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Languages of Democratic Republic of the Congo

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Democratic Republic of the Congo, République Démocratique du Congo. Formerly Belgian Congo, Congo-Leopoldville, Congo-Kinshasa, Republic of Zaïre. 58,741,000. National or official languages: Koongo, Lingala, Luba-Kasai, Congo Swahili, French. Literacy rate: 55%–61%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Fanagalo, Greek. Also includes languages of India. Information mainly from Y. Bastin 1978; J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; K. Olson 1996; SIL 1977–2007. Blind population: 73,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 12 (CMD). The number of individual languages listed for Democratic Republic of the Congo is 216. Of those, 215 are living languages and 1 has no known speakers.
Alur

[alz] 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Johnstone 2001). Population total all countries: 1,367,000. Orientale Province, Mahagi Territory, northwest to Djalasiga area. Also in Uganda. Alternate names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri.  Dialects: Jonam, Ngora. Lexical similarity: 96% between the Jonam and Ngora dialects.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur 
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Amba

[rwm] 4,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 SIL). Nord-Kivu Province, Uganda border area south of Lake Albert, northern Ruwenzori foothills. Alternate names: Hambo, Humu, Kihumu, Kuamba, Kwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba.  Dialects: Kigumu (Kuamba, Hamba, Lubulebule), Kihyanzi, Kusuwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Asoa

[asv] 25,500 (2000). Orientale Province, Rungu Territory, Ituri Forest, in Mangbetu [mdj] dialect areas of Maele, Meje, Aberu, and Popoi. Alternate names: Aka, Asua, Asuae, Asuati.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Aushi

[auh]  Haut Katanga Province east of Lubumbashi. Alternate names: Avaushi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhili, Vouaousi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Avokaya

[avu] 25,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). 2,000 Ojila, 10,000 Northern Ogambi. Orientale Province, Faradje Territory, near Sudan border. Alternate names: Abukeia, Avukaya.  Dialects: Ojila, Ajigu (Ajugu), Northern Ogambi, Avokaya Pur.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Babango

[bbm] 2,550 (2000). Orientale Province, Basoko Territory. Alternate names: Mobango.  Dialects: Similar to Budza [bja] which is immediately downriver; possibly a dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Baka

[bdh] 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1993 UBS). Orientale Province, Garamba National Park to Sudan border. A few among the Logo [log]. Alternate names: Tara Baaka.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka 
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Bali

[bcp] 42,000 (1987 UBS). 5%–10% monolingual. Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, Tshopo River south to Ituri River north, and Ituri River north bank. Alternate names: Baali, Dhibali, Kibaali, Kibala, Kibali, Libaali.  Dialects: Bemili, Bakundumu, Bafwandaka, Bekeni. The Bemili dialect is central linguistically and geographically. Lexical similarity: 52% with Lika [lik]; 40%–45% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae]; 46% with Komo [kmw]; 40% with Bhele [bhy], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf]; 30% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk]; 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Baloi

[biz] 20,000 (2002). Equateur Province, south, west, and east of Bomongo. Alternate names: Baato Baloi, Boloi, Loi, Rebu.  Dialects: Loi, Dzamba (Jamba), Makutu, Mampoko. Similar to Likila [lie], Ndobo [ndw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Bamwe

[bmg] 20,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Mwanda Collectivité, Ngiri River upper reaches between Limpoko and Sombe villages: Moniongo, Libobi, Likata, Mondongo, Lifunga, Bomole, Lokutu, Botunia villages. Dialects: All village dialects are mutually intelligible. Similar to Dzando [dzn], Ndolo [ndl].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Banda, Mid-Southern

[bjo] 2,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Bosobolo Territory, north of Dubulu; Mobaye Territory. Dialects: Yakpa (Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa, Bayaka).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Banda, South Central

[lnl] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Equateur Province. Dialects: Ngbugu (Ngubu, Ngbougou).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Banda, Togbo-Vara

[tor] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 24,000. Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, Badja and Baya town areas, Vongba II and Bandema village areas, on the road as far as Gwara II, and scattered nearby. Also in Central African Republic, Sudan. Dialects: Togbo (Tohgboh, Tagbo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara 
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Bangala

[bxg] Few L1 speakers. Orientale Province. Alternate names: Ngala.  Dialects: Related to Lusengo [lse], Lingala [lin]. There is a trend toward becoming more like Lingala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Bangba

[bbe] 11,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Niangara Territory, Kopa Collectivité; Watsa Territory, Tora area. Alternate names: Abangba.  Dialects: Kopa, Tora. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mayogo [mdm], 72% with Mündü [muh], 90% among dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba 
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Bangi

[bni] 50,900 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 118,740. Equateur Province, east of Congo River from Bolobo to Mbandaka. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Bobangi, Bubangi, Dzamba, Lobobangi, Rebu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bangubangu

[bnx] 171,000 (1995 SIL). 85,000 Bangubangu, 30,000 Mikebwe, 20,000 Kasenga, 32,000 Nonda, 4,000 Hombo. Maniema Province, Kasongo District, Kabambare Territory. Alternate names: Bangobango, Kibangobango, Kibangubangu.  Dialects: Bangubangu, Mikebwe, Kasenga, Nonda, Hombo, Sanzi. Dialects listed are probably separate languages. Lexical similarity: 67% with Hemba [hem], 58% with Songe [sop], 81% with the Mikebwe dialect, 80% with the Kasenga dialect, 80% with the Nonda dialect, 71% with the Hombo dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Barambu

[brm] 25,600 (1990 census). A few hundred living among the Bangba (1996). Orientale Province, Poko Territory, between Bomokandi and Uélé rivers. Alternate names: Abarambo, Amiangba, Amiangbwa, Balambu, Barambo, Duga.  Dialects: Unconfirmed reports of a ‘Pamiaangba’ dialect near Dungu in Niangara Territory.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia 
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Beeke

[bkf] 1,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Bandaka and Bombo collectivités, 1 village in each. Alternate names: Beke, Ibeeke.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65% with Bali [bcp], 46% with Lika [lik] and Bila [bip], 40% with Bera [brf], 38% with Ndaka [ndk].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Bemba

[bem] 300,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Near southeast Katanga Province border. Alternate names: Chiwemba, Ichibemba, Wemba.  Dialects: Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Ngoma, Nwesi, Shila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Bemba

[bmy] 296,000 (2000). South Kivu Province. Alternate names: Kinyabemba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Unclassified 
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Bembe

[bmb] 252,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991 UBS). Sud-Kivu Province, Fizi Territory, west of Lake Tanganyika. Also in Tanzania. Alternate names: Beembe, Ebembe, Ibembe.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 76%–84% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm] dialects, 68% with Buyu [byi], 60% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 55% with Zimba [zmb], 50% with Enya [gey], 45% with Nyanga [nyj], 40% with Tembo [tbt], 30% with Lengola [lej].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bendi

[bct] 32,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Djugu Territory, midway between Bunia and Djalasiga. Alternate names: Mabendi, Mabeni.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Bera

[brf] 120,000 (1992 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory. Alternate names: Kibira, Plains Bira.  Dialects: One dialect, but some variation around Solenyama. Lexical similarity: 70% with Amba [rwm]; 56%–59% with Bila [bip], Kaiku [kkq], Bhele [bhy], and Komo [kmw]; 47% with Bwa [bww], Lika [lik], and Bali [bcp]; 22% with Nyali [nlj] and Budu [buu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Bhele

[bhy] 15,000 (1989). Nord-Kivu Province, Lubero Territory, west of Butembo. Southern Bhele is in Munjoa. Alternate names: Bili, Ebhele, Ipere, Kipere, Kipili, Pere, Peri, Pili, Piri.  Dialects: Bugombe (Ebugombe). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaiku [kkq] and Komo [kmw], 70% with Bila [bip], less than 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 40% with Bali [bcp] and Lika [lik].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Bila

