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Languages of Central African Republic

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République Centrafricaine, RCA, CAR. Formerly Central African Empire. 4,191,000. 500,000 to 600,000 did not indicate their L1 in the 1988 census. National or official languages: Sango, French. Literacy rate: 27%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Bangi (7,440), Bomitaba (220), Gbaya, Hausa (20,000), Lingala (10,700), Mbandja (1,400), Ngbaka (3,000), Ngundi, Northern Ngbandi (290), Shuwa Arabic (63,000). Information mainly from Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique 1988; J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; Y. Moñino 1988; SIL 1972-2007. Blind population: 27,000 (1982 WCE). The number of individual languages listed for Central African Republic is 72. Of those, 71 are living languages and 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers.
Ali

[aiy] 35,000 (1996). Boali, Bimbo, Boda, and Yaloke subprefectures. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Banda, Mid-Southern

[bjo] 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 102,000. Alindao, Mobaye, Mingala, Kembe, Kouango subprefectures. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan. Alternate names: Banda Central Sud.  Dialects: Bongo, Dukpu, Yakpa (Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa, Bayaka), Wasa (Ouassa). Most similar to Gubu [gox], but speakers have better relations with Mbandja [zmz].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Banda, South Central

[lnl] 150,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 55,000 Langba, 95,000 Ngbugu. Population total all countries: 153,000. Sibut, Mobaye, Alindao, Kembe, Mingala subprefectures. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Dialects: Langba (Lagba), Ngbugu (Ngbougou). May be intelligible with Langbashe [lna].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Banda, Togbo-Vara

[tor] 12,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Bria (Togbo) and Bambari (Vara) subprefectures. Dialects: Togbo (Tohgboh, Tagbo, Tagbwali), Vara (Vora, Vera).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara 
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Banda, West Central

[bbp] 4,500 in Central African Republic (1996). 1,000 Wojo. Population total all countries: 7,500. Bambari, Bakala (Dakpa), Grimari (Gbi, Wojo), Kaga Bandoro (Wojo), Bamingui (Gbaga-Nord) subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Dialects: Dakpa, Gbaga-Nord (Gbaga-2), Gbi, Vita, Wojo (Hodjo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central 
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Banda-Bambari

[liy] 183,000 (1996). 4,000 Gbende, 2,000 Joto, mainly Linda. Bambari, Ippy, Grimari, Bakala, Alindao subprefectures. Alternate names: Banda-Linda, Banda of Bambari.  Dialects: Linda, Joto (Jeto), Ndokpa, Ngapo (Ngapu), Gbende.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Bambari 
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Banda-Banda

[bpd] 102,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Bria (Bereya), Yalinga (Vidiri), Bakouma, Sibut (Ka, Gbaga-South), Dekoa, Damara, Grimari (Mbi), Bossangoa (Gbambiya), Bozoum, Bocarangoa, Paoua (Hai) subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Dialects: Banda-Banda, Bereya (Bria, Banda of Bria, Banda de Bria), Buru, Gbaga-South (Gbaga 1), Gbambiya, Hai, Ka, Mbi (Mbiyi), Ndi (Ndri), Ngalabo, Ngola, Vidiri (Mvedere, Vodere, Vidri, Vadara). May be intelligible with Banda-Bambari [liy].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda 
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Banda-Mbrès

[bqk] 42,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Mbrès Subprefecture (Mbre, Moruba), Kaga Bandoro, Bouca (Buka), Bakala (Sabanga, Moruba). Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre.  Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbere, Mbele), Moruba (Morouba, Maraba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres 
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Banda-Ndélé

[bfl] 35,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Ndili, Bamingui, Ouadda, Kaga Bandoro subprefectures. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele.  Dialects: Banda-Ndélé, Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambolo, Tambaggo, Tombaggo, Tangago), Ngao (Ngau, Bandangao), Ngbala.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele 
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Banda-Yangere

[yaj] 26,500 (1996). Nola, Bambio, Berberati, and Carnot subprefectures. Alternate names: Yangere, Yanguere.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Western 
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Birri

[bvq] 200 (1996). Ethnic population: 5,000 in Central African Republic. Extinct in Sudan (1993). Southwest corner scattered; formerly in Sudan, Deim Zubeir, Bahr el Ghazal Province. Alternate names: Biri, Bviri, Viri.  Dialects: Mboto, Munga. Only one dialect spoken in Central African Republic.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi 
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Bodo

[boy] 15 (1996). Haut-Mbomou Prefecture, east tip scattered. Not more than 3 speakers in the same village. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Huku (D.30)  Nearly extinct.
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Bofi

