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Languages of Ethiopia

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Republic of Ethiopia, Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, Ye Etiyop’iya Hizbawi Dimokrasiyawi Ripublik. 78,986,000. National or official languages: Amharic, English, Tigrigna. Literacy rate: 23.4% (1994 census). Immigrant languages: Kunama (1,880), Maay, Sudanese Spoken Arabic. Information mainly from M. L. Bender 1971, 1975, 1976, 1983, 1989; SIL 1998–2007. Blind population: 117,739 totally blind; 201,455 partially blind (1994 census). Deaf population: 1,000,000 (2005 Ethiopian National Association of the Deaf). Deaf institutions: 13. The number of individual languages listed for Ethiopia is 90. Of those, 85 are living languages and 5 have no known speakers.
Aari

[aiw] 155,000 (1994 census). 129,350 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 155,002 (1989 census). North central Omo region, south tip of Ethiopia plateau, near the Hamer-Banna [amf]. Alternate names: Aarai, Ara, Ari, Aro, “Shankilla” , “Shankilligna” , “Shankillinya”.  Dialects: Bako (Baco), Biyo (Bio), Laydo, Seyki, Shangama, Sido, Wubahamer (Ubamer), Zeddo. Most similar to Gayil [gyl].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South 
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Afar

[aar] 979,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 905,872 monolinguals (1994 census). Population total all countries: 1,078,200. Eastern lowlands, Afar region. May be in Somalia. Also in Djibouti, Eritrea. Alternate names: ’Afar Af, Adal, Afaraf, “Danakil” , “Denkel”.  Dialects: Northern Afar, Central Afar, Aussa, Baadu (Ba’adu). Related to Saho [ssy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar 
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Alaba-K’abeena

[alw] 162,000 (1994 census). 111,077 monolinguals (1994 census). 126,257 Alaba, 35,783 K’abeena. Ethnic population: 125,900 (1998 census). Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by a river from Kambatta [ktb]. Alternate names: Alaba, Allaaba, Halaba.  Dialects: Wanbasana (Alaba), K’abeena. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambaata [ktb], 64% with Sidamo [sid], 56% with Libido [liq], 54% with Hadiyya [hdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Amharic

[amh] 17,400,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 14,743,556 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 17,528,500. North central, Amhara region; Addis Ababa. Also in Djibouti, Egypt, Israel, Sweden, United States. Alternate names: Abyssinian, Amarigna, Amarinya, Ethiopian.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba 
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Anfillo

[myo] 500 (1990 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 SIL). Anfillo Forest, west of Dembi Dolo. Alternate names: Southern Mao.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53% with Shekkacho [moy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, Central 
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Anuak

[anu] 45,600 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 34,311 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 45,665 (1994 census). Southwest, Gambela region, along Baro, Alworo, Gilo rivers and Akobo River right bank. Gambela town is center. Alternate names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywak, Bar, Burjin, Jambo, Miroy, Moojanga, Nuro, Yambo, Yembo.  Dialects: Adoyo, Coro, Lul, Opëno.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak 
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Arbore

[arv] 4,440 (1994 census). 3,907 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 6,559 (1994 census). Extreme southwest, Omo region, near Lake Stefanie. Alternate names: Arbora, Erbore, Irbore.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana 
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Argobba

[agj] 10,900 (1994 census), decreasing. 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 62,831 (1994 census) USE 3,236 L2 speakers. The ethnic group near Ankober mainly speaks Amharic [amh]; the group near Harar mainly speaks Oromo [hae]. Northeast, Amhara, Oromiya and Afar regions; Rift Valley in Yimlawo, Gusa, Shonke, Berehet, Khayr Amba, Melkajillo, Metehara, Shewa Robit, villages area. Dialects: Aliyu Amba-Ankober, Shonke-T’allaha, Shagura. The ‘purest’ Argobba is spoken in Shonke and T’allaha. Lexical similarity: with Amharic [amh] is 74%–83% for the varieties of Aliyu Amba-Ankober and Shagura in the south, 53% for the variety of Shonke-T’allaha in the north.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Amharic-Argobba 
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Awngi

[awn] 500,000 (2007), increasing. 279,326 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Amhara region, southwest of Lake Tana, scattered in Agew Midir and Metekel. Alternate names: Agau, Agaw, Agew, Agow, Awawar, Awi, Awiya, Damot, Kwollanyoch.  Dialects: Kunfal (Kumfel, Kunfäl, Kunfel).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern 
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Baiso