[bip] 40,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory. Alternate names: Ebila, Forest Bira, Kibila, Western Bila.  Dialects: Bombi-Ngbanja, Nyaku. Lexical similarity: 94% between dialects. Closely related to other ‘Bira’ languages: lexical similarity 80% with Kaiku [kkq], 72% with Bhele [bhy], 70% with Komo [kmw], nearly 60% with Bera [brf] and Amba [rwm], 46% with Beeke [bkf], 45% with Bwa [bww], 40% with Lika [lik] and Bali [bcp], 26% with Mbo [zmw], 22% with Budu [buu] and Ndaka [ndk].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Binji

[bpj] 165,000 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Kazumba Territory. Alternate names: Bindji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Boguru

[bqu]  Orientale Province, west of Garamba National Park, Dungu. Alternate names: Buguru, Kogoro, Koguru.  Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru), Koguru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Boko

[bkp] 21,000. Equateur Province, on Congo River, upstream from Mbandaka. Alternate names: Iboko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bolia

[bli] 100,000 (2000). Bandundu Province, north of Lake Mai-Ndombe. Alternate names: Bokoki, Bulia.  Dialects: Similar to, or possibly a dialect of, Ntomba [nto].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Boloki

[bkt] 4,200. Equateur Province, both sides of Congo River, upstream from Mbandaka. Alternate names: Baloki, Boleki, Buluki, River Ruki.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Bolondo

[bzm] 3,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Budjala Territory on Saw River south of Budjala, Bamba village area. Dialects: Most similar to Tembo [tmv].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Boma

[boh] 20,500 (2000). Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Boma Kasai, Buma, Kiboma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Bomboli

[bml] 2,500 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Dongo Collectivité, north of Bomongo on a canal flowing into Ngiri River, between Bokondo and Bodjinga villages. Alternate names: Bombongo.  Dialects: Most similar to Bozaba [bzo], Lobala [loq]. 3 dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Bomboma

[bws] 23,000 (1983 census). 1,279 in Lingonda. Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Bomboma Collectivité on south Roa Dongo between Bomboma and Bokonzi villages: Lingonda, Ebuku, Makengo, Ndzubele, Motuba villages. 7 villages. Alternate names: Boba.  Dialects: Likaw, Lingonda, Ebuku, Bokonzi. The Likaw in Budjala Territory, southwest of Budjala, are reportedly ethnically one with Bomboma and to have good intercomprehension. Lexical similarity: 93% with the Ebuku and Lingonda dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Borna

[bxx]   Alternate names: Eborna.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Bozaba

[bzo] 5,500 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Mwanda Collectivité, on islands and canals northwest of Ngiri and Mwanda rivers confluence. Alternate names: Budzaba, Buzaba.  Dialects: Most closely related to Bomboli [bml], then Bomboma [bws] and Lobala [loq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Budu

[buu] 180,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Wamba Territory. 8 collectivités. Alternate names: Bodo, Ebudu, Kibudu.  Dialects: Ineta (Timoniko), Wadimbisa (Isombi), Makoda, West Bafwangada (Bafanio), East Bafwangada, Bafwakoyi, Malamba, Mahaa. The first 4 dialects listed are on Ibambi side of Nepoko River; the last 4 on Wamba side. Ibambi and Wamba groups consider themselves one people and language. Lexical similarity: 92% within dialects, 85% with Ndaka [ndk], 78% with Mbo [zmw], 74% with Nyali [nlj] and Vanuma [vau], 30% with Bali [bcp], Lika [lik], and Komo [kmw], 20%–25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf], 14% with Congo Swahili [swc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Budza

[bja] 226,000 (1985 census). Equateur Province, Mongala, Bumba, and parts of Bongandanga territories. Alternate names: Budja, Buja, Ebuja, Embudja, Limbudza, Mbudja.  Dialects: Mbila, Monzamboli, Bosambi, Yaliambi. Similar to Babango [bbm]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Babango, 59% with Ngombe [ngc], 48% with Lingala [lin], 35%–40% with Pagibete [pae] and Bwa [bww].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Buraka

[bkg] 1,300 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Equateur Province, scattered along Ubangi River, north and northeast of Bosobolo. Alternate names: Boraka, Bouraka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Bushoong

[buf] 155,000 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Mweka and north Ilebo territories. Alternate names: Bamongo, Bushong, Bushongo, Busoong, Ganga, Kuba, Mbale, Mongo, Shongo.  Dialects: Djembe, Ngende, Ngombe (Ngombia), Ngongo, Pianga (Panga, Tsobwa, Shobwa, Shoba).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Buya

[byy] 13,000 (2002).  Alternate names: Ibuya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Buyu

[byi] 10,000 (2002). Lake Tanganyika, Sud-Kivu and Katanga Province borders. Alternate names: Bujwe, Buyi, Kibuyu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with Bembe [bmb], 60% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Zimba [zmb] and Enya [gey], 40% with Bangubangu [bnx].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bembe (D.50) 
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Bwa

[bww] 200,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Buta, Bambesa, Banalia, Aketi, and Bondo territories. Buta is center. Kiba is in Banalia Territory; Benge and Bati in Aketi and Bondo territories. Alternate names: Boa, Boua, Bua, Kibua, Kibwa, Libenge, Libua, Libwali.  Dialects: Leboa-Le, Yewu, Kiba, Benge, Bati (Baati). Lexical similarity: 90% with the Benge and Bati dialects, 80%–85% with Pagibete [pae], 60% to 80% with Kango [kty], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 48% with Komo [kmw], 43% with Bali [bcp], 37% with Ngombe [ngc], 35% with Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Bwela

[bwl] 8,400 (2002).  Alternate names: Buela, Lingi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Bwile

[bwc] 12,400 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Haut Katanga Province, Pweto area, north of Aushi, north end of Lake Mweru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Bwile (L.10) 
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Chokwe

[cjk] 504,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1990 UBS). Population total all countries: 1,009,780. Near Angola border, southeast Bandundu, Kasaï Occidental, and Katanga provinces. Also in Angola, Namibia, Zambia. Alternate names: Ciokwe, Cokwe, Djok, Imo, Shioko, Tschiokwe, Tshokwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.20) 
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Dengese

[dez] 8,600 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Dekese Territory. Alternate names: Ileo, Lengese, Ndengese.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Ding

[diz] 155,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, Idiofa Territory, on Kasaï River. Alternate names: Di, Din, Dzing.  Dialects: Similar to Yansi [yns].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Dongo

[doo] 12,900 (2000). Orientale Province, east of Watsa. Alternate names: Donga, Dongo Ko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Dzando

[dzn] 6,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Kungu Territory, Mwanda Collectivité, between Ngiri and Mwanda rivers in swamp lands: Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, and Moliba villages. Dialects: Lokay, Molunga, Maboko, Moliba. Comprehension of Lifunga dialect of Bamwe [bmg] is very high. Lexical similarity: 6% with Lifunga dialect of Bamwe.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Efe

[efe] 20,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Mambasa, Watsa, Irumu, and Djugu territories. Dialects: Related to Lese [les].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Enya

[gey] 15,000 (2000). Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory, Lualaba River from Kisangani upriver to Kongolo. Alternate names: Ena, Genya, Tsheenya.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Mituku [zmq], 54% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb], 47% with Nyanga [nyl], 40% with Lengola [lej], 30% with Komo [kmw] and Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Foma

[fom] 13,000 (2002). Orientale Province, Congo River north side, upstream from Basoko. Alternate names: Fuma, Lifoma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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French

[fra]   Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fuliiru

[flr] 300,000 (1999 SIL). Sud-Kivu Province, Uvira Territory, north and northwest of Uvira. Alternate names: Fulero, Fuliru, Kifulero, Kifuliiru.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Mashi [jms], 90% with Nyindu [nyg] and Joba [job].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Furu

[fuu] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Population total all countries: 16,000. Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo and Mobaye territories, east of Bosobolo. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Gbanziri

[gbg] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, along Ubangi River. Alternate names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Gbati-ri

