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Languages of Chile

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Republic of Chile, República de Chile. 16,295,000. National or official language: Spanish. Literacy rate: 92%–95%. Immigrant languages: Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Croatian, English, Hunsrik, Italian, Standard German (35,000), Vlax Romani. Information mainly from N. Besnier 1992; Grete Mostny 1965; SIL 1969-2003; A. Tovar 1961, 1966; A. Tovar and L. Tovar 1984; S. Wurm and S. Hattori 1981. Blind population: 100,000. Deaf population: 845,849. Deaf institutions: 7. The number of individual languages listed for Chile is 11. Of those, 9 are living languages and 2 have no known speakers.
Aymara, Central

[ayr] 900 in Chile (Gundermann 1994). Ethnic population: 48,501 in Chile (2002). Mountains of extreme north, Tarapacá; Arica, Parinacota, Iquique. Classification: Aymaran 
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Chilean Sign Language

[csg]   Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Huilliche

[huh] 2,000 (1982 SIL). South of Mapuche, Tenth region, Valdivia to Chiloé. Alternate names: Huiliche, Veliche.  Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun [arn], but barely intelligible with it.  Classification: Araucanian 
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Kakauhua

[kbf] Extinct.  Alternate names: Cacahue, Kaukaue.  Classification: Alacalufan 
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Kunza

[kuz] No known speakers. A few were located in 1949 and since by anthropologists. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Peine, Socaire (Salar de Atacama), and Caspana. Alternate names: Atacameño, Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe.  Dialects: Greenberg places it in Macro-Chibchan.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Mapudungun

[arn] 200,000 in Chile (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 300,039. Ethnic population: 604,349 (2002). Between Itata and Tolten rivers. Also in Argentina, United States. Alternate names: “Araucano” , Mapuche, Mapudungu.  Dialects: Moluche (Ngoluche, Manzanero), Picunche, Pehuenche. Easy intelligibility among dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are very similar.  Classification: Araucanian 
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Qawasqar

[alc] 12 (2006). 10 in Puerto Edin. Ethnic population: 2,622. West Patagonia, Channel region, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south. Center is Puerto Edin. Alternate names: Alacaluf, Alacalufe, Halakwulup, Kaweskar, Kawesqar.  Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana).  Classification: Alacalufan  Nearly extinct.
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Quechua, Chilean

[cqu] 8,200 (2006). Northern second region. Dialects: May be intelligible with, or same as, South Bolivian Quechua [quh].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C 
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Rapa Nui

[rap] 3,390 in Chile (2000). 2,200 on Easter Island; 200 to 300 on Chile mainland, Tahiti, and USA. Ethnic population: 3,500. Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. Also in French Polynesia, United States. Alternate names: Easter Island, Pascuense, Rapanui.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Hawaiian [haw], Mangareva [mrv], Rarotongan [rar]; 63% with Marquesan [mrq]; 62% with Tahitian [tah], Tuamotuan.  Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui 
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Spanish

[spa] 13,800,000 in Chile (1995). 25% Spanish, 66% mestizo.  Alternate names: Castellano, Español.  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
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Yámana

[yag] 1 (2003). Ethnic population: 100 (2000 W. Adelaar). Patagonia, Isla Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. Alternate names: Tequenica, Yagán, Yaghan.  Dialects: Most similar to Qawasqar [alc], and had some relationship to Siane [snp] (Tovar 1961). Earlier there were up to 5 dialects.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
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