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Languages of Côte d’Ivoire

See language map.
Ivory Coast. République de la Côte d’Ivoire. 18,585,000. National or official language: French. Literacy rate: 42.4%–45%. Immigrant languages: American Sign Language, Bissa (63,000), Dogoso, Eastern Karaboro (5,610), Glaro-Twabo, Khe, Maasina Fulfulde (1,200), Malba Birifor, Mòoré, Nafaanra, Siamou, Sìcìté Sénoufo, Soninke (100,000), Southern Toussian, Turka, Vietnamese. Also includes languages of Burkina Faso (1,600,000), Mali (754,000), Guinea (238,000), Liberia (200,000), and others (345,000). Information mainly from J. Bendor-Samuel and Hartell 1989; M. Delafosse 1904; SIL 1973–2007. Blind population: 50,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf institutions: 1. The number of individual languages listed for Côte d’Ivoire is 79. Of those, 77 are living languages, 1 is a second language without mother-tongue speakers, and 1 has no known speakers.
Abé

[aba] 170,000 (1995 SIL). Southern Department, Agboville Subprefecture (except Krobou Canton); Tiassale Subprefecture, Abbe Canton. 70 villages. Alternate names: Abbé, Abbey, Abi.  Dialects: Tioffo, Morie, Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby 
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Abidji

[abi] 50,500 (1993 SIL). Abidjan Department, Sikensi Subprefecture (12 villages); Dabou Subprefecture, a few villages. Alternate names: Abiji.  Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby 
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Abron

[abr] 132,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Eastern Department, Tanda and Bondoukou subprefectures. Alternate names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan 
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Abure

[abu] 55,100 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Bonoua Subprefecture; Grand Bassam Subprefecture, Abidjan. Alternate names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass.  Dialects: Most similar to Anyin [any]. Also close to Baoule [bci], Nzema [nzi].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western 
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Adioukrou

[adj] 100,000 (1999 SIL). Southern Department, Dabou Subprefecture. 49 villages. Alternate names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby 
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Aizi, Aproumu

[ahp] 6,500 (1999 SIL). Southern Department, Jacqueville Subprefecture, Ebrié Lagoon banks, Attoutou A (new quarter), Attoutou B, Tefredji, Koko, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth) villages; Dabou Subprefecture, Allaba village. Alternate names: Ahizi, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi 
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Aizi, Mobumrin

[ahm] 2,000 (1999 SIL). Southern Department, Jacqueville Subprefecture, Ebrié Lagoon north bank. 2 villages (Abraco and Abraniamiambo). Alternate names: Ahizi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi 
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Aizi, Tiagbamrin

[ahi] 9,000 (1999 SIL). Southern Department, Jacqueville Subprefecture, Ebrié Lagoon banks, Tiagba, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiémié, and Attoutou B (old quarter) villages. Alternate names: Ahizi, Lélémrin, Tiagba.  Dialects: Not intelligible with Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi 
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Alladian

[ald] 23,000 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Jacqueville Subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie Lagoon. 21 villages. Alternate names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian 
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Anyin

[any] 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 860,000. South region, Abidjan and Aboisso departments; East-Central region, Abengourou and Agnibilekrou departments; North-East region, Bondoukou and Tanda departments; North-Central region, M’bahiakro Department; and Central region, Bongouanou and Daoukro departments; Between Kulango and Abron [abr] north; Nzema [sfw], Abure [abu], and Lagoon languages south; Baoulé west [bci]. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Agni, Anyi.  Dialects: Sanvi, Indenie, Bini, Bona, Moronou, Djuablin, Ano, Abe, Barabo, Alangua. Most similar to Baoulé. Also similar to Nzema, Sehwi [sfw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern 
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Anyin Morofo

[mtb] 300,000 (2002 SIL). Southern, Eastern, and Central departments, Moronou. Alternate names: Morofo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern 
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Attié

[ati] 381,000 (1993 SIL). Abidjan Department, Anyama and Alepe subprefectures; Adzope Department, Adzope, Affery, Agou, Akoupe, Yakasse-Attobrou subprefectures. Alternate names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe.  Dialects: Naindin, Ketin, Bodin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie 
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Avikam

[avi] 21,000 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam Canton. Alternate names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian 
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Bakwé

[bjw] 10,300 (1993 SIL). Southern and West Central departments, Sassandra, Soubre, San Pedro prefectures. Dialects: Defa, Deple, Dafa, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Most similar to Godié [god].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe 
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Bambara