[gti] 21,000 (2002). Orientale Province, between Isiro and Watsa, north of Mungbere. Alternate names: Gbote.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Gilima

[gix] 12,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, north Libenge Territory in 3 groups: Bogon north, Mbanza-Balakpa southeast, and Bandi southwest. Dialects: Similar to Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka 
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Gobu

[gox] 12,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, in 2 areas: north of Bili between Duguru and Borunu on Sidi road, and in Pandu area between Denbili and Bele II villages. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Gabou, Gabu, Gubu, Ngobo, Ngobu.  Dialects: Most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor], Mono [mnh].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Hamba

[hba] 13,000 (2002). Kasaï Orientale Province, Lodja Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Havu

[hav] 506,000 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, Kalehe Territory. Alternate names: Haavu, Kihavu.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Shi [shr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Hema

[nix] 125,000 (2000). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu and Djugu territories. Alternate names: Congo Nyoro, Hema-Sud, Kihema, Nyoro, Runyoro, Southern Hema.  Dialects: Toro (Orutoro, Tooro). Toro dialect is quite different from Nyoro [nyo] of Uganda. Lexical similarity: 78% between the Toro and Nyoro dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (J.10) 
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Hemba

[hem] 181,000 (2000). Katanga Province, east Kongolo Territory. Alternate names: Eastern Luba, Emba, Kiemba, Kihemba, Luba-Hemba.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 67% with Bangubangu [bnx], 64% with Songe [sop], higher than 67% with the Mikebwe and Hombo dialects of Bangubangu [bnx].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Holoholo

[hoo] 15,500 (2002). Katanga Province, area northwest of Kalemie. Alternate names: Guha, Horohoro, Kalanga, Kiholoholo, Kikalanga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Holu

[hol] 5,100 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Extreme southwest corner of Bandundu Province; Malanje. Alternate names: Holo, Kiholo, Kiholu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Hunde

[hke] 200,000 (1980 UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, Masisi and Rutshuru territories. Alternate names: Kihunde, Kobi, Rukobi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Tembo [tbt], 65% with Nande [nnb], 57% with Nyanga [nyj] and Shi [shr], 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Hungana

[hum] 400. Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory. Alternate names: Huana, Hungaan, Hunganna, Kihungana.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Hungana (H.40) 
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Joba

[job] 10,000 (1989 SIL). Sud-Kivu Province, Uvira Territory, north and northwest of Uvira. Alternate names: Kijoba, Kivira, Loba, Vira.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Kabwari

[kcw] 8,400 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, Fizi Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Kaiku

[kkq] 13,000 (2002). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Babombi Collectivité. Alternate names: Ikaiku, Kaiko.  Dialects: Most similar to Bila [bip], Bhele [bhy]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Bhele and Bila, 70% with Komo [kmw], 56% with Bera [brf], 20%–25% with Mbo [zmw], Ndaka [ndk], and Budu [buu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kakwa

[keo] 20,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, Aru Territory, north of Aru, and Faradje Territory. Alternate names: Bari Kakwa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Bari 
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Kaliko

[kbo] 7,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1989 SIL). Orientale Province, north Aru Territory, along Sudan border. Alternate names: Kaliko-Ma’di, Keliko, Ma’di, Maditi.  Dialects: Didi, Dogo.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Kango

[kty] 5,900 (2002). Orientale Province, Bas-Uélé District, Uélé River banks and tributaries. Alternate names: Likango.  Dialects: Bomokandi, Uélé. Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Pagibete [pae], 66% with Ngelima [agh], 75%–80% with Bwa [bww], 60% with Lika [lik]. The Bomokandi dialect has 60%–65% with Bwa [bww] and Pagibete [pae], 68% with Lika [lik], 58% with Ngelima [agh]. Both dialects have 50% with Bali [bcp] and Komo [kmw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Kango

[kzy] 2,000 (1998 T. Harvey). Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, Bakundumu and Bemili collectivités, among the Bali [bcp]. The smaller dialect has 7 villages just south of where Nepoki and Ituri River confluence becomes Aruwimi River. Alternate names: “Dibatchua” , Kango Pygmy, “Kibatchua” , Kikango, Likango.  Dialects: 2 dialects, mutually inherently intelligible. Related to Komo [kmw], Bali [bcp]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Komo, 72% with Bila [bip], 60% with Bali, 50% with Lika [lik].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kanu

[khx] 3,500 (Welmers 1971). Nord-Kivu Province, Walikale Territory, Kabunga area. Alternate names: Kaanu, Kano, Likanu.  Dialects: Probably a dialect of Lega-Shabunda [lea].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Kanyok

[kny] 200,000 (1991 UBS). Kasaï Oriental Province, Mwene-Ditu Territory, between Bushimaie and Luembe rivers. Alternate names: Kanioka, Kanyoka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Kaonde

[kqn] 36,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1995). Katanga Province, east Kolwezi Territory. Alternate names: Chikahonde, Chikaonde, Kawonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.40) 
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Kari

[kbj] 1,000. Northwest Orientale Province scattered, north of Uele River. Scattered in Central African Republic (1996). Alternate names: Kare, Li-Kari-Li.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Kela

[kel] 180,000 (1972 Barrett). Kasaï Oriental Province, Lomela Territory. Alternate names: Ikela, Lemba, Okela.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, (C.80) 
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Kele

[khy] 160,000 (1980 UBS). 7,000 Yalikoka (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Former Orientale Province, Isangi Territory, on Lomami and Congo rivers. Alternate names: Ekele, Kili, Likelo, Lokele, Yakusu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Kete

[kcv] 8,400 (2002). Kasaï Occidental Province, northeast of Mweka. Alternate names: Kikete, Lukete.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Kituba

[ktu] 4,200,000 (1990 UBS). Bas-Congo and south Bandundu provinces. Alternate names: Kibulamatadi, Kikongo Commercial, Kikongo Simplifié, Kikongo Ya Leta, Kikongo-Kutuba, Kileta.  Dialects: Ikeleve, Western Kituba, Eastern Kituba. A creole based on the KiKongo dialect spoken in Manianga area (Bas-Congo), but unintelligible to KiKongo speakers of any of the other Kikongo dialects. Influenced by Lingala [lin], French, restructured Swahili [swh], Portuguese, and other local dialects. Similar to Kituba [mkw] (Munukutuba) of Congo.  Classification: Creole, Kongo based 
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Komo

[kmw] 400,000 (1998 SIL). Maniema Province, into Former Orientale and Nord-Kivu provinces to Walikale, Opienge, and Punia. Lubutu is center. Alternate names: Kikomo, Kikumo, Kikumu, Kikuumu, Kumo, Kumu, Kuumu.  Dialects: No identified dialects, but speech varieties have the following differences: up to 10% lexical differences, in comparison with the reference lexicon as found in Lubutu. Most noticeable phonological variation: presence of [l]. Most noticeable relational word variation: shape of the alienable possession marker. Lexical similarity: with 80% Bhele [bhy], 70% with Bila [bip], 58% with Bera [brf], 48% with Bwa [bww], 46% with Bali [bcp], Lika [lik], and Pagibete [pae], 30% with Lingala, [lin], Lega-Shabunda [lea], and Budu [buu].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Kongo

[kon] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 5,955,908. 
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Kongo, San Salvador

[kwy] 537,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 865,000. Along Congo River below Kinshasa into northern Angola. Also in Angola. Alternate names: Congo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kisikongo.  Dialects: Fioti and San Salvador are different enough to need separate literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Konzo

[koo]  West slope Ruwenzori Mountains. Alternate names: Konjo.  Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (J.40) 
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Koongo