[bff] 23,500 (1996). Boda and Bimbo subprefectures. Alternate names: Boffi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Bokoto

[bdt] 130,000 (1996). Baoro, Carnot, Boda subprefectures. Alternate names: Bhokoto, Bogodo, Bogoto, Bokodo, Bokpoto.  Dialects: Gbaya of Boda (Gbaya de Boda), Bokpan, Bokoto. May be intelligible with Northwest Gbaya [gya].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central 
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Buraka

[bkg] 2,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 3,800. Mobaye Subprefecture, along Ubangi River. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Bolaka, Boraka, Bouraka.  Dialects: May not be inherently intelligible with Gbanziri [gbg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Dagba

[dgk] 34,000 in Central African Republic (2007). Population total all countries: 44,000. Batangafo, Kabo, and Bossangoa subprefectures. Also in Chad. Dialects: May be intelligible with Kaba [ksp].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Dendi

[deq] 10,000 (1996). Ouango Subprefecture. Dialects: High intelligibility with Yakoma [yky]. Ngbandi [ngb] and Mbangi [mgn] may be inherently intelligible with Dendi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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French

[fra] 9,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Widespread. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Fulfulde, Bagirmi

[fui] 156,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Widespread. Alternate names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fulani-Wolof, Fula, Eastern 
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Furu

[fuu] 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Mobaye Subprefecture. 11 villages. Alternate names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Ganzi

[gnz] 1,400 (1996). Scattered throughout. Dialects: Ganzi, Yaka. May be intelligible with Baka [bkc].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi 
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Gbanu

[gbv] 95,000 (1996). Carnot and Bossembélé subprefectures, north of Bogangolo. Alternate names: Banu, Gbanou.  Dialects: Gbanu, Gbagiri (Gbagili, Bagili, Baguili), Budigri (Bidikili).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central 
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Gbanziri

[gbg] 14,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 17,500. Kouango Subprefecture, along Ubangi River. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili 
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Gbaya

[gba] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 877,000. 
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Gbaya, Northwest

[gya] 200,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 274,500. Bouar, Baboua, Bocaranga, Paoua subprefectures. Also in Cameroon, Congo, Nigeria. Alternate names: Gbaya, Gbaya Nord-Ouest.  Dialects: Gbaya Kara (Gbaya de Bouar, Boar), Bodoe, Lai (Lay), Yaáyuwee (Yaiwe, Kalla).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest 
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Gbaya, Southwest

[gso] 220,000 (2007 SIL). Berberati, Carnot, Gamboula, Nola subprefectures. Alternate names: Gbaya Sud-Ouest.  Dialects: Biyanda (Bianda), Buli (Boli), Mbondomo (Mbodomo), Bokare (Bokari), Mboundja (Mbunza), Bosoko (Bossouka, Mbusuku), Toongo, Yangele, Mbakolo (Yasua), Budamono, Mbombeleng.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest 
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Gbaya-Bossangoa

[gbp] 200,000 (2005). Bossangoa, Batangafo (Gbabana) subprefectures. Alternate names: Gbaya de Bosangoa, Gbaya of Borro, Gbaya of Bossangoa, Gbaya-Borro, Gbea, Gbeya.  Dialects: Gbabana, Bossangoa. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bozoum [gbq] or Suma [sqm].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central 
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Gbaya-Bozoum

[gbq] 32,500 (1996). Bozoum Subprefecture. Alternate names: Bozom, Gbaya de Bozoum.  Dialects: Diabe, Boyali, Bozom. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central 
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Gbayi

[gyg] 5,000 (1996). North Mingala Prefecture. Alternate names: Kpasiya.  Dialects: Related to Ngbandi [ngb]. Ethnically Kpatili, but not intelligible with Kpatili [kym].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Geme

[geq] 550 (1996). Ndélé Subprefecture, north of Ndélé. 2 villages. Alternate names: Gueme, Jeme, Ngba Geme.  Dialects: Geme Tulu, Geme Kulagbolu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Gubu

[gox]   Alternate names: Gabou, Gabu, Gobu, Ngobo, Ngobu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Gula

[kcm] 13,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 14,100. Birao Subprefecture, Kafia Kingi near Sudan border. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Goula, Gula du Mamoun, Kara, Kara de Soudan, Kara of Sudan, Tar Gula, Yamegi.  Dialects: Molo, Mele, Mot-Mar (Moto-Mara), Sar (Sara), Mere, Zura (Koto).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Gundi

[gdi] 9,000 (1988 census). Nola Subprefecture, south and east of Nola. Alternate names: Ngondi, Ngundi.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Baka [bdh].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi 
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Kaba