[bsw] 1,010 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,260 (1994 M. Brenzinger). Halfway between Soddo and Arba Minch, Merab Abaya area, Alge village (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); Welege Island on Lake Abaya (420), and west shore. Alternate names: Alkali, Bayso.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana 
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Bambassi

[myf] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Benishangul-Gumuz region, Bambassi area and Didessa River Valley. Alternate names: Amam, Bambeshi, Didessa, Fadiro, Northern Mao, Siggoyo.  Dialects: Didessa, Bambassi. Lexical similarity: 31% with other Omotic languages, 17% with Hozo-Sezo [hoz] (Bender 1983).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, East 
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Basketo

[bst] 57,800 (1994 census). 42,726 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 51,097 (1998 census). North Omo region, west of Bulki on a plateau. Alternate names: Baskatta, Basketto, Mesketo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Oyda [oyd].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, West 
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Bench

[bcq] 174,000 (1994 census). 149,293 monolinguals. 10,002 She, 1,070 Mer. Ethnic population: 173,123 (1994 census). Kafa region, Mizan Teferi area, Shewa Bench towns. Alternate names: Dizu, Ghimarra, Gimarra, Gimira.  Dialects: Bench (Bencho, Benesho), Mer (Mieru), She (Sce, Kaba).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Gimira 
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Berta

[wti] 125,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census), increasing. 99,689 monolinguals. 8,715 Fadashi. Population total all countries: 147,000. Beni Shangul region, corner formed by Blue Nile River and Sudan border north of Asosa; Dalati, Sirba Abay area east of Dabus River. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Barta, Beni Shangul, Bertha, Burta, Jebelawi, Wetawit.  Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi, Dabuso. Probably more than one language.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Berta 
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Borna

[bwo] 19,900 (1994 census), decreasing. 144 Gamila; 2,276 L2 speakers including 45 Gamila; 18,567 monolinguals including 77 Gamila. Ethnic population: 32,894 including 186 Gamila (1994 census). Benishangul-Gumuz region, near Blue Nile River. Alternate names: Boro, Bworo, Scinacia, Shinasha.  Dialects: Bulen-Dibat’e, Wenbera-Dangur. Related to Kafa [kbr]. Scattered dialect groups. Lexical similarity: 46% with Shekkacho [moy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, North 
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Burji

[bji] 35,700 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 29,259 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 46,100. Ethnic population: 46,565 (1994 census). South of Lake Ciamo. Also in Kenya. Alternate names: Bambala, Bembala, Daashi.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 41% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Bussa

[dox] 6,620 (1994 census). 4,955 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,207 (1994 census). Omo region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: D’oopace, D’opaasunte, Dobase, Gobeze, Goraze, Gowase, Lohu, Mashelle, Mashile, Masholle, Mosiye, Musiye, Orase.  Dialects: There is a dialect chain with Konso-Dirasha-Dobase. Lexical similarity: 78% with Gawwada [gwd], 51% with Konso [kxc], 86% with the Gollango dialect of Gawwada, 80% with the Harso dialect of Gawwada, 61% with Tsamai [tsb].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay 
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Chara

[cra] 6,930. 5,556 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,984 (1994 census). Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR), Kafa and South Omo zones, both sides of Omo River. Alternate names: Ciara.  Dialects: Buch’a. Lexical similarity: 54% with Wolaytta [wal].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Chara 
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Daasanach

[dsh] 32,100 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 31,368 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 40,100. Ethnic population: 32,099 (1994 census). Lower Omo River, along Lake Turkana, into Kenya. Also in Kenya. Alternate names: Daasanech, Dama, Dasenech, Dathanaic, Dathanaik, Dathanik, Gallab, Galuba, Gelab, Geleb, Geleba, Gelebinya, Gelubba, Gheleba, Marille, Merile, Merille, Morille, Reshiat, Russian Federation, “Shangilla”.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana 
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Dime

[dim] 6,500 (1994 census). 4,785 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,197 (1994 census). Kafa region, north of Omo River, just before it turns south. Alternate names: Dima.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 47% with Hamer-Banna [amf].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South 
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Dirasha

[gdl] 90,000 (2005 SIL), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. 8,097 Mosiya and 10,100 Kusumitta. Ethnic population: 90,000. Omo region, hills west of Lake Chamo, Gidole town area. Alternate names: Dhirasha, Diraasha, Dirayta, Gardulla, Ghidole, Gidole.  Dialects: Mosiya, Kusumitta. Part of a dialect subgroup with Konso [kxc] and Bussa [dox]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Konso.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole 
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Dizi

