Ethnologue.com home
Ethnologue > Web version > Country index > Americas > Colombia

Languages of Colombia

See language maps.
Republic of Colombia, República de Colombia. 44,946,000. 500,000 speakers of American Indian languages (1997 Centro Colombiano de Estudios de Lenguas Aborígenes). National or official language: Spanish. Literacy rate: 70%–80%. Immigrant languages: Catalan-Valencian-Balear, Yagua, Yuhup. Information mainly from Arango and Sánchez 1998; S. Levinsohn 1976a, 1976b, 1976c; SIL 1964–2003. Blind population: 30,000 (1982 WCE). Deaf population: 300,000 to 2,157,094 in Colombia (1998), 50,000 in Bogotá, half school-aged (1992). Deaf institutions: 8. The number of individual languages listed for Colombia is 100. Of those, 80 are living languages and 20 have no known speakers.
Achagua

[aca] 250 (2000 Lozano). Rio Meta near Puerto Gaitan. Alternate names: Ajagua, Xagua.  Dialects: Similar to Piapoco [pio].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Andaqui

[ana] Extinct. Southern highlands. Alternate names: Andaki.  Classification: Barbacoan, Andaqui 
More information.

Andoque

[ano] 370 (2007 Pencue), decreasing. 50 monolinguals. Were 10,000 in 1908. Amazonas, Aduche River (tributary of Caquetá) 15 km downriver from Araracuara. Alternate names: Andoke.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Anserma

[ans] Extinct.  Alternate names: Anserna.  Dialects: Related to Cauca [cca], Arma [aoh] (both extinct), and Caramanta [crf].  Classification: Choco 
More information.

Arhuaco

[arh] 14,800 (2001). 90% monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,301. Southern slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Aruaco, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ike.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
More information.

Arma

[aoh] Extinct.  Classification: Choco 
More information.

Awa-Cuaiquer

[kwi] 20,000 in Colombia (1986 SIL). Population total all countries: 22,000. Pacific slopes of Andes, Nariño, from Ecuador border north, near Barbacoas. Also in Ecuador. Alternate names: Awa, Awa Pit, Coaiquer, Cuaiquer, Kwaiker, Quaiquer.  Dialects: Distantly related to Chachi [cbi] and Colorado [cof].  Classification: Barbacoan, Pasto 
More information.

Barasana-Eduria

[bsn] 1,890 (2001). Southern Vaupés region, Pira-Paraná River and tributaries. Jepa Matsi in Brazil may be dialect. Alternate names: Barasana, Barasano, Come masa, Comematsa, Edulia, Eduria, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano.  Dialects: Barasana (Southern Barasano, Comematsa, Janera, Paneroa, Yebamasa), Eduria (Edulia, Taiwano).  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
More information.

Barbacoas

[bpb] Extinct. Near Barbacoas coastal town, Nariño. Classification: Barbacoan, Pasto 
More information.

Barí

[mot] 3,620 in Colombia (2001). Population total all countries: 5,390. Oro and Catatumbo rivers region. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Motilón, Motilone.  Dialects: M. Durbin questions its classification as Chibchan; (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977) classify it as Arawakan.  Classification: Chibchan, Motilon 
More information.

Bora

[boa] 450 in Colombia (1998 ISA). Amazonas, Bora in Providencia on Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo); Miraña on lower Caquetá River, near Cabinari River mouth. Alternate names: Boro, Meamuyna.  Dialects: Miraña (Miranha), Bora.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
More information.

Cabiyarí

[cbb] 310 (2001). Cananarí River (tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés). Alternate names: Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Kauyarí, Cuyare, Kawillary, Kawiyarí, Kawiarí, Kabiyarí.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Cacua

[cbv] 150 (1982 SIL). Many monolinguals, especially children. Lower Vaupés region, Wacará, 30 kilometers east of Mitú. Alternate names: Báda, Kákwa, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Desano, Macu de Guanano.  Dialects: Vaupés Cacua, Macú-Paraná Cacua. Related to Hupda [hup], Nukak Maku [mbr].  Classification: Maku 
More information.