[bam] 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL).  Alternate names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Baoulé

[bci] 2,130,000 (1993 SIL). Central Department, widespread in the south. Alternate names: Baule, Bawule.  Dialects: Similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern 
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Beng

[nhb] 17,000 (1993 SIL). Central Department. M’bahiakro Subprefecture, northeast corner. 20 villages; Prikro Subprefecture. 2 villages. Alternate names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban 
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Bété, Daloa

[bev] 130,000 (1993 SIL). West Central Department, Daloa Subprefecture. Alternate names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western 
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Bété, Gagnoa

[btg] 150,000 (1989 SIL). Gagnoa Subprefecture. Alternate names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen.  Dialects: Nekedi, Zadie, Niabre, Kpakolo, Zebie, Guebie, Gbadi (Gbadie, Badie).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern 
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Bété, Guiberoua

[bet] 130,000 (1993 SIL). West Central Department, Daloua, Issia, Guiberoua, Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures. Alternate names: Central Bété, Western Bété.  Dialects: Soubré, Guiberoua. Most similar to Godié [god].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western 
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Beti

[eot] 200 (1999 R. Blench). Ethnic population: 3,181 (1988 census). Southern Department, Vitre I and Vitre II villages, Grand Bassam Subprefecture. Alternate names: Eotile.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western 
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Birifor, Southern

[biv] 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Northeast corner. Alternate names: Birifo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor 
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Cerma

[cme] 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Ouangolodougo area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages. Alternate names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama 
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Daho-Doo

[das] 4,000 (1996 SIL). Western Department, north of Tai and south of the Guéré. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. The greatest lexical similarity they have to any Wè variety is 80%, and the least is 30%. Lexical similarity 92% between the Daho and Doo dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn 
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Dan

[daf] 800,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 M. Bolli). 400,000 in Eastern Dan, 400,000 in western Dan. Population total all countries: 975,800. Man Prefecture (except Kouibly and Facoubly), Danané, Biankouma and Touba prefectures. 19 villages. Also in Guinea, Liberia. Alternate names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Yacouba, Yakuba.  Dialects: Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect tapes as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (M. Bolli SIL 1971).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan 
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Deg

[mzw] 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991).  Alternate names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western 
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Dida, Lakota

[dic] 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,400 (1993 SIL). Lakota town area. Alternate names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Guébie, Satro, Ziki.  Dialects: Vata.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida 
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Dida, Yocoboué

[gud] 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. Southern Department, Guitry Subprefecture, Guitry town area. Dialects: Lozoua (Guitry, Yocoboue, Yokouboué, Gakpa, Goudou, Kagoué), Divo. Lakota Dida [dic] is marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida 
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Ebrié

[ebr] 75,900 (1988 census). Abidjan Department, urban Abidjan, Dabou Subprefecture, Bingerville Subprefecture. 57 villages, including 27 in Abidjan. Alternate names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama.  Dialects: Not related to surrounding languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou 
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Ega

[ega] 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Southern Department, Diés Canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. Alternate names: Diés, Egwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega 
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French

[fra] 17,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1988 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French 
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Gagu

[ggu] 36,600 (1993). West Central Department, Oume Subprefecture. Alternate names: Gagou, Gban.  Dialects: Bokwa, N’da, Bokabo, Tuka. N’da dialect is central.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban 
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Glio-Oubi

[oub] 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Western Department, Tai Subprefecture, Tai Canton. 6 towns on each side of the border. Alternate names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi 
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Godié

[god] 26,400 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Sassandra and Fresco subprefectures; Kotrohou Canton, Koyo. Alternate names: Godye.  Dialects: Tiglu, Glibe, Kagbo, Dagli, Nugbo, Dlogo, Jluko, Nyago, Koyo. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to Dida than to Godié. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western 
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Grebo, Southern

[grj]   Dialects: Seaside Grebo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian 
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Guro

[goa] 332,000 (1993 SIL). West Central and Central departments, Zuénoula, Vavoua, Gouitafla, Bouafle, Sinfra, Oumé subprefectures. Alternate names: Gouro, Kwéndré, Kweni, Lo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure 
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Jeri Kuo

[jek] 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Southwest; some north of Korhogo. Alternate names: Celle, Jeli Kuo.  Dialects: Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri 
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Jula