[kng] 3,000,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Total population does not include upwards of 5,000,000 additional L2 speakers. Population total all countries: 5,000,000. Bas-Congo Province cataract, Mbanza Manteke area; Fioti north of Boma, and scattered along Congo River from Brazzaville to its mouth. Also in Angola, Congo. Alternate names: Congo, Kikongo, Kikoongo, Kongo.  Dialects: South Congo, Cataract, Central Kongo, West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti), Bwende (Buende), East Kongo, Southeast Kongo, Nzamba (Dzamba). Other languages of the Kongo group are sometimes regarded as dialects of Kongo (see separate entries for Beembe [beq], Doondo [dde], Kunyi [njx], Vili [vif], Munukutuba [mkw], and Kituba [ktu]). In Angola Ndingi and Mboka dialects may be separate languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Kpala

[kpl] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Libenge and Bosobolo territories scattered. Alternate names: Gbakpwa, Kpwaala, Kwala.  Dialects: Similar to Monzombo [moj].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Kusu

[ksv] 26,000 (Welmers 1971). Maniema Province southwest corner, Kibombo Territory. Alternate names: Fuluka, Kikusu, Kongola, Kutsu, Lokutsu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Kwami

[ktf] 400. Maniema and Nord-Kivu provinces, between Kasese and Walikale. Alternate names: Kikwame, Kikwami, Kwame.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Nyanga [nyj], 68% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 66% with Kanu [khx] and Enya [gey], 61% with Mituku [zmq], 57% with Zimba [zmb], 55% with Bembe [bmb], 52% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 49% with Hunde [hke] and Shi [shr], 48% with Buyu [byi], 47% with Tembo [tmv], 46% with Nande [nnb], 41% with Lengola [lej], 34% with Komo [kmw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Kwese

[kws] 60,000. East Bandundu Province, west of Kikwit. Alternate names: Kikwese, Pindi, Ukwese.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Lala-Bisa

[leb]  Katanga Province extreme southeast corner. Dialects: Ambo (Bambo, Kambonsenga), Luano, Swaka, Wulima, Lala (Ichilala), Bisa (Ichibisa, Wiza).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Bisa 
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Lalia

[lal] 55,000 (1993). Equateur Province southeast corner, Ikela Territory, collectivités of Tumbenga, Lokina, Lofume, Tshwapa, and Loile. Yalosaka is center. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Lamba

[lam]  Katanga Province southeast corner. Alternate names: Chilamba, Ichilamba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Lamba 
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Langbashe

[lna] 3,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory, along Ubangi River; Sidi, Bada, Zimango, Banga, Boduna villages, others scattered. Alternate names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Lega-Mwenga

[lgm] 44,900 (2000). Sud-Kivu Province, Mwenga Territory. Alternate names: Ileka Ishile, Ishile, Kilega, Kirega, Leka-Shile, Leka-Sile, Rega, Shile.  Dialects: Iyoko, Ibanda, Isopo, Lusenge, Bilembo-Mango, Mizulo. Speakers say Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Bembe [bmb] are difficult to understand. Lexical similarity: 96%–88% among dialects, 84% to 76% with Bembe, 81%–67% with Lega-Shabunda, 60% with Buyu [byi], 50% with Zimba [zmb], Enya [gey], and Mituku [zmq], 45% with Nyanga [nyj].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Lega-Shabunda

[lea] 400,000 (1982 UBS). Sud-Kivu and Maniema provinces, Shabunda and Pangi territories. First 5 dialects in Shabunda Territory; Kinyamunsange in Pangi Territory. Alternate names: Igonzabale, Ileka-Igonzabale, Kilega, Kirega, Leka-Igonzabale, Rega.  Dialects: Kigala, Kigyoma, Liliga, Kisede, Kinyabanga, Kinyamunsange (Pangi). Kanu [khx] is probably a dialect with 92% similarity. Lexical similarity: 67%–81% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], 65% with Kwami [ktf], 60% with Bembe [bmb], 55% with Budu [buu], Mituku [zmq], and Enya [gey], 50% with Zimba [zmb], Nyanga [nyj], and Hunde [hke], 45% with Nande [nnb], 30% with Komo [kmw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Lele

[lel] 26,000 (Welmers 1971). Kasaï Occidental Province west edge, Ilebo and Tshikapa territories; extreme east Bandundu Province, Idiofa and Gungu territories. Alternate names: Bashilele, Usilele.  Dialects: Comprehension of Wongo [won].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Lendu

[led] 750,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1996 SIL). Population total all countries: 761,100. Orientale Province, Ituri District, Djugu Territory, west and northwest of Lake Albert. Also in Uganda. Alternate names: Bale, Balendru, Baletha, Batha, Bbadha, Bbaledha, Hema-Nord, Kihema-Nord, Kilendu.  Dialects: Djadha (Jidha), Tadha, Pidha, Ddralo (Ddradha), Njawlo (Njawdha). Tadha is the standard dialect. Djadha is the largest dialect and is used for literature. Jidha is the speech variety of the Bagegere (Northern Hema) who have adopted Lendu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Lengola

[lej] 100,000 (1998). Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory; Maniema Province, Lubutu and Punia territories, Lualaba River, mostly west side, in a triangle between Opienge, Lowa, and a point called ‘Km 100’ on Kisangani-Lubutu road. Alternate names: Kilengola, Lengora.  Dialects: 2 dialects which differ in pronunciation. Lexical similarity: 40% with Enya [gey] and Mituku [zmq], 35%–40% with Budu [buu] and Komo [kmw], 30%–35% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Zimba [zmb], 25%–30% with Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Bali [bcp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Lese

[les] 50,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Watsa, Djugu, Irumu, and Mambasa territories. Alternate names: Balese, Lesa, Lesse, Lissi, Mbuti, Walese, Walisi.  Dialects: Lese Karo, Arumbi (Upstream Lese), Ndese (Lese Dese), Vukutu (Vonkutu, Obi), Fare. Similar to Mamvu [mdi], Bendi [bct], Mangbutu [mdk], Efe [efe].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Libinza

[liz] 10,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province; Sud Ubangi, Equateur, Kungu and northern Bomongo districts, on Ngiri and Mwanda rivers, Monia and Boniange villages southward; on islands as far as Bomongo. Alternate names: Libinja.  Dialects: Monia, Boniange, Kutu. Dialects or closely related languages: Balobo (Likila [lie]), Ndobo [ndw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Ligenza

[lgz] 43,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Bumba Territory. 3 or 4 small areas. Alternate names: Digenja, Gendja, Gendza-Bali.  Dialects: Bokoy, Elowa, Benza, Bolupi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Lika

[lik] 60,000 (1989 SIL). 57,000 in Wamba District, 3,000 in Rungu District. Orientale Province, Upper-Uele District, Wamba Territory, Balika-Toriko Collectivité; Rungu Territory, Mongomasi Collectivité. Alternate names: Kilika, Kpongo, Mabiti, Toriko.  Dialects: Likó (Ikó), Lilikó, Liliká (Liká). Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with Bomokandi Kango, 55%–60% with Pagibete, Bwa, and Uélé Kango, 52% with Bali, 51% with Ngelima, 46% with Komo, 40% with Bhele, Bila, and Bera, 30% with Budu [buu], 25% with Lega languages and Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Likila

[lie] 8,400 (2002). Equateur Province, Makanza town area on Congo River north bank. Alternate names: Balobo, Bangela.  Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Libinza [liz] or Baloi [biz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Lingala

[lin] 2,040,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). L2 speakers together with Bangala [bxg] in Democratic Republic of the Congo: 7,000,000 (1999 WA). Population total all countries: 2,141,300. Widespread in Bandundu, Equateur, and Orientale provinces, southeast Orientale. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Ngala.  Dialects: Similar to Lusengo [lse], Bangala. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bobangi [bni].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Lobala

[loq] 60,000 (2000 D. Morgan). Very few monolinguals. Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts, Kungu and Bomongo territories, Dongo northeast road and to Mokusi village; Dongo road south following Ubangi River, and forest south and west. Dialects: Poko, South Lobala, Tanda, Likoka. Most similar to Bomboma [bws], Libinza [liz]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Logo