[mdx] 21,100 (1994 census), increasing. 17,583 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 21,894 (1994 census). Kafa region, near Maji town. Alternate names: Dizi-Maji, Dizinog, Dizinya, Maji, Majinya, Sizi, Twoyu.  Dialects: Related to Sheko [she], Nayi [noz].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid 
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Dorze

[doz] 20,800 (1994 census). 9,905 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,990 (1994 census). North Omo region, Chencha area; Addis Ababa. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–87% with the Gamo dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 77%–81% with the Gofa dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 80% with Wolaytta [wal], 73%–75% with the Dawro dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 54% with Koorete [kqy], 48% with Male [mdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central 
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English

[eng] 1,990 in Ethiopia (1994 census).  Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English 
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Ethiopian Sign Language

[eth] 1,000,000 (2005).  Classification: Deaf sign language 
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Gafat

[gft] Extinct. South Blue Nile area. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group 
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Gamo-Gofa-Dawro

[gmo] 1,240,000 (1994 census). 1,046,084 monolinguals including 597,130 Gamo, 259,633 Dawro, 189,321 Gofa. 690,069 Gamo, 313,228 Dawro, 233,340 Gofa. Ethnic population: 1,292,860 (1994 census) including 719,847 Gamo, 331,483 Dawro, 241,530 Gofa (1994 census). Omo region, Arba Minch area; mountains west to Lake Abaya. Dialects: Gamo (Gemu), Gofa (Goffa), Dawro (Dauro, Kullo, Cullo, Ometay). Subdialects of Dawro are Konta (Conta) and Kucha (Kusha, Koysha). Lexical similarity: 79%–91% between the Gamo and Gofa dialects, 79%–89% with Wolaytta [wal], 82%–87% with Dorze [doz], 73%–80% with the Dawro dialect, 49% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with Male [mdy]. 76% between the Dawro and Gofa dialects, 80% with Wolaytta, 73%–75% with Dorze, 48% with Koorete, 43% with Male.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central 
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Ganza

[gza] 5,400 (2004). Ethnic population: 6,291. South of Yabus Bridge, along Sudan border. Alternate names: Ganzo, Koma.  Dialects: Related to Hozooz (Ruhlen 1987:322). Lexical similarity: 14% with Omotic languages, 6% with Mao.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West 
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Gawwada

[gwd] 32,700 (1994 census). 27,477 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 33,971 (1994 census). Omo region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: Gauwada, Gawata, Kawwad’a, Kawwada.  Dialects: Dihina (Tihina, Tihinte), Gergere (K’ark’arte), Gobeze, Gollango (Kollanko), Gorose (Gorrose, Korrose), Harso (Worase). Lexical similarity: 78% with Bussa [dox], 73% with Tsamai [tsb], 77% with the Harso dialect, 92% with the Gollango dialect, 41% with Konso [kxc]. The Harso dialect has 80% with the Dobase dialect of Bussa [dox], 56% with Tsamai [tsb].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay 
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Gayil

[gyl] 55,700 (2007). Southwest, South Omo zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR), North Aari Wereda. Alternate names: Gayl, Gayi, Galila, Gelila, Northern Ari.  Dialects: Related to Aari [aiw], Dime [dim], Hamer-Banna [amf], Karo [kxh].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South 
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Gedeo

[drs] 637,000 (1994 census). 438,958 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 639,905. Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Alternate names: Darasa, Darassa, Derasa, Derasanya, Deresa, Geddeo.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with Sidamo [sid] (most similar), 57% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 54% with Kambaata [ktb], 51% with Hadiyya [hdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Geez

[gez] Extinct. Also in Eritrea. Alternate names: Ancient Ethiopic, Ethiopic, Ge’ez, Giiz.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North 
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Gumuz

[guk] 120,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 88,192 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 160,000. Ethnic population: 121,487 (1994 census). Metemma area on Sudan border south through Gondar and Gojjam; along Blue Nile and south into Wellaga and Didessa Valley up to Leqemt-Gimbi Road; southwest of Addis Ababa, villages around Welqite (possibly 1,000). Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Bega, Bega-Tse, Debatsa, Debuga, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Gumuzinya, Mendeya, “Shankilligna” , “Shankillinya” , “Shanqilla” , Sigumza.  Dialects: Guba, Wenbera, Sirba, Agalo, Yaso, Mandura, Dibate, Metemma. There are noticeable dialect differences, and not all dialects are inherently intelligible. Mandura, Dibate, and Metemma form a distinct dialect subgroup.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Gumuz 
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Hadiyya

