
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Tutchone, Southern

[tce] 200 (Krauss 1995). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Krauss 1995). Southwest Yukon Territory, Whitehorse, Aishihik-Champagne, and Kluane-Burwash areas. Classification: Na-Dene, Nuclear Na-Dene, Athapaskan-Eyak, Athapaskan, Tutchone 
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