Cagua

[cbh] Extinct.  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Camsá

[kbh] 4,770 (2007). Putumayo region, Sibundoy Valley, near Ingas. Alternate names: Camëntsëá, Coche, Kamemtxa, Kamsa, Kamse, Sibundoy.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Carabayo

[cby] 150. Amazonas Department, halfway between San Bernardo and Pure rivers. At least 3 long houses. Alternate names: “Amazonas Macusa”.  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Caramanta

[crf] Extinct. Antioquía region, Municipio de Jardín, near cities of Andes, Christiania. Classification: Choco 
More information.

Carapana

[cbc] 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 650. Vaupés region, Caño Tí (tributary of middle Vaupés River) and upper Papurí and Pirá-Paraná rivers. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Carapana-Tapuya, Karapaná, Karapanã, Karapano, Mextã, Mochda, Moxdoa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
More information.

Carijona

[cbd] 310 (2001). Upper Vaupés, Yarí, and lower Caquetá rivers, south of Miraflores, around Puerto Nare. Alternate names: Carihona, Hianacoto-Umaua, Karijona, Omagua, Umawa.  Dialects: M. Durbin says possibly 2 separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona. The 2 groups had no contact for many years.  Classification: Carib, Southern, Southeastern Colombia 
More information.

Cauca

[cca] Extinct.  Dialects: Related to Anserma [ans].  Classification: Choco 
More information.

Chimila

[cbg] 2,000 (2006 T. Malone), decreasing. Central Magdalena Department, lowlands south and west of Fundación, and scattered. Alternate names: Caca Weranos, San Jorge, Shimizya.  Classification: Chibchan, Unclassified 
More information.

Chipiajes

[cbe] Extinct.  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Cocama-Cocamilla

[cod] Ethnic population: 793 in Colombia. Lower Putumayo. Alternate names: Cocama, Kokama.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
More information.

Cofán

[con] 900 in Colombia (2000 Lozano), decreasing. Many monolinguals. Colombia-Ecuador border area, Putumayo Province. Alternate names: Kofan, Kofane, A’i, A’ingae.  Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa.  Classification: Chibchan, Cofan 
More information.

Colombian Sign Language

[csn] 50,000 deaf in Bogotá in 1992.  Dialects: Some signs similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the USA.  Classification: Deaf sign language 
More information.

Coxima

[kox] Extinct.  Alternate names: Koxima.  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Coyaima

[coy] Extinct. Tolima region. Dialects: Ruhlen says it was a Yukpa variety.  Classification: Carib, Northern, Coastal 
More information.

Cubeo

[cub] 6,650 in Colombia (2001), increasing. 10% monolinguals. Population total all countries: 6,800. Vaupés region, Vaupés, Cuduyari, Querarí rivers and tributaries. Also in Brazil, Venezuela. Alternate names: Cuveo, Hehenawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Pamiwa.  Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan 
More information.

Cuiba

[cui] 2,450 in Colombia (2001). 1,500 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,830. Meta Casanare, Capanapara rivers and tributaries. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Cuiba-Wámonae, Cuiva.  Dialects: Chiricoa, Masiware (Masiguare), Chiripo (Wupiwi, Siripu), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara, Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Amaruwa (Amorua). 8 dialects in Venezuela and Colombia.  Classification: Guahiban 
More information.

Cumeral

[cum] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
More information.

Curripaco

[kpc] 7,830 in Colombia (2001). Population total all countries: 12,540. Guainia, Isana, and Inirida rivers. Also in Brazil, Venezuela. Alternate names: Curipaco, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Koripako, Waquenia, Karrupaku.  Dialects: Similar to Baniwa [bwi].  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Desano

[des] 2,460 in Colombia (2001). Papurí and Abiyu rivers (tributary of the Vaupés), Pacá River (tributary of the Papurí), Macú Parana River (tributary of the Papurí), plus other tributaries of the Papurí. Alternate names: Boleka, Desána, Dessana, Kusibi, Oregu, Wina.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
More information.