[log] 210,000 (1989 SIL). 100,000 Ogambi. Orientale Province, Faradje Territory, and Watsa town. Alternate names: Logoti.  Dialects: Ogambi (Ogamaru, Northern Logo), Doka, Lolya, Obilebha (Obelebha, Obileba), Bhagira (Bagela), Bari (Bari-Logo, Bariti). A dialect subgroup, with Lolya as central. Similar to Avokaya [avu], Omi [omi]. Avokaya in the northern Ogambi Area, may be more similar to Logo [log] than to Avokaya in Sudan.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Lombi

[lmi] 12,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Tshopo District, Bafwasende Territory, Barumi and Bekeni collectivités, Opienge, Banguruye, and Bangolu areas. Alternate names: Lumbi, Odyalombito, Rombi, Rumli.  Dialects: Similar to Mangbetu [mdj], but not as close as Mangbetu dialects are to each other.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Lombo

[loo] 10,000 (Welmers 1971). Orientale Province, Isangi area, both sides of Congo River. Alternate names: Olombo, Turumbu, Ulumbu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Lonzo

[lnz] 300. Bandundu Province, Kenge Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Luba-Kasai

[lua] 6,300,000 (1991 UBS). Widespread in Kasaï Occidental and Kasaï Oriental provinces. Alternate names: Luba-Lulua, Luva, Tshiluba, Western Luba.  Dialects: Significant dialect differences between East Kasai region (Baluba people) and West Kasai region (Bena Lulua people). Similar to Hemba [hem].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Luba-Katanga

[lub] 1,510,000 (1991 UBS). Katanga Province, Haut-Lomami District. Alternate names: Kiluba, Luba-Shaba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Lugbara

[lgg] 840,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Johnstone 2001). Orientale Province, Aru Territory. 6 collectivités. Alternate names: High Lugbara.  Dialects: Zaki, Abedju-Azaki, Lu, Aluru, Nio, Otsho.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Luna

[luj] 50,000. Kasaï Oriental Province, Lusambo Territory. Alternate names: Inkongo, Kuba, Northern Luba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Lunda

[lun]  South and southwest Katanga Province, Lualaba District; extreme south Bandundu Province, Kahemba Territory. Alternate names: Chilunda.  Dialects: Lunda Ndembu, Lunda Kalunda, Lunda Kambove.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Lusengo

[lse] 42,000 (2002). Equateur Province, Mankanza, Lisala, and Bumba territories, Congo River area. Alternate names: Losengo.  Dialects: Kangana, Iliku (Eleko, Leko, Eleku, Loleko, Leku), Limpesa, Lipoto (Upoto, Kele, Ingundji), Bumwangi, Busu Djanga, Empesa Poko, Esumbu, Kunda, Kumba, Lusengo Poto, Mongala Poto, Ngundi, Mongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Lwalu

[lwa] 21,000 (Welmers 1971). Kasaï Occidental Province, Luiza Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Ma

[msj] 4,700 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Orientale Province, north of Niangara, near Kapili River. Alternate names: Amadi, Madi, Madyo.  Dialects: Most similar to Kimbundu [kmb].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Mabaale

[mmz] 42,000 (2002). Equateur Province, Ngiri River area. Alternate names: Lomabaale, Mabale, Mbali.  Dialects: Bembe, Lipanja, Banza, Mbinga, Lobo (Balobo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Mamvu

[mdi] 60,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Watsa Territory, west and southwest of Watsa. Dialects: Amengi, Mamvu (Momvu, Momfu).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Mangbetu

[mdj] 620,000. Orientale Province, Rungu, Niangara, Poko, Watsa, Wamba, and northeast corner of Banalia territories. Popoi in Banalia Territory; Aberu in Wamba Territory. Alternate names: Amangbetu, Kingbetu, Mambetto, Mangbettu, Nemangbetu.  Dialects: Aberu, Meje (Medje), Mangbetu, Makere, Malele, Popoi. The Medje dialect reportedly has most speakers, and is most widely understood. Related to Lombi [lmi] and Asoa [asv].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbetu 
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Mangbutu

[mdk] 15,000 (1991 SIL). 1,200 Andinai. Orientale Province, Watsa Territory, south of Kibali River and east of Moto River. Alternate names: Mangu-Ngutu, Mombuttu, Wambutu.  Dialects: Andinai, Makutana, Angwe (Andali). Users of the Andinai dialect are separated from other users of Mangbutu by users of Lese [les]. The Andali are a clan speaking the Angwe dialect.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Mayeka

[myc] 21,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 25,474 (2000). Border area with Central African Republic, Congo vicinity. Dialects: A member of the same dialect subgroup as Nyanga-li [nyc], Gbati-ri [gti].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Mayogo

[mdm] 100,000 (1991 SIL). Orientale Province, Isiro area, mostly in Rungu and Wamba territories. Alternate names: Kiyogo, Maigo, Maiko, Majugu, Mayko, Mayugo.  Dialects: Madimadoko, Madipia (Mabozo, Magbai, Mabodese, Madjedje). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Bangba [bbe], 62% with Mündü [muh].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mayogo-Bangba 
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Mba

[mfc] 36,100 (2000). Orientale Province, Banalia Territory, Banjwade area. Alternate names: Kimanga, Kimbanga, Manga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Mbala

[mdp] 200,000 (Nida 1972). Bandundu Province, Bagata and Bulungu territories, between Kwango and Kwilu rivers. Alternate names: Gimbala, Rumbala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Mbala (K.60) 
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Mbandja

[zmz] 352,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 362,460. Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Nord Ubangi, and west Mongala districts; west, southwest, and east of the Ngbaka [nga]. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Mbandza, Mbanja, Mbanza.  Dialects: Kala, Gbado.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southern 
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Mbesa

[zms] 8,400 (2002). Orientale Province, north Yahuma Territory, south of Congo River. Alternate names: Mobesa, Mombesa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Mbo

[zmw] 11,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Bombo Collectivité. Alternate names: Imbo, Kimbo.  Dialects: Ndaka [ndk], Budu [buu], Vanuma [vau], Nyali [nlj], and Mbo are more similar to each other than to other border Bantu languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ndaka, 78% with Budu, 77% with Vanuma, 76% with Nyali, 30% with Komo [kmw], 25% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], Bera [brf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Mbole

[mdq] 100,000 (Welmers 1971). Orientale Province, southwest of Kisangani. Alternate names: Lombole.  Dialects: Keembo, Nkimbe (Nkembe), Yangonda, Yaisu, Inja, Botunga, Yaamba, Yaikole. Similar to Mituku [zmq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Mfinu

[zmf] 8,400 (2002). Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Emfinu, Funika, Mfununga.  Dialects: Ntsiam, Ntswar.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Mituku

[zmq] 50,900 (2000). Orientale Province, Ubundu Territory, west of Lualaba River. Alternate names: Kinya-Mituku, Metoko.  Dialects: Similar to Mbole [mdq]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Enya [gey], 55% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 50% with Nyanga [nyj], Lega-Mwengac [lgm], Bembe [bmb], Buyu [byi], and Zimba [zmb], 40% with Lengola [lej].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Enya (D.10) 
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Moingi

[mwz] 4,200 (2002). Orientale Province, Yahuma Territory, south of Congo River, opposite Basoko town. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Unclassified 
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Mongo-Nkundu

[lol] 400,000 (1995). Equateur Province south half, northeast Bandundu Province. Alternate names: Lomongo, Mongo.  Dialects: Mpama, Wangata, Panga (Ipanga, Titu, Buli, South Nkundo), Bukala (Kala), Yalima (Yajima), Kutu (Bakutu), Ekonda Mongo (Lomongo), Longo (Bolongo), Nkundo (Nkundu, Lonkundu, Lonkundo, Lolo), Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, Konda (Ekonda, Lokonda, Lokwala), Longombe. Dialect or language subgroup: Lalia [lal], Mongo-Nkundu, Ngando, Ombo [oml]. The Longombe dialect, spoken along the road between Boende and Wema, is most similar to the Bakutu dialect. The dialects Ntomba-Inongo, Ntomba-Bikoro, and Konda may be separate languages. Konda is in Equateur Province, Equateur District, Mai-Ndombe District, Kiri Territory. In Mbandaka, Call their dialect ‘Lonkundo’.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Mono