[ksp] 72,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 83,000. Paoua and Marounda subprefectures. Also in Chad. Alternate names: Kabba, Sara, Sara Kaba.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Kaba Démé, Sara

[kwg]   Alternate names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Démé, Kaba Demi, Sara Kaba Dem, Tà Sàra.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Kaba Náà, Sara

[kwv]  Mbanga villages. Alternate names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Sara Kaba.  Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Dindje, Dinje, Denje, Dounje), Na, Mbanga (Banga), Tie (Tiye).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Kako

[kkj] 10,400 in Central African Republic (1996). West, Gambula town, near Berberati, at Cameroon border. Alternate names: Kaka, Nkoxo, Yaka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kako (A.90) 
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Kara

[kah] 4,800 (1996). Birao Subprefecture. Alternate names: Dam Fer, Fer, Fertit.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Kare

[kbn] 93,000 in Central African Republic. 57,500 Kare, 35,500 Tale (1996). Population total all countries: 97,460. Bozoum and Bocaranga subprefectures. Also in Cameroon. Alternate names: Kali, Kari, Karré.  Dialects: Tale (Tali), Kari. Intelligible with Mbum [mdd].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang 
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Kpagua

[kuw] 3,830 (2000).  Alternate names: Kpagwa.  Dialects: Most similar to Ngundu [nue].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern 
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Kpatili

[kym] 4,500 (1996). South Mingala Prefecture. Alternate names: Kpatere, Kpatiri, Ngindere.  Dialects: Related to Nzakara [nzk]. Not intelligible with Gbayi [gyg], who are ethnically Kpatili.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Laka

[lap] 2,050 in Central African Republic (1996). Bocaranga Subprefecture, Chad border. 9 villages. Alternate names: Kabba Laka.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Langbashe

[lna] 40,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 43,000. Kouango Subprefecture. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi.  Dialects: May be intelligible with South Central Banda [lnl].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central 
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Limassa

[bme] Few in Ngundi villages. Along Democratic Republic of the Congo border. Alternate names: Bamassa, Bomasa, Bomassa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi 
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Lutos

[ndy] 17,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 18,980. Ndélé, Kaga Andoro, and Kabo subprefectures. Also in Chad. Alternate names: Ruto.  Dialects: Nduka (Ndouka, Ndoukwa), Lutos (Ruto, Routo, Rito, Luto, Louto), Wada (Wad), Nduga (Ngougua), Konga. Lutos dialect in Chad; Ruto and Nduka dialects in Central African Republic. Not intelligible with Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale 
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Manza

[mzv] 220,000 (1996). Bouca, Kaga Bandoro, Mbrès, Dekoa, Sibut, Grimari subprefectures. Alternate names: Mandja, Manja.  Dialects: Similar to Ngbaka-Minangende [nga] of Democratic Republic of the Congo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Mbangi

[mgn] 2,750 (1996). Bangassou, Ouango, and Alindao subprefectures. Alternate names: Mbangui.  Dialects: High intelligibility with Yakoma [yky]. May be intelligible with Ngbandi [ngb] or Dendi [deq].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Mbati

[mdn] 60,000 (1996). Mbaiki Subprefecture. Alternate names: Isongo, Issongo, Lisongo, Lissongo, Songo.  Dialects: Bolemba, Mbati of Mbaïki, Bwaka, Bonzio.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20) 
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Mbay

[myb] 8,300 in Central African Republic (1996). Markounda and Batangafo subprefectures. Alternate names: Mbai.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Mbum

[mdd] 12,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Bocaranga Subprefecture, along Cameroon border. Alternate names: Mboum.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern 
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Monzombo

[moj] 1,600 in Central African Republic (1996). Mongoumba Subprefecture. Alternate names: Mondjembo, Monjombo, Monzumbo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo 
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Mpiemo

[mcx] 24,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 29,000. Nola Subprefecture. Also in Cameroon, Congo. Alternate names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mbyemo, Mpo, Mpyemo.  Dialects: Jasoa (Jasua), Bidjuki (Bidjouki), Mpyemo. The Jasua dialect spoken by most people and well understood by others.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80) 
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Ngam

[nmc] 17,700 in Central African Republic (1996). Kabo Subprefecture. Alternate names: Ngama.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper 
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Ngando

[ngd] 5,000 (1996). Mbaïki Subprefecture. Alternate names: Bagandou, Bangandou, Bodzanga, Dingando, Ngando-Kota.  Dialects: Dikuta, Dikota (Kota). Similar to Yaka [axk]. Kota dialect may be a separate language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngando (C.10) 
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Ngbaka Ma’bo