Emberá, Northern

[emp] 49,700 in Colombia (2001). Atrato River basin in Chocó Department, Pacific coastal rivers from Cabo Corrientes, to Antioquia (Rio Verde) Department. Alternate names: Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Dariena, Eberã, Eberã Bed’ea, Emperã, Eperã Pedea, Panama Embera.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Northern 
More information.

Emberá-Baudó

[bdc] 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Embera in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Baudó River basin and Pacific (north) coastal rivers between cabo corrientes; south of San Juan River, near Northern Emberá. Alternate names: Baudó, Catrú.  Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Northern Embera [emp] and Epena [sja].  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
More information.

Emberá-Catío

[cto] 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). 90%–95% monolingual. Population total all countries: 15,040. Ethnic population: Total Embera in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Upper Sinu, San Jorge, San Pedro, Murri rivers. Also in Panama. Alternate names: Catio, Embena, Eyabida, Katio.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Northern 
More information.

Emberá-Chamí

[cmi] 5,510 (2001). Ethnic population: Total Embera in Colombia: 71,000 (1998 Arango and Sánchez). Departments of Risaralda, Caldas, Antioquía, Valle, including Caramanta Municipality. Alternate names: Chami.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
More information.

Emberá-Tadó

[tdc] 1,000 (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: Total Embera in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Chocó Departamento, Upper San Juan River region. Alternate names: Cholo, Êpêra.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
More information.

Epena

[sja] 3,500 in Colombia (2004), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,550. South Pacific coast, Caucá, Nariño, Chocó departments. Also in Ecuador, Panama. Alternate names: Cholo, Embera, Emberá-Saija, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern, Southern Empera.  Dialects: Basurudó.  Classification: Choco, Embera, Southern 
More information.

Guahibo

[guh] 23,000 in Colombia (2001). 40% monolingual. Population total all countries: 34,200. Plains regions, Casanare, eastern Meta, Vichada, Guaviare, Guainia states. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Goahibo, Goahiva, Guaigua, Guajibo, Guayba, “Sicuani” , “Sikuani” , Wahibo.  Dialects: Guahibo (Sikuani), Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Tigrero. Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan.  Classification: Guahiban 
More information.

Guambiano

[gum] 23,500 (2001), increasing. Less than 10% monolingual. Central Andes Range near Popayán, Cauca, in concentrated areas. Alternate names: Guambia, Moguex.  Classification: Barbacoan, Coconucan 
More information.

Guanano

[gvc] 300 in Colombia (2001). Lower Vaupés River region. Alternate names: Anana, Kótedia, Kotiria, Uanano, Wanana.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
More information.

Guayabero

[guo] 2,000 (2007 Lopez). 1,200 monolinguals. Metá and Guaviaré states, Upper Guaviaré River. Alternate names: Cunimía, Jiw, Mítua, Mítus.  Classification: Guahiban 
More information.

Huitoto, Minica

[hto] 6,800 (2002). Upper Igara-Parana. Caquetá River at Isla de los Monos, Caguan River near Sanvicente del Caguan. Alternate names: Meneca, Minica.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
More information.

Huitoto, Murui

[huu] 6,800 in Colombia (2002). Caraparana, Putumayo, and Leticia rivers. Alternate names: Bue, Witoto.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Witoto Proper, Minica-Murui 
More information.

Hupdë

[jup] 150 in Colombia (1991 SIL). Papurí and Tiquié River systems. Alternate names: “Hupdá Makú” , “Jupdá Macú” , “Macú de Tucano” , “Makú-Hupdá” , Ubdé.  Classification: Maku 
More information.

Inga

[inb] 12,000 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Population total all countries: 16,000. Ethnic population: 17,860. Sibundoy Valley, Santiago area, San Andrés, and Colón; Aponte, Department of Nariño. 1,000 in Bogotá, some in regional capitals. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Highland Inga.  Dialects: Santiago Inga, San Andrés Inga, Aponte Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua [qvi] of Ecuador. Aponte Inga dialect is most distinct.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
More information.

Inga, Jungle

[inj] 11,200 (2007). Upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. Alternate names: Ingano, Lowland Inga, Mocoa.  Dialects: Yunguillo-Condagua, Guayuyaco. Most similar to Highland Inga [inb]. Distinct from Napo Quechua [qvo].  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
More information.