[hdy] 924,000 (1994 census). 595,107 monolinguals. Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya region, between Omo and Billate rivers, Hosaina town area. Alternate names: Adea, Adiya, Adiye, Hadia, Hadiya, Hadya.  Dialects: Leemo, Soro. Lexical similarity: 82% with Libido [liq], 56% with Kambaata [ktb], 54% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Hamer-Banna

[amf] 42,800 (1994 census). 38,354 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 42,466 (1994 census). South Omo region, near Omo River; north of Lake Turkana, southwest corner, near Kenya, Uganda, Sudan borders. Alternate names: Amar, Amarcocche, Amer, Ammar, Bana, Banna, Beshada, Cocche, Hamar, Hamar-Koke, Hamer, Hammer, Hammercoche, Kara Kerre.  Dialects: Hamer and Banna are separate ethnic groups who speak virtually the same language.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South 
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Harari

[har] 21,300 (1994 census). 2,351 monolinguals. 20,000 in Addis Ababa, outside Harar City (Hetzron 1997:486). Ethnic population: 21,757 (1994 census). East, walled city of Harar; Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. Alternate names: Adare, Adarinnya, Adere, Aderinya, Gey Sinan, Hararri.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage 
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Hozo

[hoz] 3,000 (1995 SIL). West Oromo region, Begi area. 50 or more villages. Alternate names: Begi-Mao.  Dialects: Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West 
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Inor

[ior] 280,000. 50,000 Endegeny. West Gurage region, Innemor and Endegeny woredas. Alternate names: Ennemor.  Dialects: Enegegny (Enner). Part of a Gurage subgroup of languages.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group 
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Kachama-Ganjule

[kcx] 4,070 (1994 census). 1,002 monolinguals including 816 Kachama, 186 Ganjule. 2,682 Kachama, 1,390 Ganjule; 419 L2 speakers including 223 Kachama, 196 Ganjule. Ethnic population: 3,886 (1994 census) including 2,740 Kachama, 1,146 Ganjule. Kachama is on Gidicho Island in Lake Abaya; Ganjule on west shore of Lake Chamo, Shela-Mela village. Alternate names: Gatame, Gats’ame, Get’eme.  Dialects: Ganjule (Ganjawle), Ganta, Kachama. Lexical similarity: 46% with Wolaytta [wal].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East 
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Kacipo-Balesi

[koe] 4,120 in Ethiopia (2000). South border with Sudan. Alternate names: Silmamo, Tsilmano, Zelmamu, Zilmamu, Zulmamu.  Dialects: Balesi (Baale, Bale), Zilmamu (Silmamo, Zelmamu, Zulmamu, Tsilmano), Kacipo (Kachepo, Suri, Western Suri).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi 
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Kafa

[kbr] 570,000 (1994 census). 445,018 monolinguals (1994 census). Kafa region, Bonga town area. May be some in Sudan. Alternate names: Caffino, Kaffa, Kaficho, Kefa, Keffa, Manjo.  Dialects: Kafa, Bosha (Garo). Related to Shekkacho [mpy]. Bosha may be a separate language. Manjo is an argot based on Kafa [kbr] (Bender 1983).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South 
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Kambaata

[ktb] 570,000 (1994 census). 330,108 monolinguals including 278,567 Kambaata, 51,541 Timbaro. 487,655 Kambaata, 82,803 Timbaro. Ethnic population: 621,407. Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya region. Durame is main town. Alternate names: Donga, Kambara, Kambata, Kambatta, Kemata, Kembata.  Dialects: Tambaro, Timbaro (Timbara, Timbaaro). Lexical similarity: 95% with the Timbaro dialect, 81% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Sidamo [sid], 57% with Libido [liq], 56% with Hadiyya [hdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Karo

[kxh] 1,000 (2007 S. Malmvam). South Omo region, upstream from Daasanach, riverside settlements near the Hamer-Banna. Alternate names: Cherre, Kere, Kerre.  Dialects: Dialect or closely related language to Hamer-Banna [amf]. More similar to the Hamer variety than to the Banna. Lexical similarity: 81% with Hamer-Banna.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, South 
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Kistane