[dyu] 179,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). North region, Ferkessédougou Department, Kong Subprefecture; widespread in major cities. Alternate names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana 
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Khisa

[kqm] 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 8,000. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu.  Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] given time. Also reportedly Senoufo. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa, 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose 
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Kodia

[kwp] 840 (1993 SIL). South central. Alternate names: Kwadia, Kwadya.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia 
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Koro

[kfo] 40,000 (1999 SIL). Mankono Department, Tiéningboué Subprefecture. Alternate names: Koro Jula.  Dialects: High comprehension of Koyaga [kga].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Kouya

[kyf] 10,100 (1993 SIL). West Central Department, Vavoua Subprefecture, Kouya Canton. 12 villages. Alternate names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya.  Dialects: Most similar to Gbadi Bété, Dida.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern 
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Koyaga

[kga] 60,000 (1999 SIL). Mankono Department, western 4 subprefectures. Alternate names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara.  Dialects: Koyaga, Siaka, Sagaka, Nigbi. High comprehension of Koro [kfo].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Krahn, Western

[krw] 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). West, Toulépleu area. Alternate names: Krahn, Northern Krahn.  Dialects: Pewa (Peewa), Biai.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn 
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Krobu

[kxb] 9,920 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Agboville Subprefecture. 4 villages. Alternate names: Krobou.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu 
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Krumen, Plapo

[ktj] 100 (2004). Southwest corner, between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. Alternate names: Plapo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian 
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Krumen, Pye

[pye] 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Southwest, Tai, Tai, Bereby, and part of San Pedro subprefectures. Alternate names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen.  Dialects: Trepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Gbowe-Hran, Wlepo, Dugbo, Yrewe (Giriwe), Yapo, Pie (Pye, Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian 
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Krumen, Tepo

[ted] 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 31,210. Southwest, Tabou and Grabo subprefectures. Also in Liberia. Alternate names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen.  Dialects: Tepo, Bapo, Wlopo (Ropo), Dapo, Honpo, Yrepo (Kapo), Glawlo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian 
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Kulango, Bondoukou

[kzc] 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,000. Eastern Department, Bondoukou Subprefecture. Also in Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango 
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Kulango, Bouna

[nku] 142,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993). Population total all countries: 157,500. Eastern Department, Nassian Subprefecture. Also in Ghana. Alternate names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange.  Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou, but not the reverse.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango 
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Ligbi

[lig] 4,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Eastern Department, Bineto village; Bouna community; Slil town near Boundoukou; Ourodougou near Malinke [loi] territory. Alternate names: Banda, Jogo, Ligwi, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tuba.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo 
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Lobi

[lob] 156,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Eastern Department, north strip. Alternate names: Lobiri, Miwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi 
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Loma

[loi] 8,010 (2000). Tèèn and Kulango areas. Alternate names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke.  Dialects: Similar to Tèèn [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Tèèn is to Kulango.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen 
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Mahou

[mxx] 169,000 (1993 SIL). Northwest region, Touba Department. Alternate names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke.  Dialects: Mahouka, Koroka, Tenenga, Finanga, Baralaka (Barala). Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Maninka, Forest

[myq] 15,000. Northwest region, Odienné Department, near Mali and Guinea borders. Dialects: Wasulu (Wassulunka, Wassoulounka, Wassulunke). This may be the same language as Eastern Maninkakan [emk], Wojenaka [jod], or different from both.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Mbato

[gwa] 25,000 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Petit Alépé Subprefecture. Alternate names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Ogwia, Potu.  Dialects: Related to Ebrii [ebr].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou 
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Mbre

[mka] 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Marabadiassa area, northwest of Bouake and Diabo, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. Alternate names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia.  Dialects: Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified 
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Mwan

[moa] 17,000 (1993 SIL). Kongasso Subprefecture and south Mankono Subprefecture. Alternate names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan 
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Neyo

[ney] 9,200 (1993 SIL). Southern Department, Sassandra Subprefecture, Neyo, and Kébé cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. Alternate names: Gwibwen, Towi.  Dialects: Most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to Dida than to Bété.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida 
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N’ko

[nqo]   Classification: Mixed language 
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Nyabwa

[nwb] 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. West Central Department, northwest corner, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), Issia, Buyo, Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa), Daloua subprefectures. Alternate names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa.  Dialects: Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua). Lexical similarity: 90% between the Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and We Southern [gxx] and We Northern [wob].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa 
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Nzema