Islander Creole English

[icr] 15,000 (1981 SIL). San Andrés and Providencia Islands. Alternate names: Bende, San Andrés Creole.  Dialects: Very similar to Belize Creole English [bzj].  Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western 
More information.

Kogi

[kog] 11,000 (2007 Dingula). Nearly all monolingual. North, east, and west slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Coghui, Cogui, Kagaba, Kaggaba, Kogui.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
More information.

Koreguaje

[coe] 2,210 (2001). Orteguaza and Caquetá rivers and tributaries, Caquetá region. Alternate names: Caquetá, Chaocha Pai, Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Coreguaje 
More information.

Kuna, Border

[kvn] 500 in Colombia (1990). Population total all countries: 1,200. North coast region near Panama isthmus. Also in Panama. Alternate names: Caiman Nuevo, Colombia Cuna, Cuna, Paya-Pucuro.  Dialects: Classification of Kuna uncertain; may be an isolate with some Chibchan features.  Classification: Chibchan, Kuna 
More information.

Macaguaje

[mcl] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 450 (2005 Ascatidar). Lower Putumayo, tributaries of Caquetá River. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
More information.

Macaguán

[mbn] 1,010 (2001). Most monolingual. Arauca, Agualinda, and San José de Lipa between the Lipa, Ele, and Cuiloto rivers and Caño Colorado; other scattered locations. Alternate names: Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü, Macaguane.  Dialects: Unintelligible to other Guahibo variety speakers.  Classification: Guahiban 
More information.

Macuna

[myy] 1,010 in Colombia (2001). Population total all countries: 1,110. Vaupés region, lower Pira-Parana; Apaporis tributaries and Miriti-Parana. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Buhagana, Emoa, Ide, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Roea, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Yeba, Yepá-Mahsá.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Southern 
More information.

Malayo

[mbp] 1,920 (2001). South and east slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Alternate names: Arosario, Arsario, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wiwa.  Classification: Chibchan, Aruak 
More information.

Muinane

[bmr] 150 (2007 Moyano). Amazonas, Upper Cahuinarí, on Caquetá tributary. Alternate names: Muename, Muinana, Muinani.  Classification: Witotoan, Boran 
More information.

Natagaimas

[nts] Extinct. Tolima region. Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Nhengatu

[yrl] 3,000 in Colombia. Vaupés. Alternate names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Yeral.  Classification: Tupi, Tupi-Guarani, Subgroup III 
More information.

Nukak Makú

[mbr] 400 (2005 Garcia). Jungle region between Guaviare and Inirida rivers, up to Mapiripan. Near Charco Caimán. Alternate names: Guaviare, Maczsa.  Classification: Maku 
More information.

Ocaina

[oca] 12 in Colombia (1982 SIL). Amazonas, Upper Igara-Paraná and tributaries. Alternate names: Okaina.  Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa.  Classification: Witotoan, Witoto, Ocaina 
More information.

Omejes

[ome] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
More information.

Páez

[pbb] 77,400 (2000 SIL), increasing. 35,700 to 41,650 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 138,501. Central Andes Range near Popayán, Cauca. Dialects: Pitayo, Paniquita (Panikita).  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Palenquero

[pln] 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500. San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena, and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla. Alternate names: Lengua, Palenque.  Dialects: Linguistic influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987).  Classification: Creole, Spanish based 
More information.

Piapoco

[pio] 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Population total all countries: 6,380. Tributaries and lower Vichada River region, and Meta and Guaviare rivers. Also in Venezuela. Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Piaroa

[pid] 80 in Colombia (1991 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 773. Near the Sáliba. Alternate names: Kuakua, Guagua, Quaqua Dearuwa, Wo’tiheh, Maco.  Classification: Salivan 
More information.

Pijao

[pij] Extinct. Tolima region. Alternate names: Piajao.  Dialects: Not enough data to classify it linguistically (1973 M. Durbin).  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Piratapuyo

[pir] 450 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 697. Amazonas, Papurí River and lower Vaupés. Most near Roman Catholic mission at Teresita. Other scattered groups. Alternate names: Uaikena, Urubu-Tapuya, Waikino.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
More information.