[gru] 255,000 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 363,867 (1994 census) including 4,000 Gogot. Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya regions, southwest of Addis Ababa. Alternate names: North Gurage, Soddo, Soddo Gurage.  Dialects: Soddo (Aymallal, Aymellel, Kestane, Kistane), Dobi (Dobbi, Gogot, Goggot). Not intelligible with Silt’e [stv] or Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw]. The Dobi dialect comprehendsion of Soddo is 76%, and Soddo speakers’ of Dobi is 90%.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, n-Group 
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Komo

[xom] 1,500 in Ethiopia (Bender 1975). Mao-Komo Special Wereda south of Asosa, south and west of the Kwama [kmq]; Gambela region, Bonga area, near Baro River. Alternate names: Central Koma, Koma, Madiin, South Koma.  Dialects: Koma of Begi, Koma of Daga.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Konso

[kxc] 195,000 (2005), increasing. 138,696 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 229,134. South of Lake Chamo, Sagan River bend. A few migrants in Kenya. Alternate names: Af Kareti, Afa Karatti, Conso, Gato, Karate, Kareti, Komso.  Dialects: Kholme, Duuro, Fasha, Karatti. Lexical similarity: 55% with Dirasha [gdl], 51% with Bussa [dox], 41% with Gawwada [gwd], 31% with Tsamai [tsb].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole 
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Koorete

[kqy] 104,000, increasing. 84,388 monolinguals (1994 census). About 60 Harro families in Harro village on Gidicho (Gidicció) Island. Ethnic population: 136,005 (2006). Sidama region, Amaro mountains east of Lake Abaya. Alternate names: Amaarro, Amarro, Badittu, Koore, Koyra, Kwera, Nuna.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 54% with Dorze [doz], 53% with Wolaytta [wal], 52% with the Gofa dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 49% with the Gamo dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 48% with the Dawro dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 45% with Male [mdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East 
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Kwama

[kmq] 15,000 (1982 SIL). South Benishangul-Gumuz region, along Sudan border, south of Asosa to Gidami; Gambela region near Bonga. 19 villages, including one (Yabus) in Sudan. Alternate names: Afan Mao, Amam, Gogwama, Goma, Gwama, Koma of Asosa, Nokanoka, North Koma, T’wa Kwama, Takwama.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Kwegu

[xwg] Ethnic population: 450 (2007). Southwest, Omo River west bank, Kuchur village. Alternate names: Bacha, Koegu, Kwegi, Menja, Nidi.  Dialects: Yidinich (Yidinit, Yidi), Muguji. Listed dialects may not be inherently intelligible with Kwegu; it may be a name for several hunter groups. Lexical similarity: 36% with Mursi [muz].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Kwegu 
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Libido

[liq] 36,600 (1998 census). 14,623 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 38,096 (1998 census). Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage region, northeast of Hosaina. Alternate names: Marako, Maraqo.  Dialects: Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya [hdy]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Hadiyya, 57% with Kambaata [ktb], 56% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 53% with Sidamo [sid].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Majang

[mpe] 15,300 (1998 census). 10,752 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,341 (1998 census). Southwest, parts of Gambela, Oromo, and Kafa administrative regions, a long, narrow belt between Bure (east of Gambela) and Guraferda south. Alternate names: Ajo, Ato Majang, Ato Majanger-Onk, Majanjiro, Masango, Masongo, Mesengo, Ojanjur, Tama.  Dialects: Minor dialect variation.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, North, Majang 
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Male

[mdy] 53,800 (1998 census). 40,660 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 46,458 (1998 census). Omo region, southeast of Jinka. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48% with Dorze [doz], 46% with the Gofa dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 45% with Koorete [kqy], 44% with the Gamo dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo], 43% with Wolaytta [wal] and the Dawro dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo 
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Me’en

[mym] 80,000 (2005 SIL). 51,446 monolinguals including 4,553 Bodi. 3,500 Bodi. Ethnic population: 57,501 (1998 census) including 4,686 Bodi. Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State, Bench-Maji zone. Highlanders (Banio) in Bachuma area; lowlanders (Koruwo) south; Bodi near Omo River. Alternate names: Mekan, Men, Meqan, Mie’en, Mieken.  Dialects: Banio and Koruwo, Bodi (Podi, Mela). Linguistically similar to Suri [suq] and Mursi [mur]. Lexical differences between highland and lowland dialects. Lexical similarity: 65% with the Chai and Tirma dialects of Suri, 30% with Murle [mur].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Me’en 
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Melo