[nzi] 66,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Aboisso Department, Tiapoum Subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. Alternate names: Appolo, Nzima.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern 
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Senoufo, Cebaara

[sef] 862,000 (1993 SIL). North, around Korhogo. Alternate names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala.  Dialects: Kafire, Kasara, Kufuru, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Patara, Pogara, Tyebara, Tagara, Tenere, Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Southwest Senari, Kandere (Tengrela), Papara, Fodara, Kulere, Nafara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak the Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari 
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Senoufo, Djimini

[dyi] 95,500 (1993 SIL). Dabakala Department, northwest corner. Alternate names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini.  Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Singala is the prestige dialect of Dabakala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini 
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Senoufo, Nyarafolo

[sev] 48,000 (2003 SIL). Northeast Ferkessédougou area. Alternate names: Nyarafolo-Niafolo.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari 
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Senoufo, Palaka

[plr] 8,000 (1995 SIL). Central Department, Sikolo area, north of Djimini. Alternate names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga 
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Senoufo, Shempire

[seb] 100,000 (1996). North of Tingréla. Alternate names: Shenpire, Syempire.  Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara 
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Senoufo, Tagwana

[tgw] 138,000 (1993 SIL). Central Department, north central area, west of Djimini. Alternate names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana.  Dialects: Gbo (Zoro), Tafire, Niediekaha, Niangbo, Niakaramadougou, Fondebougou, Djidanan, Fourgoula, Katiara, Katiola. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini 
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Téén

[lor] 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Population total all countries: 8,100. Bouna Department, Téhini Subprefecture. Also in Burkina Faso. Alternate names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé.  Dialects: Different from Kulango. Most similar to Loma [loi], Bouna Kulango [nku].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen 
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Tonjon

[tjn] Extinct. Dabakala Department, among the Djimini Senoufo [dyi]. Dialects: Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Jeri Kuo of Côte d’Ivoire [jek].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo 
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Toura

[neb] 38,500 (1993 SIL). East Biankouma Department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Seguela main road, north of Bafing River; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. Alternate names: Tura, Ween.  Dialects: Naò, Boo, Yiligele, Gwéò, Wáádú, Guse. Probably most similar to Dan [daf]. Also similar to Guro [goa], Gagu [ggu], Mann [mev] (in Liberia).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan 
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Wan

[wan] 22,000 (1993 UBS). Kounahiri and west Beoumi subprefectures. Alternate names: Nwa.  Dialects: Miamu, Kemu.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan 
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Wané

[hwa] 2,100 (1993 SIL). Southwest coast. Alternate names: Hwane, Ngwané.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe 
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Wè Northern

[wob] 156,000 (1993 SIL). Western Department, Kouibly and Fakobly subprefectures. Alternate names: Ouobe, Wèè, Wobé.  Dialects: Tao, Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan). Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe 
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Wè Southern

[gxx] 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Western Department, Guiglo, Duékoué, Bangolo, Tai and subprefectures. Alternate names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré, Wèè.  Dialects: Zibiao, Zagne, Zagna, Beu (Zarabaon), Zaa (Zaha), Neao (Niabo, Neabo), Gboo (Gbobo), Fleo, Nyeo. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn 
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Wè Western

[wec] 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Western Department, Toulépleu Subprefecture. Alternate names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo, Wèè.  Dialects: Nidrou (Nidru), Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu).  Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn 
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Wojenaka

[jod] 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Northwest region, Odienné Department. Alternate names: Malinké, Odienné Jula, Odiennekakan.  Dialects: Odienneka, Sienkoka, Nafana, Bodougouka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassulunka, Wassoulounka, Wassulunke, Forest Maninka). Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Forest Maninka dialect may be Folongakan, a dialect of Wojenaka. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Worodougou

[jud] 80,000 (1999 SIL). Northwest region, Séguéla Department. Alternate names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu.  Dialects: Worodougouka, Karanjan, Kanika. The Karanjan dialect may be a separate language.  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori 
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Yaouré

[yre] 24,600 (Vanderaa 1991). 13,000 in villages, 7,000 in cities (1982 SIL). Bouaflé Department, Bouafli Subprefecture, Yaoure Canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama River, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. Alternate names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré.  Dialects: Klan, Yaan, Taan, Yoo, Bhoo. Most similar to Guro [goa].  Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure 
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