Playero

[gob] 240 (2000). Arauca Division, Venezuela border, banks of Arauca River from Gaviotas Island to Arauca. Alternate names: Rio Arauca Guahibo.  Dialects: Low intelligibility of other Guahibo.  Classification: Guahiban 
More information.

Ponares

[pod] Extinct.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
More information.

Providencia Sign Language

[prz] 19. Known by most people on the Island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (W. Washabaugh 1986). Providencia Island off Nicaraguan coast. Dialects: Not exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages.  Classification: Deaf sign language  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Puinave

[pui] 2,000 in Colombia (1977 NTM). Population total all countries: 2,880. Territory of Guainia, Inírida River and tributaries. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Puinabe.  Dialects: Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Macú.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Quichua, Napo Lowland

[qvo] Undetermined number in Colombia. Putumayo River. Alternate names: Lowland Napo Quechua.  Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, B 
More information.

Romani, Vlax

[rmy] 79,000 in Colombia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Several hundred thousand in Latin America (1984 I. Hancock).  Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax 
More information.

Runa

[rna] Extinct.  Classification: Choco 
More information.

Sáliba

[slc] 1,310 in Colombia (1993 census). Population total all countries: 1,560. Meta and Casanare rivers. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Sáliva.  Classification: Salivan 
More information.

Siona

[snn] 300 in Colombia (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 550. Ethnic population: 734. Both sides of Putumayo River. Also in Ecuador. Alternate names: Sioni, Pioje, Pioche-Sioni, Ganteyabain, Ganteya, Ceona, Zeona, Koka, Kanú.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Siona-Secoya 
More information.

Siriano

[sri] 340 in Colombia (2001). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 749. Vaupés region, Paca and Vina rivers. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Sura Masa, Cirnga, Chiranga, Si-Ra.  Dialects: Different from Desano [des].  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Desano 
More information.

Spanish

[spa] 34,000,000 in Colombia (1995).  Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian 
More information.

Tama

[ten] Extinct. Caquetá region, Vicente, Orteguaza River. Dialects: Ruhlen says it is a Koreguaje [coe] dialect.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Northern, Tama 
More information.

Tanimuca-Retuarã

[tnc] 300 (1976 SIL). 180 Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,247. Amazonas region, Guacayá, Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Parana), Mirití-Parana, Apaporis, and Popeyaka rivers near mouth of Pira River below Popeyaca. Alternate names: Retuama, Retuarã, Letuama, Letuhama, Ufaina, Uairã, Tanimboka, Ohañara, Opaima.  Dialects: Tanimuca, Retuarã. Tanimuca and Retuarã are 2 ethnic groups living close together who speak the same language.  Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Tanimuca 
More information.

Tariano

[tae] 330 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: 445. Vaupés region, Lower Papurí. Alternate names: Tariána.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Tatuyo

[tav] 400 (2007 SIL). Vaupés region, Pira-Paraná headwaters and Upper Papurí. Alternate names: Pamoa, Oa, Tatutapuyo, Juna, Sina, Sura.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Tatuyo 
More information.

Ticuna

[tca] 8,000 in Colombia (2000 SIL). Amazon River. Alternate names: Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukúna.  Classification: Language isolate 
More information.

Tinigua

[tit] 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. Metá Department, Sierra de la Macarena. Formerly in Llanos de Yarí, Caquetá Department. Alternate names: Tiniguas.  Classification: Language isolate  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tomedes

[toe] Extinct.  Alternate names: Tamudes.  Classification: Arawakan, Unclassified 
More information.

Totoro

[ttk] 4 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Ethnic population: 4,130. 17 km west of Silvia, Cauca, in Totoro town. Classification: Barbacoan, Coconucan  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tucano

[tuo] 2,000 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 6,996. Upper Papurí River and tributaries. Alternate names: Betaya, Betoya, Dachsea, Dasea, Daxsea, Tukana, Tukano.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Northern 
More information.