[mfx] 20,200 (1994 census). 13,264 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,189 (1994 census). North Omo region, Malo-Koza area, northeast of Basketo [bst]. Alternate names: Malo.  Dialects: Related to Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo]. The Language Academy said it should be considered a separate speech variety. Lexical similarity: 70% with the majority of Ometo language varieties.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central 
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Mesmes

[mys] Extinct. Gurage, Hadiyya, Kambatta regions. Dialects: Related to Sebat Bet Gurage [sgw].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group 
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Mesqan

[mvz] 25,000 (2002). West Gurage region, Mareqo woreda, principal villages: Mikayelo, Mesqan, and Hudat. Alternate names: Masqan, Meskan.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group 
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Murle

[mur] 200 in Ethiopia (1975 Tournay). South of Akobo River. Olam is southwest and on Sudan border. Alternate names: Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murele, Murule.  Dialects: Olam (Ngalam, Bangalam).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle 
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Mursi

[muz] 3,280 (1994 census). 3,155 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,258 (1994 census). Central Omo region, lowlands southwest of Jinka. Alternate names: Dama, Merdu, Meritu, Murzi, Murzu.  Dialects: Similar to Tirmi dialect of Suri [suq] in Sudan.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri 
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Nayi

[noz] 3,660 (1994 census). 1,137 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,005 (1994 census). Decha Awraja, Kafa region, and scattered in Kafa area; Shoa Bench Wereda, Dulkuma village; Sheko Wereda: Aybera, Kosa, and Jomdos villages. Alternate names: Na’o, Nao.  Dialects: Related to Dizi [mdx], Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 58% with Dizi.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid 
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Nuer

[nus] 64,900 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 61,640 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 64,534 (1994 census). Gambela region, along Baro River. Alternate names: Naath.  Dialects: Eastern Nuer (Ji, Kany, Jikany, Door, Abigar).  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer 
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Nyangatom

[nnj] 14,200 (1994 census). 13,797 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,201 (1994 census). Extreme southwest corner, Omo region, Omo River and Kibish River settlement centers. Follow cattle into Sudan, Moru Angipi region. Alternate names: Dongiro, Donyiro, Idongiro, Inyangatom.  Dialects: Inherently intelligible with Toposa [toq] and Turkana [tuv].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana 
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Ongota

[bxe] 8. Ethnic population: 89 (2000 M. Brenzinger). Southeast Omo region, west bank of Weyt’o River. 1 village. Alternate names: “Birale” , “Birelle” , Ifa, “Shanqilla”.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Unclassified  Nearly extinct.
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Opuuo

[lgn] 1,000 in Ethiopia (2007 A. Tsadik). Gambella region, along Sudan border north of Anuak [anu] and Nuer [nus]. 5 villages. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” , Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Shiita, Shita.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 24% with Komo [xom].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Oromo

[orm] A macrolanguage.  Population total all countries: 17,344,816. 
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Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji

[gax] 3,630,000 in Ethiopia. Population total all countries: 3,823,600. South Oromo region. Also in Kenya, Somalia. Alternate names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” , “Galligna” , “Gallinya” , Southern Oromo.  Dialects: Borana (Boran, Borena), Arsi (Arussi, Arusi), Guji (Gujji, Jemjem), Kereyu, Salale (Selale), Gabra (Gabbra, Gebra). Harari [har] is closely related.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo 
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Oromo, Eastern

[hae] 4,530,000 (1994 census). North Bale zone, east and west Hararghe zone. Alternate names: Harar, Harer, Ittu, “Kwottu” , “Qottu” , “Qotu Oromo” , “Quottu” , “Qwottu”.  Dialects: Similar to Borana-Arsi-Guji Oromo [gax].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo 
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Oromo, West Central

[gaz] 8,920,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). Population total all countries: 8,922,200. Ethnic population: All ethnic Oromo are 30,000,000 in Ethiopia. West and central, Oromo region; Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. Alternate names: Afan Oromo, “Galla” , Oromiffa, Oromoo.  Dialects: Western Oromo, Central Oromo. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Harar and Boran are most divergent.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo 
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Oyda

[oyd] 16,600 (1994 census). 6,244 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,075 (1994 census). Northwest Omo region, southwest of Sawla. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Wolaytta [wal], 61% with Basketo [bst].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central 
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Qimant