[mnh] 65,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Nord Ubangi, Bosobolo Territory; some in Libenge Territory. Bili is center. Alternate names: Amono.  Dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Galaba, Kaga, Mpaka. Most similar to Togbo-Vara Banda [tor] and Gobu [gox], but quite different ethnically from Togbo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Monzombo

[moj] 5,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Ubangi River east bank, south of Libenge. Alternate names: Monjombo, Mono-Jembo, Monzumbo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Mpuono

[zmp] 165,000 (Nida 1972). Bandundu Province, Idiofa Territory. Dialects: Mpuono, Mpuun (Mbuun, Kimbuun, Mbunda, Gimbunda). Similar to Yansi [yns].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Mündü

[muh] 2,800 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, north and northeast of Faradje. Alternate names: Mondo, Mountou, Mundo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu 
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Mvuba

[mxh] 5,100 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 5,970. Nord-Kivu Province, Beni Territory, Oicha area. Also in Uganda. Alternate names: Bambuba, Bamvuba, Mbuba, Mvuba-A, Obiye.  Dialects: Similar to Lese [les].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Nande

[nnb] 903,000 (1991 UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, mainly Beni and Lubero territories. Alternate names: Banande, Bayira, Kinande, Kinandi, Nandi, Ndande, Northern Nande, Orundande.  Dialects: Nande, Kumbule (Ekikumbule), Mate (Ekimate), Tangi (Ekitangi), Sanza (Ekisanza), Shu (Ekishu), Ekisongoora (Songola, Nyangala), Swaga (Ekiswaga, Ekikira), Yira (Ekiyira). Lexical similarity: 75% with Konzo [koo], 65% with Hunde [hke], 55% with Tembo [tmv] and Shi [shr], 45% with Nyoro [nyo], Nyanga [nyj], and Lega-Shabunda [lea], 40% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj], 30% with Bhele [bhy], 25% with Amba [rwm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo (J.40) 
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Ndaka

[ndk] 25,000 (1994 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Mambasa Territory, Bandaka Collectivité, along Bunia to NiaNia road. Alternate names: Indaaka, Ndaaka.  Dialects: Only 1 dialect. Mbo [mbo], Budu [buu], Vanuma [vau], Nyali [nlj], and Ndaka [ndk] speakers agree that their languages are more similar to each other than to other border Bantu languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Mbo, 85% with Budu, 76% with Vanuma, 73% with Nyali, 30% with Komo [kmw], 22% with Bhele [bhy], Kaiku [kkq], Bila [bip], and Bera [brf].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Ndo

[ndp] 100,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Orientale Province, Mahagi and Aru territories, south of Lowa River, west and northwest of Djalasiga. Oke’bu on Uganda border. Alternate names: Ke’bu, Kebutu, Ndu, Oke’bu.  Dialects: Avari (Avare, Avere, Aviritu), Oke’bu, Membi (Membitu, Meembi, Mombi, Ndo).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe 
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Ndobo

[ndw] 10,200 (2000). Equateur Province, between Bomongo and Congo rivers. Alternate names: Ndoobo.  Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Baloi [biz] or Libinza [liz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Ngiri 
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Ndolo

[ndl] 8,000 (1983 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Budjala Territory, Ndolo-Liboko Collectivité, Moeko River, south of Budjala between Ndama and Bokala villages, and Tando and Lisombo villages. Alternate names: Mosange, Ndoolo, Tando.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40), Lusengo 
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Ndunga

[ndt] 2,500 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Equateur Province, Lisala Territory. 8 villages. Alternate names: Bondonga, Modunga, Mondugu, Mondunga.  Dialects: Similar to Mba [mfc] (Kimanga).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Mba 
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Ngando

[nxd] 220,000 (1995). Equateur Province, Maringa River area, north of Ikela. Alternate names: Longandu, Ngandu.  Dialects: Related to Lalia [lal].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Ngbaka

[nga] 1,010,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). 600,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,016,650. Equateur Province, Gemena Territory area. 850 villages. Also in Central African Republic, Congo. Alternate names: Ngbaka Gbaya, Ngbaka Minangende.  Dialects: Dialect differences are minor. Related to Gbaya languages of Central African Republic and Cameroon.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Ngbaka Ma’bo

[nbm] 11,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1984). Equateur Province, Libenge District, and Zongo Territory, on the road north and south of Zongo, and in a belt just north of Libenge. Alternate names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Gwaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Mbwaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka 
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Ngbandi, Northern

[ngb] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). 75,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 250,290. Equateur Province, Mobaye and Yakoma territories, into Orientale Province, Bondo Territory. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Baza, Mongwandi, Ngwandi.  Dialects: 2 dialects, about equal in size. Sango [sag] is derived from Ngbandi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Ngbandi, Southern

[nbw] 105,000. Equateur Province, Businga, Budjala, Kungu, and Libenge territories. Alternate names: Mbati, Mongbandi, Mongwandi, Ngbandi-Ngiri, Ngbandi-Sud, Ngwandi.  Dialects: Different enough from Northern Ngbandi [ngb] that separate literature is needed.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Ngbee

[jgb] Extinct. Orientale Province, scattered in Rungu, Niangara, Wamba, and Watsa territories. Alternate names: Lingbe, Lingbee, Majuu, Mangbele.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Ngbinda

[nbd] 4,200 (2002).  Alternate names: Bangbinda, Bungbinda.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Ngbundu

[nuu] 16,000 (1984 census). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Libenge Territory, north of Libenge, from Boyabo crossroads east to Budu and north to Oro; south of Libenge, mixed with Mbandja [zmz] and other language groups. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Southwestern 
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Ngelima

[agh] 13,600 (2000). Orientale Province, Banalia and Basoko territories. Alternate names: Angba, Bangalema, Bangelima, Leangba.  Dialects: Beo, Buru (Boro, Leboro), Tungu, Hanga. May be more than one language. Similar to Bwa [bww]. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Bwa, Kango [kty], and Pagibete [pae], 50% with Lika [lik] and Komo [kmw], 40% with Ngombe [ngc], the Benza dialect of Ligenza [lgz], and Budza [bja].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Ngiti

[niy] 100,000 (1991). Orientale Province, Irumu Territory, south of Bunia. Alternate names: Bindi, Druna, Kingeti, Kingiti, Lendu-Sud, Ndruna, Ngeti.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu 
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Ngombe

[ngc] 150,000 (Welmers 1971). Equateur Province, widespread along both sides of Congo River, Mongala District and adjacent parts of Sud Ubangi and Equateur districts; Binja in Orientale Province, Aketi Territory. Alternate names: Lingombe.  Dialects: Binja (Binza, Libindja, Libinja), Wiindza-Baali, Doko. Similar to Bwela [bwl] (Lingi), Bale [bcp]. The Ngombe group is sometimes called Bantu C.40. Lexical similarity: 78% between standard Ngombe and the Binja dialect, 40% with Lingala [lin], Pagibete [pae], and Ngelima [agh], 37% with Bwa [bww].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Ngongo

[noq] 4,080 (2000). Bandundu Province. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Ngul

[nlo] 8,400 (2002). West Bandundu Province along Kasaï River north of Idiofa. Alternate names: Ingul, Ngoli, Nguli, Ngulu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Mbere (B.60) 
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Ngundu

[nue] 5,100 (2000).  Dialects: Most similar to Kpagua [kuw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Nkutu

[nkw] 40,000 (Nida 1972). North Kasaï Oriental Province. Alternate names: Bankutu, Nkuchu, Nkutshu.  Dialects: Elembe, Hamba, Lokalo (Kalo), Kongola-Meno, Ngongo, Saka (Losaka).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Ntomba