Tunebo, Angosturas

[tnd] 50.  Dialects: 71% intelligibility between Eastern [tbn] and Angosturas Tunebo.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo  Nearly extinct.
More information.

Tunebo, Barro Negro

[tbn] 300 (1981 SIL). Isolated, Andes foothills, edge of eastern plains above Paz de Ariporo, in Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca. Alternate names: Eastern Tunebo.  Dialects: 62% intelligibility with Cobaría [tuf] Tunebo.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
More information.

Tunebo, Central

[tuf] 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). North slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy, Boyaca and Arauca regions; Satocá, Calafita, Tegría (Boyaca), Cobaría (Boyacá). Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Cobaría Tunebo, U’wa, Lache.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
More information.

Tunebo, Western

[tnb] 700 (1998). Santander del Sur. Alternate names: Aguas Blancas, U’wa.  Dialects: Most divergent Tunebo language.  Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan Proper, Tunebo 
More information.

Tuyuca

[tue] 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 810. Inambu, Tiquie, and Papurí rivers. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
More information.

Waimaha

[bao] 600 in Colombia (1995 SIL), increasing. Almost no monolinguals. Population total all countries: 700. Southeastern Vaupés region, tributaries of mid and upper Pira-Paraná, upper Papurí and Tiquié, Mitú. Also in Brazil. Alternate names: “Bará” , Barasano, Northern Barasano.  Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
More information.

Wajiara

[yui] 450 in Colombia (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 500. Ethnic population: 867. Upper Pacá River (tributary of Papurí), Caño Yi River (tributary of the Vaupes), and Caño Tuy River (tributary of the Vaupés). Also in Brazil. Alternate names: Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Juruti, Luruty-Tapuya, Patsoka, Wayhara, Yuriti, Yuruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Yurutiye.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Central, Bara 
More information.

Wayuu

[guc] 135,000 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 305,000. Guajira Peninsula, Caribbean coast. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Guajiro, Goajiro, Guajira, Wayu, Uáira, Waiu, Wayúu, Wayuunaiki.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Caribbean 
More information.

Woun Meu

[noa] 3,000 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 8,177. San Juan River basin. Alternate names: Waumeo, Waun Meo.  Classification: Choco 
More information.

Yahuna

[ynu] No known speakers. Ethnic population: Fewer than 23 in ethnic group, fewer than 20 on Umana River, 3 on Apaporis River (1988). Piraparana River, Umuqa River, a tributary. Alternate names: Yaúna, Yayuna.  Dialects: Opaina, Datuana.  Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Unclassified 
More information.

Yarí

[yri] 760 (2000). Caquetá region, Yarí River, above El Capitán waterfalls; upper Vaupés River near Puerto Nare. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Carijona [cbd] (Carib), a Western Tucanoan language, or Huitoto [huu].  Classification: Unclassified 
More information.

Yucuna

[ycn] 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10 to 20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Amazonas, Miriti-Parana (tributary Caquetá); La Pedrera on lower Caquetá, Ararcuara; Leticia. Alternate names: Matapi, Yukuna.  Dialects: In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it.  Classification: Arawakan, Maipuran, Northern Maipuran, Inland 
More information.

Yukpa

[yup] 1,500 in Colombia (2000 Moreno). Population total all countries: 7,630. Ethnic population: 3,530 (Arango and Sánchez 1998). Serranía de Perijá, Cesar Department, Municipio of Augustín Codazzi and neighboring municipalities north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border. Río Cascará dialect in Agustín Codassi Municipio along Casacará River and Caño Iroka. Caqo Padilla-La Laguna is small and farther north. Río Maracas is south in Becerril Municipio. Also in Venezuela. Alternate names: Carib Motilón, Macoíta, Northern Motilón, Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa.  Dialects: Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Caño Padilla-La Laguna, Coyaima. At least 5 extant dialects including 2 in Venezuela. Ruhlen says Coyaima was a dialect. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably largest, and different enough to probably be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Unrelated to Bari [mot]. Lexical similarity: is low with Japreira [jru] of Venezuela (Luis Oquendo, U. of Zulia-Venezuela).  Classification: Carib, Northern, Coastal 
More information.