[nbm] 88,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 189,600. Mbaiki, Bimbo, and Mongoumba subprefectures. Also in Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba.  Dialects: Similar to Gilima [gix].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka 
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Ngbaka Manza

[ngg] 29,000 (1996). Damara, Bogangolo, and Boali subprefectures. Dialects: May be intelligible with Manza [mzv].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East 
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Ngombe

[nmj] 1,450 (1996). Mambere Kadeï Prefecture. Alternate names: Bagando-Ngombe, Bangando-Ngombe, Ngombe-Kaka.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Southwest Gbaya [gso].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi 
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Nzakara

[nzk] 50,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Bangassou, Bakouma, and Gambo subprefectures. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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Pana

[pnz] 82,000 in Central African Republic. 63,000 Pana, 10,000 Pondo, 9,000 Gonge (1996). Population total all countries: 85,980. Bocaranga Subprefecture. Also in Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria. Alternate names: Pani.  Dialects: Pana, Pondo, Gonge.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang 
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Pande

[bkj] 9,700 (1996). Nola and Berberati subprefectures. Alternate names: Ipande.  Dialects: Pande (Ndjeli, Njeli, Linyeli, Linzeli, Ngili), Bogongo (Bugongo, Bukongo).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngundi (C.20) 
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Runga

[rou] 21,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Bamingui-Bangoran Prefecture, Bangui. Alternate names: Ayki, Aykindang, Rounga, Runga de Ndele.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Maban-Burun, Maban, Mabang, Runga-Kibet 
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Sango

[sag] 350,000 in Central African Republic (1988 census). Population total all countries: 404,000. Widespread. Also in Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Alternate names: Sangho.  Dialects: A rapidly spreading creole derived from Ngbandi [ngb]. Lexical similarity: 51% with French, 49% with African languages. However, African-based words used more frequently.  Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based 
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Sango, Riverain

[snj] 34,500 (1996). Mobaye Subprefecture, along Ubangi River. Dialects: High intelligibility with Sango [sag].  Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based 
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Sara Dunjo

[koj] 4,000 (1996). Ndélé Subprefecture, close to Chad border. 9 villages. Alternate names: Kaba Dunjo, Sara Dinjo.  Dialects: May be the same as Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] of Chad. May be intelligible with Sara [sbz].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Sara Kaba

[sbz] 13,600 (1996). Ndélé and Birao subprefectures. Alternate names: Ta Sara.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Sara Dunjo [koj] of Central African Republic or Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] of Chad.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba 
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Suma

[sqm] 50,000 (1996). Bossangoa, Markounda, and Paoua subprefectures. Alternate names: Souma.  Dialects: May be intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka 
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To

[toz]   Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified 
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Ukhwejo

[ukh] 2,000 (1996 SIL). Sangha Province, south of Nola. Ukhwejo in Ngulo; Bikaka in Nalimo, Salo, Bayanga, and Gbaso; Piiga in Koola, Ambasila; Kamsili in Bomanzoku, Linjombo, both sides of Sanga River. 7 villages. Alternate names: Benkonjo.  Dialects: Ukhwejo, Bikaka, Piiga, Kamsili (Ngamsile). Similar to Koonzime [ozm], Mpiemo [mcx], Bomwali [bmw], Makaa [mep].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.80) 
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Vale

[vae] 5,400 (1996). Batangafo, Kabo, and Kaga Bandoro subprefectures. Dialects: Vale, Tana (Tane, Tele). Related to Lutos [ndy]. Not intelligible with Sara [koj] or Ngambay [sba].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale 
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Yaka

[axk] 15,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 30,000. Nola, Bambio, Mbaïki, Mongoumba subprefectures, forest along Congo border. Also in Congo. Alternate names: Aka, “Babinga” , “Bambenga” , Beká, Nyoyaka, Pygmée de la Lobaye, Pygmée de Mongoumba, Pygmées de la Sanghas.  Dialects: Beka (Gbayaka, Bayaka, Moyaka), Nzari.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngando (C.10) 
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Yakoma

[yky] 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 110,000. Kembi and Ouango subprefectures, Ubangi River area and administrative centers. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Dialects: High intelligibility with Ngbandi [ngb] and Sango [sag].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi 
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Yulu

[yul] 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Population total all countries: 7,000. Ouadda-Djaléi and Ouadda subprefectures. Yulu are in Central African Republic and Sudan; Binga are in Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan. Alternate names: Youlou.  Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Aja is not a dialect of Yulu, but of Kresh [krs] (R. Brown).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara 
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Zande

[zne] 62,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Rafaï, Zémio, and Obo subprefectures. Alternate names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara 
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