[nto] 100,000 (1980 UBS). Bandundu Province, northeast of Lake Tumba. Alternate names: Lontomba, Luntumba, Ntomba-Bolia, Ntumba.  Dialects: Imona, Mpongo, Nkole, Ntomba, Sakanyi, Soko, Saw. Similar to Ntomba [nto], Bolia [bli] (Bokoki).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Nyali

[nlj] 43,000 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Djugu Territory, Kilo Collectivité. Alternate names: Huku, Linyali, North Nyali, Nyali-Kilo, Nyari.  Dialects: Only one dialect, since ‘Nyali-South’ is actually Vanuma [vau]. Vanuma, Mbo [mbo], Ndaka [ndk], Budu [buu], and Nyali [nlj] speakers are more similar to each other than to other border Bantu languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Vanuma, 76% with Mbo, 73% with Ndaka and Budu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Nyanga

[nyj] 150,000 (1994 census). Nord-Kivu Province, Walikale Territory, Wanyanga Collectivité. Alternate names: Inyanga, Kinyanga.  Dialects: Inyanga, Ifuna, Ikumbure, Itiri. Dialects do not differ much. Itiri appears the most divergent. The dialect around Bana-Bangi is reportedly the best understood. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kwami [ktf], 57% with Hunde [hke], 54% with Kanu [khx], 50% with Lega-Shabunda [lea] and Tembo [tbt], 45% with Nande [nnb], Lega-Mwenga [lgm], and Bembe [bmb], 42% with Shi [shr], 40% with Buyu [byi] and Zimba [zmb], 30% with Komo [kmw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Nyanga (D.40) 
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Nyanga-li

[nyc] 48,000 (2002). Orientale Province, Watsa Territory, southwest of Watsa. Alternate names: Linyanga-le.  Dialects: A member of the same dialect subgroup as Gbati-ri, Mayeka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Nyindu

[nyg] 8,400 (2002). Sud-Kivu Province, west of Lake Kivu. Dialects: Many Nyindu consider themselves Lega-Mwenga [lgm], but Lega and Shi [shr] speakers consider them Shi. Their speech is reportedly a mixture of Lega-Mwenga [lgm] and Shi [shr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Nzakara

[nzk]  Orientale Province, northwest Bondo Territory, on Central African Republic border. Alternate names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Ombo

[oml] 8,400 (2002). Maniema Province, northwest of Kindu. Alternate names: Hombo, Loombo, Songola.  Dialects: Mbuli (Mbole).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Mongo (C.70) 
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Omi

[omi] 91,000 (2005 SIL). Orientale Province, Aru Territory, between Nzoro and Lowa rivers along Aru to Aba road. Alternate names: Kaliko-Omi.  Dialects: Similar to Kaliko [kbo]. Previously considered a Kaliko dialect.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central 
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Pagibete

[pae] 28,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Momveda, 4,500 Mongbapele. Equateur Province, Businga, Yakoma, and Bumba territories; Mongbapele along road south of Businga; Momveda around Ngakpo on Dua River north side, across from Gumba; Yakoma Territory, Butu. Ndundusana in north Bumba Territory, south of Butu and at Ndundu-Sana. Alternate names: Apagibete, Apagibeti, Apakabeti, Apakibeti, Pagabete.  Dialects: Momveda, Mongbapele, Ndundusana (Gezon, Egezon, Egezo, Egejo). Lexical similarity: of the Ndundusana dialect 90% with the Momveda and Mongbapele dialects. Momveda and Mongbapele have 80% lexical similarity with Bwa [bww], the Ndundusana dialect has 85%. Dialects have 60%–75% with Kango [kzy], 60%–65% with Ngelima [agh], 55%–60% with Lika [lik], 46% with Komo [kmw], 40%–45% with Bali [bcp], 35%–40% with Ngombe [ngc] and Budza [bja], 30% with Lingala [lin].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Pambia

[pmb] 21,000 (1982 SIL). North Orientale Province. Alternate names: Apambia.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Barambo-Pambia 
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Pelende

[ppp] 8,400 (2002). Bandundu Province, Kenge Territory. Dialects: Similar to Lonzo [lnz], Ngongo [noq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Phende

[pem] 420,000 (1991 UBS). Bandundu Province, Idiofa and Gungu territories, south of Kasaï River. Alternate names: Gipende, Giphende, Kipende, Pende, Pindi, Pinji.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Poke

[pof] 46,000 (Welmers 1971). Orientale Province, Isangi Territory, south of Congo River downstream from Kisangani. Alternate names: Puki, Tofoke, Topoke, Tovoke.  Dialects: Baluombila, Likolo, Liutwa, Lombooki. May be able to use Lokele literature.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Ruund

[rnd] 153,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 251,500. Katanga Province, Lualaba District. Also in Angola. Alternate names: Chiluwunda, Lunda Kambove, Lunda-Kamboro, Luunda, Luwunda, Muatiamvua, Northern Lunda, Uruund.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Rwanda

[kin] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (UBS). Nord-Kivu Province, Rwanda border area between Lakes Edward and Kivu, and westward. Alternate names: Kinyarwanda, Ruanda.  Dialects: Bwisha (Kinyabwisha), Mulenge (Kinyamulenge), Twa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Rwanda-Rundi (J.60) 
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Sakata

[skt] 75,000 (1982 UBS). Bandundu Province, Kutu, Mushie, and Inongo territories, Lukenie River, and Semendua area. Alternate names: Kisakata, Lesa, Odual, Saka.  Dialects: Sakata, Djia (Kidjia, Dia, Dja), Bai (Kibai). A subgroup of dialects. Descendants of the ancient Mongo empire.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Salampasu

[slx] 60,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Southeast Kasaï Occidental Province, east of Luiza. Alternate names: Chisalampasu.  Dialects: Luntu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (K.30) 
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Samba

[smx] 4,200 (2002). Bandundu Province, north Kasongo-Lunda Territory. Alternate names: Shankadi, Tsaam, Tsamba, Usamba.  Dialects: Similar to Holu [hol].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Holu (K.10) 
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Sanga

[sng] 431,000 (1991 UBS). Katanga Province, north of Likasi, widely dispersed in Lubudi, Mitwaba, and Pweto territories. Alternate names: Kisanga, Luba-Garenganze, Luba-Sanga, Southern Luba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Luba (L.30) 
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Sango

[sag] Few in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Extreme north border of Equateur Province (Oubangui River). Alternate names: Sangho.  Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based 
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Seba

[kdg] 167,000 (2002). Katanga Province, Kasenga Territory. Alternate names: Kunda, Sewa, Shishi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.50), Bisa 
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Sengele

[szg] 17,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, west of Lake Mai-Ndombe. Alternate names: Kesengele, Sengere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Sere

[swf] 2,500 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 2,528. Orientale Province, northeast of Ango, among the Zande [zne]. Also in Central African Republic. Alternate names: Basili, Basiri, Chere, Serre, Shaire, Shere, Sheri, Sili, Siri.  Dialects: Most similar to Ndogo [ndz], Tagbu [tbm]. Slight dialect differences in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere 
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Shi

[shr] 654,000 (1991 UBS). Sud-Kivu Province, north, west, and south of Bukavu. Alternate names: Mashi.  Dialects: Lindja, Hwindja (Lwindja), Ziba, Longe-Longe. Lexical similarity: 70% with Havu [hav] and Tembo [tbt], 57% with Hunde [hke], 55% with Nande [nnb], 44% with Lega-Shabunda [lea], 42% with Nyanga [nyj].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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So

[soc] 6,000 (Welmers 1971). Orientale Province, north of Basoko. Alternate names: Eso, Gesogo, Heso, Soa, Soko.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Kele (C.60) 
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Sonde

[shc] 96,000 (2002). Southeast Bandundu Province, Feshi Territory. Alternate names: Kisonde, Kisoonde, Soonde.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Songa

[sgo]  South Kivu Province. Alternate names: Kisonga.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Unclassified 
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Songe