[ahg] 1,650 in Ethiopia (1994 census). Ethnic population: 172,327 (1994 census). Northwest Amhara region, north of Lake Tana. Qwara or Kayla are near Addis Ababa. Also in Eritrea. Alternate names: Kimanteney, Western Agaw.  Dialects: Qimant (Kemant, Kimant, Kemanat, Kamant, Chemant, Qemant), Dembiya (Dembya, Dambya), Hwarasa (Qwara, Qwarina, “Kara” ), Kayla, Semyen, Achpar, Kwolasa (Kwolacha). Distinct from Awngi [awn], Bilen [byn], Xamtanga [xan].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western 
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Rer Bare

[rer] Extinct. East Ogaden, Gode area, Wabi Shebelle River near Somali border; along Ganale and Dawa rivers. Alternate names: Adona, Rerebere.  Classification: Unclassified 
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Saho

[ssy] 22,800 in Ethiopia (1994 census). Tigray Province. Alternate names: Sao, Shaho, Shiho, Shoho.  Dialects: Irob.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar 
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Sebat Bet Gurage

[sgw] 2,320,000 (2006). Chaha 130,000, Gura 20,000, Muher 90,000, Gyeto 80,000, Ezha 120,000. West Gurage region. Chaha in Emdibir area; Gura in Gura Megenase and Wirir areas; Muher in Ch’eza area, mountains north of Chaha and Ezha; Gyeto south of Ark’it’ in K’abul and K’want’e; Ezha in Agenna. Alternate names: Central West Gurage, Gouraghie, Guragie, Gurague, West Gurage.  Dialects: Chaha (Cheha), Ezha (Eza, Izha), Gumer (Gwemarra), Gura, Gyeto, Muher. A member of the Gurage subgroup of languages.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Outer, tt-Group 
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Seze

[sze] 3,000 (1995 SIL). West Oromo region, near Begi, north of Hozo [hoz]. Alternate names: Sezo.  Dialects: Related to Bambassi [myf] (Bender 1975).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao, West 
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Shabo

[sbf] 450 (2000 M. Brenzinger), decreasing. Ethnic population: 600 or more (2000). Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region, Sheka zone; Gambella region, Majangir zone between Godere and Mashi, among Majang [mpe] and Shekkacho [moy]. Alternate names: “Mekeyer” , “Mikair” , “Mikeyir” , Sabu, “Shako”.  Dialects: Distinct from Sheko [she]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Majang, 12% with other West Cushitic (Omotic) languages.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Unclassified 
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Shekkacho

[moy] 54,900 (1994 census). 36,449 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 53,897 (1994 census). North Kafa region, Maasha area. Alternate names: Mocha, Shakacho, Shekka.  Dialects: Similar to Kafa [kbr].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gonga, South 
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Sheko

[she] 40,000 (2007). 13,611 monolinguals (1994 census). Ethnic population: 23,785 (1994 census). Kafa region, Shako District. Alternate names: Shak, Shako, Shekka, Shekko, Tschako.  Dialects: Distinct from Shabo [sbf].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Dizoid 
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Sidamo

[sid] 2,900,000 (2005 SIL). 2,525,000 monolinguals. South central, Sidamo zone, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa. Alternate names: Sidaamu Afoo, Sidaminya, Sidámo ’Afó.  Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64% with Alaba-Kabeena [alw], 62% with Kambaata [ktb], 53% with Hadiyya [hdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland 
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Silt’e

[stv] 1,000,000 (2007). South of Addis Ababa 150km, Werabey Town. Alternate names: East Gurage, Selti, Silte, Silti.  Dialects: Enneqor (Inneqor), Ulbarag (Urbareg). Similar to Wolane [wle].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage 
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Somali

[som] 3,960,000 in Ethiopia (2006). 2,878,371 monolinguals. Southeast, Somali region. Alternate names: Common Somali, Standard Somali.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali 
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Suri

[suq] 19,600 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 18,640 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 20,600. Ethnic population: 19,632 (1994 census). Southwest Kafa region toward Sudan border; west of Mizan Teferi. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Churi, Dhuri, Eastern Suri, Shuri, Shuro, Surma.  Dialects: Tirmaga (Tirima, Terema, Terna, Dirma, Cirma, Tirma, Tirmagi, Tid), Chai (Cai, Caci). Lexical similarity: 81% with Mursi [muz].  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Eastern, Surmic, South, Southeast, Pastoral, Suri 
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Tigrigna