[sop] 1,000,000 (Hoffman 1991). 150,000 in Western Kalebwe (1982 UBS). Kasaï Oriental Province, between Sankuru and Lualaba rivers, mainly Kabinda zone and east into Katanga Province, Kongolo and Kabolo territories of. Alternate names: Kalebwe, Kisonge, Kisongi, Kisongye, Luba-Songi, Lusonge, Northeast Luba, Songye, Yembe.  Dialects: Western Kalebwe (Esambi Kipya, Songe), Eastern Kalebwe (Kilombeno Kibya, Ikalebwe), Mbagani.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Songye (L.20) 
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Songo

[soo] 13,000 (2002). Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory. Alternate names: Itsong, Kisongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, Unclassified 
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Songomeno

[soe] 50,000 (1972 Barrett). Kasaï Occidental Province, Dekese Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Songoora

[sod] 1,300 (Welmers 1971). Maniema Province, Punia, Kindu, and Shabunda territories; Gengele in Kindu Territory. Alternate names: Binja, Kesongola, Songola.  Dialects: Gengele (Kegengele), North Binja, South Binja. North and South Binja dialects may be separate languages. Gengele dialect is reportedly a creole based on Lega-Shabunda [lea], Kusu [ksv], and other languages (1991 W. Mwangati).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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Suku

[sub] 50,000 (1980 UBS). South Bandundu Province, west of Feshi, Moanza and Mwela areas. Alternate names: Kisuku.  Dialects: One report says that it is not in the Yaka (H.30) subgroup, but in the Kongo subgroup (H.10). Another says it is in Holu (K.10).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Swahili, Congo

[swc] 1,000. Widespread in Katanga, Nord-Kivu, Sud-Kivu, and Maniema provinces; southeast Orientale Province. Alternate names: Zaïre Swahili.  Dialects: Ituri Kingwana, Lualaba Kingwana, Katanga Swahili, Kivu Swahili. Kingwana is a pidgin Swahili which functions sociolinguistically as a dialect. There are several regional dialects, with that of the formerly Arabized areas being most similar to Swahili of Kenya and Tanzania. Lexical similarity: 30% with Lingala [lin] and with the Lega group, 15%–20% with Bira-Huku group, Bali [bcp], and Lika [lik].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40) 
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Taabwa

[tap] 250,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (1972 Barrett). Population total all countries: 382,000. Katanga Province, on Lake Tanganyika, south of Moba. Also in Zambia. Alternate names: Ichitaabwa, Rungu, Tabwa.  Dialects: Shila.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.40) 
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Tagbu

[tbm] 17,000 (2002). Widely scattered. Alternate names: Tagba, Tagbo.  Dialects: Most similar to Sere [swf], Ndogo [dnz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere 
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Talinga-Bwisi

[tlj] 30,900 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Nord-Kivu Province, Beni Territory, Butalinga County, in Virunga National Park boundary, up to Uganda border. Alternate names: Bwissi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Haya-Jita (J.20) 
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Teke, Eboo

[ebo] 454,000 all Teke languages in Congo (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Bandundu Province, Mushie Territory. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70) 
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Teke, Ibali

[tek] 167,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000). Population total all countries: 203,200. Kwamouth, Masia, Kinshasa, near Banbana on road to Kenga; upstream from Kinshasa to Kwa (Kasaï) River and inland to Fatunda area. Also in Congo. Alternate names: Eastern Teke, Ibali, Kiteke, Teke-Ibali.  Dialects: Mosieno, Ngee (Esingee), Bali (Ambali, Teo, Tio, Tyo). Ngee dialect may be a separate language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Teke (B.70) 
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Tembo

[tbt] 150,000 (1994 SIL). Sud-Kivu and Nord-Kivu provinces, Kalehe Territory. Alternate names: Chitembo, Kitembo, Nyabungu.  Dialects: Tembo (Kitembo), Rhinyihinyi. No major dialect differences. Related to Havu [hav], Hunde [hke], Shi [shr], Fuliiru [flr]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Hunde, 70% with Shi, 55% with Nande [nnb], 50% with Nyanga [nyj], 45% with Lega Shabunda [lea].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Shi-Havu (J.50) 
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Tembo

[tmv] 5,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Sud Ubangi, Equateur, Budjala and Bomongo districts, Libanza, Bokele, and Bosanga villages on Banga-Melo River; 1 or 2 villages on Mongala River southwest of Akula; Sumba Island. Alternate names: Litembo, Motembo.  Dialects: There may be wide dialect variations.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngombe (C.50) 
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Tetela

[tll] 750,000 (1991 UBS). Northern Kasaï Oriental Province. Alternate names: Otetela, Sungu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Tiene

[tii] 24,500 (1977 SIL). Bandundu Province, Bolobo area on Congo River and inland savannah and forest. Alternate names: Kitiene, Kitiini, Tende.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Vanuma

[vau] 6,700 (1993 SIL). Orientale Province, Ituri District, Irumu Territory, Tchabi Collectivité. Alternate names: Bambutuku, Bvanuma, Livanuma.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 85% with Nyali [nlj], 75% with Budu [buu], Ndaka [ndk] and Mbo [mbo], 76% with Bila [bip].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30) 
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Wongo

[won] 12,700 (2000). Kasaï Occidental Province, Ilebo and Tshikapa territories; Bandundu Province, Guagu and Idiofa territories, Lubue River area. Alternate names: Bakong, Gongo, Ndjembe, Tukkongo, Tukongo.  Dialects: Intelligible with Lele [lel].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bushong (C.90) 
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Yaka

[yaf] 700,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 900,000. Bandundu Province (400,000), Popokabaka and Kasongo Lunda territories. Also in Angola. Alternate names: Iaka, Iyaka, Kiyaka.  Dialects: Ngoongo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.30) 
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Yakoma

[yky] 10,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Yamongeri

[ymg] 13,000 (2002). Equateur Province, south of Congo River. Alternate names: Yamongiri.  Dialects: Related to Budza [bja].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Bangi-Ntomba (C.40) 
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Yango

[yng] 3,000 (1986 SIL). Equateur Province, Kungu and Libenge districts, Esobe River area; Gbendere village. Alternate names: Gbendere.  Dialects: Similar to Monzombo [moj].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Yansi

[yns] 100,000 (1997 S. Mufwene). Bandundu Province, Bulungu Territory, Loange River area. Alternate names: Eyansi, Eyanzi, Kiyanzi, Yans, Yanzi.  Dialects: Yeei (Yey). Related to Ding [diz], Mpuono [zmp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Yanzi (B.80) 
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Yela

[yel] 33,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Equateur Province, mainly in Bokungu Territory. Alternate names: Boyela, Kutu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Tetela (C.80) 
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Yombe

[yom] 669,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo (2002). Population total all countries: 1,056,400. Western Bas-Congo Province, Mayombe Forest. Also in Angola, Congo. Alternate names: Bayombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe.  Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kongo (H.10) 
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Yulu

[yul]  Binga are in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Sudan; Yulu in Sudan and Central African Republic. Alternate names: Youlou.  Dialects: Binga, Yulu.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Zande

[zne] 730,000 in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Population total all countries: 1,142,000. Far north of Orientale Province, Bas-Uele District. Also in Central African Republic, Sudan. Alternate names: Asande, Azande, Badjande, Bazenda, Pazande, Sande, Zandi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Zimba

[zmb] 120,000 (1994 census). Maniema Province, Kasongo Territory, Mulu and Maringa collectivités. Dialects: Binja (Soe, Sole), Semulu (Semolo, Nyembombo, Kisembombo), Semalinga, Kwange, Mamba (Kyenyemamba). Kwange and Mamba dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bembe [bmb], 50% with Lega-Mwenga [lgm], Lega-Shabunda [lea], Buyu [byi], Mituku [zmq], Enya [gey], 40% with Nyanga [nyj], 34% with Bangubangu [bnx], 32% with Komo [kmw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Kalanga (D.20) 
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