[tir] 3,220,000 in Ethiopia (1994 census). 2,819,755 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 5,791,710. Ethnic population: 3,284,568. Tigray Province. Also in Canada, Djibouti, Eritrea, Germany, Israel. Alternate names: Tigray, Tigrinya.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North 
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Tsamai

[tsb] 8,620 (1994 census). 5,298 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,702 (1998 census). Omo region, lowlands west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: Bago S’aamakk-Ulo, Cule, Kuile, Kule, S’amai, Tamaha, Ts’amay, Tsamakko, Tsamako.  Dialects: The Tsamai say Gawwada [gwd] is difficult to understand. Possibly related to Birale [bxe]. The most aberrant variety in the Dullay classification. Lexical similarity: 56%–73% with Gawwada dialects, 61% with Bussa [dox], 31% with Konso [kxc].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay 
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Turkana

[tuv] 25,200 in Ethiopia (2000). Southwest region west of Omo River. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Eastern Sudanic, Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana 
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Uduk

[udu] 20,000 in Ethiopia (1995 W. James). Gambela region, near Gambela town, Bonga, large refugee camp. Also in Sudan. Alternate names: Burun, Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa.  Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Komuz, Koman 
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Weyto

[woy] No known speakers. Ethnic population: 1,631 of whom 1,519 (93%) speak Amharic as L1, others speak other L1s. Lake Tana region. Alternate names: Wayto, Weyt’o.  Dialects: Possibly Eastern Sudanic or an Awngi variety (Bender 1983), or Cushitic (Bender, Bowen, Cooper, and Ferguson 1976:14).  Classification: Unclassified 
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Wolane

[wle]  Gurage zone. Alternate names: Walane, Welene, Olane.  Dialects: Similar to Silte [stv].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage 
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Wolaytta

[wal] 1,230,000 (1994 census). 999,694 monolinguals. Wolaytta region, Lake Abaya area. Alternate names: Borodda, Ometo, Ualamo, Uba, Uollamo, Walamo, Wallamo, Welamo, Wellamo, Wolaita, Wolaitta, Wolataita, Wolayta, Wollamo.  Dialects: Zala. Dorze [doz], Melo [mfx], Oyda [oyd] may be dialects of Wolaytta [wal] or of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro [gmo]. Lexical similarity: 79%–93% with Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, 84% with the Gofa dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro, 80% with the Dawro dialect of Gamo-Gofa-Dawro and Dorze, 48% with Koorete [kqy], 43% with Male [mdy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, Central 
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Xamtanga

[xan] 143,000 (1994 census). 93,889 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 158,231 (1994 census). North Amhara region, Avergele District, Lasta and Waag zones, 100 km north of Weldiya. Alternate names: Agawinya, Khamtanga, Simt’anga, Xamir, Xamta.  Dialects: Low inherent intelligibility wtih Qimant [ahg]. Lexical similarity: 45% with Qimant.  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Eastern 
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Yemsa

[jnj] 81,600 (1994 census). Ethnic population: 165,184 (1994 census). Southwest, Oromo region, northeast of Jimma, Fofa (main village); mixed in Oromo villages; Sokoru, Saja, Deedoo, Sak’a, Jimma. Alternate names: “Janjerinya” , “Janjero” , “Janjor” , “Yangaro” , Yem, Yemma, “Zinjero”.  Dialects: Fuga of Jimma, Toba. The Fuga of Jimma dialect may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 24% with Shekkacho [moy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Janjero 
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Zay

[zwa] 4,880 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,880. Oromiya region, Lake Zway shores and east islands. Alternate names: Gelilla, Lak’i, Laqi, Zway.  Dialects: No identified dialect variations. Lexical similarity: 61% with Harari [har], 70% with Silt’e [stv] (M. L. Bender 1971).  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, South, Transversal, Harari-East Gurage 
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Zaysete

[zay] 17,800 (1994 census). 3,000 monolinguals. 10,172 Zayse, 7,625 Zergulla. Ethnic population: 11,232 (1994 census) including 10,842 Zayse, 390 Zergulla. Omo region, west of Lake Chamo. Alternate names: Zaisse, Zayse-Zergulla, Zaysitè, Zaysse, Zergula.  Dialects: Zergulla (Zergullinya), Zayse. Similar to the Gidicho dialect of Koorete [kqy].  Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Gonga-Gimojan, Gimojan, Ometo-Gimira, Ometo, East 
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